cxcr4 signaling
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 393-398
Ming Yan ◽  
Ringxing Bai ◽  
Hongyi Zhang ◽  
Wenmao Yan

SDF-1α activity is closely related to information transmission and cell migration when contributing to lymphatic metastasis in various tumors. Herein, we explored the interaction among SDF-1α, CXCR4 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in gastric cancer (GC) and their roles in this disorder. Human GC cells KATO-III and BMSCs were co-cultured without contact. GC cells were transfected with SDF-1α, CXCR4 inhibitor, and PI3K inhibitor. After examining the efficiency of transfection, cell migration was evaluated using Transwell chamber, and expression SDF-1α, CD133, and CXCR4 was determined by RT-qPCR. With transfection rate of 98%, the number of migrated cells reduced upon inhibition of CXCR4 and PI3K. Luciferase activity in 565 nm are high than CXCR4 inhibition group. (p < 0.05). Likewise, up-regulation of SDF-1α increased the expression of SDF-1 (0.825±0.061), CD133 (0.875±0.058), CXCR4 (0.801±0.052), and Akt (0.852±0.062), compared to the blank group, CXCR4 inhibition group and PI3K inhibition group (p < 0.05). Down-regulation of CXCR4 and PI3K, however, decreased the expression insignificantly (p > 0.05). Collectively, up-regulation of SDF-1α activates CXCR4 signaling pathway of BMSCs and stimulates its downstream PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and and increases the expression of CD133, thereby promoting malignant behaviors of GC cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Tanyaporn Pattarabanjird ◽  
Jeffrey M. Wilson ◽  
Loren D. Erickson ◽  
Lisa J. Workman ◽  
Hui Qiao ◽  

Background: Recent studies have suggested that IgE sensitization to α-gal is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the B cell subtype(s) responsible for production of IgE to α-gal and mechanisms mediating this production remain elusive.Methods: Single cell multi-omics sequencing, was utilized to phenotype B cells obtained from 60 subjects that had undergone coronary angiography in whom serum IgE was evaluated by ImmunoCAP. Bioinformatics approaches were used to identify B cell subtype(s) and transcriptomic signatures associated with α-gal sensitization. In vitro characterization of chemokine/chemokine receptor pairs on switched memory B cells associated with IgE to α-gal was performed.Results: Of the 60 patients, 17 (28%) were positive for IgE to α-gal. CITESeq identified CCR6+ class-switched memory (SWM) B cells and CXCR4 expresssion on these CCR6+ SWM B cells as significantly associated with IgE sensitization to α-gal but not to other common allergens (peanut or inhalants). In vitro studies of enriched human B cells revealed significantly greater IgE on SWM B cells with high CCR6 and CXCR4 expression 10 days after cells were treated with IL-4 and CD40 to stimulate class switch recombination. Both CCL20 (CCR6 ligand) and CXCL12 (ligand for CXCR4) increased the expression of IgE on SWM B cells expressing their receptors. However, they appeared to have unique pathways mediating this effect as only CCL20 increased activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), while CXCL12 drove proliferation of CXCR4+ SWM B cells. Lastly, correlation analysis indicated an association between CAD severity and the frequency of both CCR6+ SWM and CXCR4+ SWM B cells.Conclusions: CCR6+ SWM B cells were identified as potential producers of IgE to α-gal in CAD patients. Additionally, our findings highlighted non-chemotaxis roles of CCL20/CCR6 and CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling in mediating IgE class switching and cell proliferation of SWM B cells respectively. Results may have important implications for a better understanding and better therapeutic approaches for subjects with IgE sensitization to α-gal.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (7) ◽  
pp. 1481
Dietmar Fischer ◽  
Daniel Terheyden-Keighley ◽  
AlexanderM Hilla

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 2150-2150
Vincent Rondeau ◽  
Amélie Bonaud ◽  
Zeina Abou-Nader ◽  
Julia Lemos ◽  
Vanessa Gourhand ◽  

Abstract Blood production is a tightly regulated process that starts with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In adults, HSCs are unique in their capacity to self-renew and replenish the entire blood system through production of a series of increasingly committed progenitor cells within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. HSCs form a rare, quiescent population that displays a metabolism skewed towards anaerobic glycolysis at the expense of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to preserve its quiescent state and long-term reconstitution capacity. However, when HSCs differentiate, they undergo a metabolic switch from anaerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial OXPHOS, a process that is in part mediated by the metabolic sensor mTOR. It is well-established that HSCs in the BM adapt the production of myeloid and lymphoid cells depending on the needs of the body and that metabolic plasticity is a critical driver of HSC fate decisions. This has never been assessed for multipotent progenitors (MPPs) which constitute the stage at which the major divergence of lymphoid and myeloid lineages occurs. In mice, common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) are generated from phenotypically and functionally distinct subpopulations of lineage-biased MPPs, i.e. MPP2 and MPP3 are reported as distinct myeloid-biased MPP subsets that operate together with lymphoid-primed MPP4 to control blood leukocyte production. This question is thus of paramount importance to understand how the lympho-myeloid specification process is regulated. Signaling by the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 on MPPs in response to stimulation by its natural ligand, the chemokine CXCL12, produced by BM perivascular stromal cells constitutes a key pathway through which the niches and MPPs communicate. However, the mechanisms whereby CXCR4 signaling regulates MPP specification are still unknown. We addressed this point using BM samples of patients with WHIM Syndrome (WS), a rare immunodeficiency caused by inherited heterozygous autosomal gain-of-CXCR4-function mutations affecting desensitization of CXCR4 and characterized by chronic lympho-neutropenia, as well as a unique WS mouse model which phenocopies severe pan-leukopenia. We unraveled myeloid skewing of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) compartment in BM of patients with WS and of WS mice. This relied on CXCR4 signaling strength that controls the output of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages by coordinating the composition and molecular identity of the MPP compartment. The fate of the lymphoid-biased MPP4 subset was central in such a process. Indeed, CXCR4 signaling termination was required for efficient generation and maintenance of the MPP4 pool, while regulating intrinsically their cell cycle status and lymphoid-myeloid gene landscape. In fact, we demonstrated for the first time that enhanced mTOR signaling, accumulation of damaged mitochondria and overactive OXPHOS-driven metabolism promoted cell-autonomous molecular changes that reprogram mutant MPP4 away from lymphoid differentiation. Consistent with this, in vivo chronic treatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100/Plerixafor or the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin normalized mitochondrial metabolism and MPP4 differentiation. Thus, our study shows that CXCR4 signaling acts through the mTOR pathway as an essential gatekeeper for integrity of the mitochondrial machinery, which in turn controls lymphoid potential of MPP4. Disclosures No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Haiyang Shu ◽  
Yingjie Shi ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Ning Zhao ◽  
Cheng Lu ◽  

Wang-Bi capsule (WB) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula and has been applied for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment for many years. However, its underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. In this study, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats were used to observe the therapeutic effect of WB used at different time points, and the proteomic analysis of synovial tissue was applied to reveal its basic molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrated that WB not only effectively ameliorated the symptoms and synovitis, but also downregulated the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in CIA rats. Furthermore, the proteomic analysis of synovial tissue showed that WB could regulate several signaling pathways associated with inflammation or cell migration, such as “IL-1 signaling,” “IL-8 signaling,” and “CXCR4 signaling.” The expression levels of proteins including matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), MMP19, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), serine/threonine kinase interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4), and actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 (ARPC5) in these pathways were downregulated significantly by WB when compared with the model group. In sum, this study indicated that WB had obvious inhibitory effects on synovitis of CIA rats, and the mechanisms of which may be involved in downregulating the expression levels of several key proteins including MMP3, MMP19, LBP, IRAK4, and ARPC5.

2021 ◽  
Vol 220 (11) ◽  
Michael L. Dustin

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) use specialized adhesive structures referred to as magnupodium to stay in hematopoietic niches. Bessey et al. (2021. J. Cell Biol. define new characteristics of the magnupodium, including centriole polarization and the necessary and sufficient role of CXCR4 signaling.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Di Jia ◽  
Ruixian Zhang ◽  
Yinghong He ◽  
Guofeng Cai ◽  
Jiali Zheng ◽  

Abstract Background Varieties of animals were used to study osteoarthritis pathogenesis. The Diannan small-ear pig, which is native to Yunnan, China, is thought to have an articular anatomy similar to that of humans and is more likely to be a source of pathological tissues than other animals. The aim of this study was to determine whether this animal can serve as a more effective osteoarthritis model and explore the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway in the development of Osteoarthritis in animals. Methods Twenty-seven adult pigs were randomly divided into three groups and underwent the Hulth procedure, papain articular injection, and conventional breeding. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks, cartilage tissues from knee joint were extracted for general and histological observation, immunofluorescence, and biochemical analysis. Synovium was taken out for stromal cell-derived factor-1 analysis. Results Histopathological observation showed obvious cartilage loss in two experimental groups, this cartilage loss was more severe in the chemical groups. Synovial stromal cell-derived factor1 levels increased over time in all groups. mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 were much higher in the chemical groups than in the other groups, whereas levels of collagen type II and aggrecan were significantly lower in the chemical groups than in the other groups. Immunofluorescence assays of collagen type II revealed an apparent reduction in this marker in the chemical groups compared with the other groups. Conclusions These results indicated that the Diannan small-ear pig can be used as an effective osteoarthritis model. In addition, it is much more convenient and much faster to induce osteoarthritis by intra-articular injection of papain, which is a method worthy of being promoted.

2021 ◽  
Mahmoud S Alghamri ◽  
Kaushik Banerjee ◽  
Anzar A Mujeeb ◽  
Ayman Taher ◽  
Rohit Thalla ◽  

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive primary brain tumor, with poor prognosis. Major obstacles hampering effective therapeutic response in GBM are tumor heterogeneity, high infiltration of immunosuppressive myeloid cells, and the presence of the blood-brain barrier. The C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 12/ C-X-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCL12/ CXCR4) signaling pathway is implicated in GBM invasion and cell cycle progression. While the CXCR4 antagonists (AMD3100) has a potential anti-GBM effects, its poor pharmacokinetic and systemic toxicity had precluded its clinical application. Moreover, the role of CXCL12/ CXCR4 signaling pathway in anti-GBM immunity, particularly in GBM-mediated immunosuppression has not been elucidated. Here, we developed a synthetic protein nanoparticle (SPNPs) coated with the cell-penetrating peptide iRGD (AMD3100 SPNPs) to target the CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling axis in GBM. We showed that AMD3100 SPNPs effectively blocked CXCR4 signaling in mouse and human GBM cells in vitro as well as in GBM model in vivo. This results in inhibition of GBM proliferation and induction of immunogenic tumor cell death (ICD) leading to inhibition of GBM progression. Our data also demonstrate that blocking CXCR4 sensitizes GBM cells to radiation, eliciting enhanced release of ICD ligands. Combining AMD3100 SPNPs with radiotherapy inhibited GBM progression and led to long-term survival; with 60% of mice remaining tumor-free. This was accompanied by an anti-GBM immune response and sustained immunological memory that prevented tumor recurrence without further treatment. Finally, we showed that systemic delivery of AMD3100 SPNPs decreased the infiltration of CXCR4+ monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells to the tumor microenvironment. With the potent ICD induction and reprogrammed immune microenvironment, this strategy has significant potential for future clinical translation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ryan L. Ashley ◽  
Cheyenne L. Runyan ◽  
Marlie M. Maestas ◽  
Elisa Trigo ◽  
Gail Silver

The placenta, a unique organ that only develops during pregnancy, is essential for nutrient, oxygen, and waste exchange between offspring and mother. Yet, despite its importance, the placenta remains one of the least understood organs and knowledge of early placental formation is particularly limited. Abnormalities in placental development result in placental dysfunction or insufficiency whereby normal placental physiology is impaired. Placental dysfunction is a frequent source of pregnancy loss in livestock, inflicting serious economic impact to producers. Though the underlying causes of placental dysfunction are not well-characterized, initiation of disease is thought to occur during establishment of functional fetal and placental circulation. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms controlling placental growth and vascularization is necessary to improve reproductive success in livestock. We propose chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) signaling through its receptor CXCR4 functions as a chief coordinator of vascularization through direct actions on fetal trophoblast and maternal endometrial and immune cells. To investigate CXCL12–CXCR4 signaling on uteroplacental vascular remodeling at the fetal–maternal interface, we utilized a CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100). On day 12 post-breeding in sheep, osmotic pumps were surgically installed and delivered either AMD3100 or saline into the uterine lumen ipsilateral to the corpus luteum for 14 days. On day 35 of ovine pregnancy, fetal/placental and endometrial tissues were collected, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen, and uterine horn cross sections were preserved for immunofluorescent analysis. Suppressing CXCL12–CXCR4 at the fetal–maternal interface during initial placental vascularization resulted in diminished abundance of select angiogenic factors in fetal and maternal placenta on day 35. Compared to control, less vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEFG receptor 2 (KDR) were observed in endometrium when CXCL12–CXCR4 was diminished. Less VEGF was also evident in fetal placenta (cotyledons) in ewes receiving AMD3100 infusion compared to control. Suppressing CXCL12–CXCR4 at the fetal–maternal interface also resulted in greater autophagy induction in fetal and maternal placenta compared to control, suggestive of CXCL12–CXCR4 impacting cell survival. CXCL12–CXCR4 signaling may govern placental homeostasis by serving as a critical upstream mediator of vascularization and cell viability, thereby ensuring appropriate placental development.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 2075
Caterina Mancarella ◽  
Andrea Morrione ◽  
Katia Scotlandi

Aberrant bioactivity of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system results in the development and progression of several pathologic conditions including cancer. Preclinical studies have shown promising anti-cancer therapeutic potentials for anti-IGF targeted therapies. However, a clear but limited clinical benefit was observed only in a minority of patients with sarcomas. The molecular complexity of the IGF system, which comprises multiple regulators and interactions with other cancer-related pathways, poses a major limitation in the use of anti-IGF agents and supports the need of combinatorial therapeutic strategies to better tackle this axis. In this review, we will initially highlight multiple mechanisms underlying IGF dysregulation in cancer and then focus on the impact of the IGF system and its complexity in sarcoma development and progression as well as response to anti-IGF therapies. We will also discuss the role of Ephrin receptors, Hippo pathway, BET proteins and CXCR4 signaling, as mediators of sarcoma malignancy and relevant interactors with the IGF system in tumor cells. A deeper understanding of these molecular interactions might provide the rationale for novel and more effective therapeutic combinations to treat sarcomas.

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