periodontal health
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yi Ling Tang ◽  
Tiow Suan Sim ◽  
Kai Soo Tan

AbstractIn periodontal health, oral streptococci constitute up to 80% of the plaque biofilm. Yet, destructive inflammatory events of the periodontium are rare. This observation suggests that oral streptococci may possess mechanisms to co-exist with the host. However, the mechanisms employed by oral streptococci to modulate the innate immune response have not been well studied. One of the key virulence factors produced by oral streptococci is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In mammalian cells, H2O2 triggers the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key pathway mediating antioxidant defence. This study aimed to determine (1) if H2O2 producing oral streptococci activated the Nrf2 pathway in macrophages, and (2) if the activation of Nrf2 influenced the innate immune response. We found that oral streptococci downregulated the innate immune response in a H2O2 dependent manner through the activation of the Nrf2. The activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway led to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFĸB), the key transcription factor regulating pro-inflammatory response. This study showed for the first time that oral streptococci are unlikely passive bystanders but could play an active role in the maintenance of periodontal health by preventing overt inflammation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (4) ◽  
pp. 311-316
Ivana Šutej ◽  
Darko Božić ◽  
Kristina Peroš ◽  
Darije Plančak

Joerg Eberhard ◽  
Kate Ruiz ◽  
Jian Tan ◽  
Thilini N. Jayasinghe ◽  
Shahrukh Khan ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. e001977
Millán Bárcena García ◽  
J M Cobo Plana ◽  
G Rodríguez Cagiao ◽  
P I Arcos González

IntroductionPeriodontal disease is a prevalent pathology in military personnel worldwide. The objective is to analyse the methodological features of periodontal health research performed in military personnel in their home countries.MethodsA PRISMA systematic review of literature was carried out in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases on military periodontal health studies. Study design type, language, publication date, year, country, size and sample selection, age, sex, military, diagnostic procedure, examiners, periodontal, gingival and oral hygiene index were extracted.ResultsEighty-eight out of 5355 studies found were selected, published between 1921 and 2020, with samples ranging from 52 to 16 869 individuals, generally not randomised, and consisting mainly of men with a mean age of 25 years. Predominant studies were cross-sectional descriptive studies, carried out in the Army, on American military personnel, and in the English language. Most of the studies used the WHO periodontal probe handled by two or more examiners. The Löe and Silness gingival index and the Silness and Löe plaque index were the most used indexes to assess gingival condition and oral hygiene, respectively. Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs was the most widely used periodontal index.ConclusionsResearch on periodontal health carried out in military populations from the 1920s to the present has been performed from an almost exclusively descriptive approach. Issues such as the characteristics and representativeness of the samples, the epidemiological design and the different gingival-periodontal indexes used may limit the comparability of the study results.

P. Titus Lalith Antony ◽  
Palati Sinduja ◽  
R. Priyadharshini

Aim: This study aims to compare the random blood sugar pH of the blood. Introduction: Hyperglycemia is a risk factor for the impairment of periodontal health while periodontal disease, in turn, is responsible for the adverse effects on glycemic control and the pathophysiology of diabetes-related complications. An increase in blood sugar levels has a direct effect on pH with respect to age. Hence this study deals with the association of random blood sugar levels and pH with age, gender, and dental complaints. Materials and Methods: 20 random blood samples were collected from the patients in Saveetha Dental College. The random blood sugar level was analyzed by the semi-quantitative method and the pH was analyzed by using a multi reagent strip. And the results were statistically analyzed using SPSS software and represented as pie charts and bar graphs. Results and Discussion: The overall mean value of RBS and blood pH was found to be 138.4 mg/dl and 7.06 respectively. The mean RBS value is higher in the 41-50 years age group of people than in other age categories and the mean pH value is same for all age categories. In the present study, samples with periodontic complaints have higher mean value of RBS values (193) than other dental complaints and the mean pH value is same for all dental complaints. Conclusion: Within the limits of the study, it can be observed that there is a significant association between the age group, gender, and dental complaints with RBS and pH of the patients. However, further studies must be conducted to have more accurate results and elicit the association between pH and RBS with age and gender.

2021 ◽  
Meenu Gehlot ◽  
Rekha Sharma ◽  
Shikha Tewari ◽  
Davender Kumar ◽  
Ambika Gupta

ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the effect of fixed orthodontic treatment on periodontal parameters in periodontally compromised adult orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods This was a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Thirty-six periodontally compromised adult patients (mean age: 29.67 ± 4.8 years) were randomly allocated to either test (perio-ortho) or control group (perio). After periodontal stabilization in both groups, orthodontic treatment was started in the test group, whereas the control group remained on periodontal maintenance only. Evaluation and comparison of clinical parameters (plaque index [PI]; gingival index [GI]; bleeding on probing [BOP]; probing depth [PD]; clinical attachment level [CAL]) of both groups was assessed at three time intervals: T0 (base line), T1 (at start of orthodontic treatment), and T2 (1 year after start of orthodontic treatment). Radiological parameters (alveolar bone levels [ABL]) were recorded using CBCT at T1 and T2. Results Intragroup analysis showed statistically significant improvement in all clinical and radiological periodontal parameters in both groups (P ≤ .05). Intergroup comparison revealed improvement in the periodontal parameters was not statistically significant between the groups (P ≥ .05). Subgroup analysis showed reduction in the number of moderate and severe periodontitis sites in both groups with significant more gains in ABL in the test group compared to the control group. Conclusions Orthodontic treatment after periodontal stabilization does not have any detrimental effect on periodontal health in adult periodontally compromised orthodontic patients and may add to the benefits achieved by periodontal treatment alone.

Lea M. Sedghi ◽  
Margot Bacino ◽  
Yvonne Lorraine Kapila

Periodontal disease is classically characterized by progressive destruction of the soft and hard tissues of the periodontal complex, mediated by an interplay between dysbiotic microbial communities and aberrant immune responses within gingival and periodontal tissues. Putative periodontal pathogens are enriched as the resident oral microbiota becomes dysbiotic and inflammatory responses evoke tissue destruction, thus inducing an unremitting positive feedback loop of proteolysis, inflammation, and enrichment for periodontal pathogens. Keystone microbial pathogens and sustained gingival inflammation are critical to periodontal disease progression. However, recent studies have revealed the importance of previously unidentified microbes involved in disease progression, including various viruses, phages and bacterial species. Moreover, newly identified immunological and genetic mechanisms, as well as environmental host factors, including diet and lifestyle, have been discerned in recent years as further contributory factors in periodontitis. These factors have collectively expanded the established narrative of periodontal disease progression. In line with this, new ideologies related to maintaining periodontal health and treating existing disease have been explored, such as the application of oral probiotics, to limit and attenuate disease progression. The role of systemic host pathologies, such as autoimmune disorders and diabetes, in periodontal disease pathogenesis has been well noted. Recent studies have additionally identified the reciprocated importance of periodontal disease in potentiating systemic disease states at distal sites, such as in Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, and oral cancer, further highlighting the importance of the oral cavity in systemic health. Here we review long-standing knowledge of periodontal disease progression while integrating novel research concepts that have broadened our understanding of periodontal health and disease. Further, we delve into innovative hypotheses that may evolve to address significant gaps in the foundational knowledge of periodontal disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Haslinda Ramli ◽  
Tuti Ningseh Mohd-Dom ◽  
Shahida Mohd-Said

Abstract Background Siwak is a chewing stick used as an oral hygiene aid associated with Muslim communities across the globe since more than 1500 years ago. Used either exclusively or in conjunction with a regular toothbrush, there is evidence supporting its clinical effectiveness in plaque control, but adverse effects on periodontal health remains inconclusive. Objective This study aims to systematically review the wide range of data and literatures related to siwak practice and its effect on periodontal health. Method The review was conducted based on scoping review techniques, searching literature in EBSCOHOST, PubMed, SCOPUS and Google scholar databases using the following search terms: “siwak’ or ‘miswak’ or ‘chewing stick” for intervention, and “periodontium or ‘periodontal’ or ‘periodontal health’ or ‘periodontal disease” for outcome. Articles published between January 1990 to March 2021 and written in English language were included. Results A total of 721 articles collected from the search and 21 of them were eligible for the final analysis. Results of this study was described based on clinical and antibacterial reporting of siwak, method of siwak practice and its adverse effect on oral health. Siwak was found effective at removing dental plaque and improving periodontal health over time although its effect on subgingival microbiota was inconclusive. Presence of gingival recession and clinical attachment loss were much more commonly reported in siwak users, attributable to variations in the methods employed for tooth cleaning using the siwak. Conclusion There is substantial evidence that the lack of standardised reporting for effective siwak use may have resulted in contradictory findings about its oral hygiene benefits and adverse effects. As such, future work on safe and effective siwak practice is to be advocated among its users.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105342
Devan Raindi ◽  
Jaqui Rees ◽  
Josefine Hirschfeld ◽  
Helen Wright ◽  
Phillipa Dobbs ◽  

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document