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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. U. Asghar ◽  
A. Rahman ◽  
Z. Hayat ◽  
M. K. Rafique ◽  
I. H. Badar ◽  

Abstract The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 45 ◽  
pp. 102465
Alexander Belov ◽  
Alexey Vasilyev ◽  
Alexey Dorokhov ◽  
Andrey Izmailov ◽  
Vladimir Storchevoy

N. B. Eremeeva ◽  
N. V. Makarova

Plant extracts rich in polyphenols can be used in the food industry as natural preservatives, extending the shelf life of prepared and semi-finished foods without chemical preservatives. In this paper, we investigate the polyphenolic composition, antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of herbal extracts as part of food systems. The research objects were knot grass (Polýgonum aviculáre), marjoram (Oríganum), bur beggar-ticks (Bídenstripartíta), thyme (Thymus), whortleberry leaves (Vaccínium ida vítis), calendula (Calendula), sage (Salvia), chamomile flowers (Matricāriachamomīlla), eucalyptus (Eucalýptus) and bearberry (Arctostáphylosúva-úrsi). We determined the total content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids; the antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods; variations in the bacterial сontamination of animal raw materials over total bacterial count (TBC), coliform bacteria, yeast/fungi, salmonella and staphylococcus. Extracts of sage (1138±57 mg GA/100 g and 537±25 mg C/100 g), eucalyptus (1073±49 mg GA/100 g and 412±20 mg C/100 g), chamomile flowers (1002±36 mg GA/100 g and 493±22 mg C/100 g) and marjoram (1015±42 mg GA/100 g and 458±21 mg C/100 g) contain the largest amount of biologically active substances (phenols and flavonoids, respectively). Sage, eucalyptus and chamomile extracts demonstrate the highest antioxidant activity among the studied samples. Most of the studied extracts exhibit little or no effect on the organoleptic properties of finished products. In addition, chamomile flower, sage and eucalyptus extracts suppress the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in foods under experimental conditions. The microflora growth is significantly reduced when treating animal raw materials with calendula flowers, marjoram and thyme extracts. Extracts of sage, chamomile flowers, calendula flowers, marjoram and thyme can be recommended as components of food raw materials.

Maoxi Zhang ◽  
Wei Luo ◽  
Kuan Yang ◽  
cheng li

The effects of the sodium alginate (SA) coating incorporated with cinnamon essential oil nanocapsules (CEO-NPs) and Nisin, as a new edible coating, were investigated on the preservation of beef slices in the refrigerated storage for 15 days. All beef samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties (pH value, weight loss, the total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N)) and antimicrobial activity against total bacterial count (TBC). Besides, the changes in color parameters and sensory attributes of all beef samples were evaluated. The results revealed that the incorporation of the complex of CEO-NPs and Nisin retarded the growth of the microorganism and reduced lipid oxidation, as determined by pH, TVB-N, and TBC. This can extend the shelf life of beef slices to 15 days. Moreover, the treatment with the SA coating, incorporating CEO-NPs and Nisin, significantly improved the weight loss, color, odor, textural, and broth attributes of the beef samples. The results suggest that the coating treatment enriched with CEO-NPs and Nisin could significantly inhibit quality deterioration of beef slices, and the complex of CEO-NPs and Nisin can improve antioxidant, antibacterial and sensory properties of the SA coating. Thus, the new edible coating could be regarded as a potential material to preserve beef slices.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3502
Loredana Biondi ◽  
Andrea Fulgione ◽  
Federico Capuano ◽  
Morena Nappa ◽  
Angelo Citro ◽  

Buffalo Mozzarella cheese from Campania is one of the most worldwide appreciated Italian dairy products. The increased demand for buffalo dairy products and the limited availability of the finest buffalo milk has prompted the diffusion of illicit practices, such as the use of milk, curd, or other products that are frozen or bought at low cost. The aim of this research was to provide preliminary results about the trend of the microbial communities of buffalo milk, curd and Buffalo Mozzarella cheese, during freezing storage of eleven months. At the same time, the alterations of physical properties and the presence of the molecular marker “γ4-casein”, have been investigated. The results showed that freezing reduced the concentrations of the total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, Escherichia coli and yeasts in fresh milk and, the concentrations of the total bacterial count, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in mature curd. In the finished product, no notable decreases were observed, except for lactic acid bacteria. About the γ4-casein, no increase was observed in all matrices. These preliminary results allow us to conclude that the freezing process if properly carried out, does not compromise the microbiological quality and the physical properties of the Buffalo Mozzarella cheese.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3047
Gabriel Tirtawijaya ◽  
Jin-Hwa Lee ◽  
Jong-Su Jang ◽  
Do-Youb Kim ◽  
Jae-Hak Sohn ◽  

Alaska pollack roe (APR) is a protein source that is usually salted and fermented, containing a high salt content. Using a combination of superheated steam roasting and smoking, we developed a new low-salt ready-to-eat APR variant, whose quality characteristics we analyzed. The optimal conditions for roasting (216 °C for 4 min) and smoking (64 °C for 14 min) were obtained from sensorial attributes using response surface methodology. Under the optimal conditions, smoke-roasted APR had an overall acceptance (OA) score of 8.89. The combination of roasting and smoking significantly increased volatile basic nitrogen (VBN, 18.6%) and decreased the total bacterial count (TBC, 38.6%), while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were not affected. Smoke-roasting APR also increased its nutritional content to 30% protein with 44% essential amino acids, and more than 40% DHA and EPA in 4.3% fat. During 30 days of storage, the OA, VBN, TBARS, and TBC values significantly changed with time and storage temperature (p < 0.05). The shelf life of the product was estimated to be 24 d. In conclusion, the combination of roasting and smoking APR could improve product quality and may be an alternative to diversify processed APR.

2021 ◽  
Atanu Kumar Panja ◽  
Sonpal Vasavdutta ◽  
Tarini Prasad Sahoo ◽  
Ambika Hemant Shinde ◽  
Ravikumar Bhagawan Thorat ◽  

Abstract A detailed coastal water monitoring near Diu coast, western part of India was performed from October, 2020 to May, 2021 covering the 2nd lockdown time. Average monthly fluctuation from 7 different sampling stations of total 9 physico-chemical parameters such as pH, salinity, turbidity, nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), ammonia (NH3), phosphate (PO4), total alkalinity and silicate were recorded. Initially, Mann-Kendall trend test for all the 9 parameters showed non-zero trend, which may be either linear or non-linear. During 2nd lockdown period, there was a fluctuation of value for parameters like pH, salinity, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate. Average total bacterial count and differential bacterial count also gradually decreased from March, 2021 sampling. Principal component analysis (PCA) plot covering all the physico-chemical parameters as well as the differential bacterial count showed a distinct cluster of all bacterial count with total alkalinity value. Subsequently, mathematical equation was formulated between total alkalinity value and all differential bacterial count. Upto our knowledge this is the first report where mathematical equation was formulated to obtain value of different bacterial load based on the derived total alkalinity value of the coastal water samples near Diu, India.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 3442
Li-Lin Wei ◽  
Chan-Chih Hu ◽  
Chu-Wei Hsu ◽  
Chun-Wei Pen ◽  
Li-Yu Chen ◽  

Chlorine dioxide is a safe, environmentally friendly disinfecting agent. In this study, aqueous chlorine dioxide (ACD) was used to improve the water quality of dental chairs. However, chlorine dioxide is readily released from ACD solutions under open atmosphere conditions. Described herein is a water purification and disinfection system using ACD. The system was designed, fabricated, and integrated into an existing dental chair water system. This system is referred to as an ACD dental chair. Because ClO2 readily degasses from ACD, there needs to be a way to maintain and measure the ACD solution in real time. In our studies, we found that pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) change as a function of chlorine dioxide concentration and are easily controlled and measured. The dosing of the ACD was designed to begin at 800 mV and stop dosing at 810 mV in the ACD dental chair. Through use of this continuous monitoring and automatic dosing system, the water ORP was controlled between 800 and 860 mV. This range is the effective concentration of chlorine dioxide that is without chlorine-like odor and microorganism growth. The ACD dental chair controlled the total bacterial count to <5 CFU/mL and the chlorite concentration was less than 0.0004 mg/L, meeting legal standards of Taiwan, the USA, and China. In addition to the application of ACD in dental chairs, it may also be used in closed water systems for food, cosmetics, beverages, and other industries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 013-018
Bello Muhammed Magaji ◽  
Bamidele Joshua Awogbemi ◽  
Agnes Yemisi Asagbra ◽  
Fatunmibi Omolara Omowumi ◽  
Femi Maroof Adams

The qualities of the honey were evaluated using the following attributes Physico-chemical, Microbiological, minerals and metallic contaminants respectively. The Physico-chemical analysis revealed a moisture content of 17.45%, Ash 0.64%, Total solid 81.25%, Fat 0.64%, Protein 0.25%, Fibre 0.03%, Total carbohydrate81.22%, Energy value of 329.5 Kcal, [email protected], Sucrose content 5.48%, Nitrogen content 0.004%, Total acidity 3.45%, Reducing sugar 61.82%, insoluble water content 0.06%, Refractive index of 1.477, and Specific gravity of 1.234 respectively. The microbiological analysis showed a total bacterial count TBC of 7x102 cfu/g, Yeast count 2x101cfu/g and Mould count 2x101cfu/g, which was within the national standards range by SON as 1x102 cfu/g, 5x101 cfu/g, and 5x101 cfu/g respectively while the Coliform count, Escherichia count, Salmonella count, Staphylococus count and Clostridium count were not detected this research. Generally, honey may contain organisms from bees, soil, air and dust that may be introduced during post-harvest handling. This is evidence that honey is well preserved against bacteria so that these organisms would not survive unfavourable conditions. The mineral analysis showed the presences of potassium{K), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Zink (Zn), Iron (Fe) Arsenic (As) respectively with values of 70.5, 21.0, 95.0,12.0, 1.3, 1.0, and 1.0 (Mg/100g) while Cupper and Lead were not detected.

2021 ◽  
Vol 100 (11) ◽  
pp. 1229-1235
Sergey V. Kostyuchenko ◽  
Alexander I. Vasil’ev ◽  
Andrey A. Tkachev ◽  
Anzhelika V. Zagainova ◽  
Irina V. Kurbatova ◽  

Introduction. The research is devoted to assessing the results of our studies of indoor air concerning microbial contamination during the operation of a UV recirculator with different modes (different UV doses). Also, a theoretical calculation of the influence of the ratio of the capacity of the UV recirculator to the air volume of the treated room on the efficiency of air disinfection has been made. Materials and methods. The study of indoor air in terms of total bacterial count (TBC), including coccal microflora and yeast and mould fungi, were carried out. Air sampling and evaluation were carried out under the requirements of Methodical guidelines MUK 4.2.2942-11 “Methods of sanitary and bacteriological studies of environmental objects, air and sterility control in medical institutions”. The evaluation of the results was carried out following R 3.5.1904-04, "The use of ultraviolet bactericidal radiation for disinfection of indoor air". During the study, agar culture media were used: Sabouraud agar, yolk-salt agar (YSA), meat-peptone agar (MPA), nutrient agar with the addition of 5% sheep blood (blood agar), bismuth sulfite agar, XLD-agar, cetrimide-agar, “Shine” agar, Endo agar. Results. As a result of the studies carried out, it was shown that a dose of UV irradiation of the order of 12-15 mJ/cm2 leads to an insignificant change in the concentration of bacteria (TBC) and fungi in the air (the efficiency was 58% and 69%, respectively). UV doses of the order of 25-30 mJ/cm2 significantly reduce the concentration of bacteria (TBC) and fungi in the air (efficiency was 99.99% and 99.4%, respectively). A theoretical calculation showed that it is practical to use a UV recirculator of such a capacity that provides an air exchange rate in the room of at least 4 (with ventilation operating at a rate of at least 2). Conclusion. To effectively use UV recirculators in enclosed spaces against bacteria and fungi, it is necessary to use models that provide a UV dose of at least 25-30 mJ/cm2. In contrast, their air capacity should provide an air exchange rate of at least 4.

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