Mineral Fertilization
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Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 903
Karin Kauer ◽  
Sandra Pärnpuu ◽  
Liina Talgre ◽  
Viacheslav Eremeev ◽  
Anne Luik

This study aimed to investigate the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rate and soil organic matter (SOM) composition in conventional rotational cropping with mineral fertilization compared with organic cover cropping with and without composted manure addition during 2008–2018 to specify the SOM stabilization under different farming systems. The SOC proportion in particulate organic matter (POM) (63–2000 µm) and mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM) (<63 µm) fractions were estimated in different treatments, and the SOM composition in the fractions was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The SOC sequestration rate was treatment-dependent, with the higher SOC sequestration rate (1.26 Mg ha−1 y−1) in the organic treatment with cover crop and composted manure. Across all treatments, 57.3%–77.8% of the SOC stock was in the MAOM fraction. Mineral N fertilization increased POM-C concentration by 19%–52% compared with the unfertilized control. Under the organic treatments, the POM-C concentration was 83%–95% higher than the control. The MAOM-C concentration increased by 8%–20%. The mineral N fertilization and organic treatments (with and without cover crops and composted manure) increased the SOC stock proportion of POM. The highest proportion of SOC stock related to POM was in the cover cropping system, reducing the proportion of C related to the MAOM fraction, but the addition of composted manure with cover cropping also increased the proportion of C in MAOM. Compared with MAOM, the POM had a less resistant organic matter composition, and the POM resistance was higher in organic than conventional treatments. In general, the recalcitrance of SOM increased with SOC concentration. The POM fraction had higher aromaticity (or degree of decomposition) than the MAOM fraction. The aromaticity in POM and MAOM fractions was higher in the organic farming system and depended on mineral N fertilization and cover cropping, but the effect of manure was not significant. Although the SOC sequestration rate was higher under manure addition, resulting in the highest formation of both POM and MAOM in the soil, manure addition had little effect on overall SOM composition compared with cover crops.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1843
Lukáš Hlisnikovský ◽  
Kateřina Křížová ◽  
Ladislav Menšík ◽  
Eva Kunzová

Barley is one of the most important cereals growing in the Czech Republic. In this paper, we have evaluated how different fertilizer treatments (Control, N1 – 30 kg ha−1 N, N2 – 60 kg ha−1 N, NPK1 – 30, 60, 80 kg ha−1, respectively, NPK2 – 60, 60, 80, and NPK3 – 90, 60, 80) affected spring barley grain yield under different soil–climate conditions (Caslav–degraded Chernozem, Ivanovice–Chernozem, Lukavec–Cambisol) between the years 2013 and 2016. The agronomic efficiency (AE) and the effect of the fertilizer treatments (Control, N2, NPK2) on soil properties (pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cox, Nt) were also evaluated. The spring barley grain yield was significantly affected by the fertilizer treatment and soil–climate conditions. Two different models (quadratic and linear-plateau) provided the maximum and reasonable doses of N, according to the soil–climate conditions. Application of mineral P and K slightly increased the AE. The regular application of mineral P and K fertilizers led to an increase in the P and K concentration in the soil, which maintains soil fertility and prevents soil depletion.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1786
Waldemar Zielewicz ◽  
Arkadiusz Swędrzyński ◽  
Jakub Dobrzyński ◽  
Dorota Swędrzyńska ◽  
Iryna Kulkova ◽  

Recently, an increasing interest in such fertilizers and fertilization methods which not only directly supply nutrients to plants, but also stimulate soil bioactivity is noted. Their effect on both soil microbiota and forage plants has not been fully recognized. The aim of the study was to investigate the combined effect of forage plant mixture type and mineral fertilizers (NPK) with biostimulants based on a marine algae extracts on the botanical composition, yield, the structure of selected taxonomic and trophic groups of soil microorganisms, and the soil enzymatic activity. During the years 2018–2019 a field experiment established in split-plot design with two different forage plant mixtures, as a first factor, and different fertilization basing on mineral fertilizers amended with biostimulants, as a second factor was conducted. Two types of forage mixtures of sown species were used: grass mixture (GM) and legume-grass mixture (LGM). Every year the following biostimulants were applied: N-14, PinKstart, Physiostart, Physioactive and they were compared with standard NPK fertilisation and no fertilisation as a control. The reaction of forage plant mixtures on applied fertilisation was different. The intensive development of grass species, mainly Lolium perenne, at the expense of Trifolium repens share in LGM was observed. In GM sward dominated Dactylis glomerata. A beneficial effects of biostimulants’ application on the biomass yields of both grass mixtures was observed. The systematic soil acidification and a decrease of soil enzymatic activity in result of applied fertilization, except NPK + Physioactive treatment (calcium fertilizer containing 76% calcium carbonate), was noted. Soil reaction to applied fertilisation was dependent on the botanical composition of the sward. The counts of microorganisms in the soil under LGM were almost two times higher than in the soil under GM. The most effective, in reducing the negative effect of nitrogen mineral fertilization on the pH of soil, was fertilization with NPK + Physioactiv.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 102-108
Ljubica Ambrušec ◽  
Ranko Gantner ◽  
Goran Herman ◽  
Vesna Gantner ◽  
Krešimir Bošnjak ◽  

Role of mineral fertilizers is to complement the soils’ indigenous supply of minerals for crop plants nutrition. Among the mineral nutrients, nitrogen is generally considered as the most yield-contributing. Obtaining nitrogen from legumes is potentially more sustainable than from industrial sources. Crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) has long been appreciated as cover crop grown for green manuring due to its capability for binding the atmospheric nitrogen into plant-available form. Green manuring effects of crimson clover for succeeding maize crop were tested in 2019 year on two locations of Northeastern Croatia differing in soil texture: 1) on the site A where the soil was compact and dominated by clay and 2) on the site B where the soil was loose and dominated by loam. The research was conducted in a year with favourable rainfall during maize vegetation. Results have shown that green manuring with crimson clover for maize as the main crop delivered somewhat lower maize grain and aboveground mass yields than the conventional full-dose mineral fertilization on deep fertile soils around Osijek (Northeastern Croatia). When compared to conventional agronomy, green manuring was associated with additional agrotechnical operations required for crimson clover cover crop establishment and its herbage incorporation into soil prior to seeding main maize crop. Research should be continued in more different environments (year × location combinations) in order to produce reliable evaluation of crimson clover’s green manuring services.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1767
Yoshihiro Hirooka ◽  
Simon K. Awala ◽  
Kudakwashe Hove ◽  
Pamwenafye I. Nanhapo ◽  
Morio Iijima

The production of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.) is important in Namibia, in sub-Saharan Africa, owing to the prevailing low precipitation conditions. Most fields supporting crop production in northern Namibia are located in a network of seasonal wetlands. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ridging and fertilizer application on the yield and the growth of pearl millet in the seasonal wetlands under different rainfall conditions. The study was conducted for two years (2017–2018) in the experimental fields in northern Namibia, and yield, yield components, and growth parameters were evaluated in relation to the application of different fertilizers (manure and mineral) with and without ridge-furrows. Manure fertilizer application presented the highest yield in 2018, whereas mineral fertilizer application showed the highest yield in 2017. The proportion of rainfall was the highest during the mid-growth period in 2017, and the reproductive stage in 2018. Thus, pearl millet plants under manure fertilization overcame damage resulting from waterlogging stress during the seed setting stage by improving the soil and plant nutrient conditions. In contrast, the plants under mineral fertilization were more tolerant to large amounts of rain during the mid-growth period. In this study, yield was mainly determined by total dry weight, and it was closely related to panicle density in both years. Therefore, we concluded that fertilizer application, including additional fertilizer based on the growth diagnostic, could be important for improving crop production in seasonal wetlands.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 115-124
Jerzy Lisek ◽  
Teresa Stępień

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of various methods of orchard floor management on extractable mactronutrients concentration in plum leaves and orchard soil. Study carried out between 2013 and 2015. Standard mineral fertilization on experimental plots was applied. Trees of ‘Valjevka’ plum (Prunus domestica L.), grafted onto Myrobalan seedlings (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. var. divaricata Ledeb.), were planted in the spring of 2008. From 2009 to 2015, the following methods of soil cultivation under tree canopies were introduced: control with limited weeding around tree trunks; spraying with foliar herbicides; mulching with organic waste, i.e. straw with compost; mechanical soil cultivation with the use of rotary cultivators and hoe; weed mowing. The method of soil cultivation had influence on leaf concentration of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium, as well as soil concentration content of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium in particular years of the study or as three-year mean. Orchard floor management did not affect leaf nitrogen concentration in any way. The results showed that regular weed control in the evaluated type of orchard is not necessary for properly supplying plum trees with macronutrients.

Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 269
Mohamed Ahmed Youssef ◽  
Arwa Abdulkreem AL-Huqail ◽  
Esmat F. Ali ◽  
Ali Majrashi

Adoption of suitable organic fertilizers and soil mulching are useful tools to enhance soil quality, which will inevitably lead to improved growth and yield of crops. Little is known about the soil organic amendments and Azolla (Azolla pinnata) under soil organic mulching on the growth and yield of squash plant (Cucurbita pepo L.). A comparative study mainly focused on the impacts of organic fertilizer treatments on soil fertility and squash growth under wheat straw mulch was conducted on wooden boxes filled with silty loam soil. Wheat straw, as an organic mulch, and five organic-fertilization treatments were added to the soil. Wheat straw with a size of <2 cm was added to the soil surface with a 2 cm thickness. The fertilization treatments were: control (CO), chemical fertilizer (CF), compost (CT), vermicompost (VC), and dry Azolla (DA). Wheat straw mulch had positive effects on the soil properties, growth, and yield. The maximum fruit yield was obtained from the soil fertilized with DA under wheat straw mulch, while the lowest one was found in the control without mulching. Azolla and organic fertilizers showed a remarkable superiority over the mineral fertilization in increasing the soil fertility as well as the growth and quality of squash fruits; this superiority increased under the wheat straw mulching system. The application of recommended mineral fertilization (CF), compost (CT), vermicompost (VC), and dry Azolla (DA) under wheat straw mulch increased the soil available-N by 2, 20, 12, and 29%, respectively, above the control (CO), while these organic fertilizers without mulching increased the soil available-N by 11, 32, 26, and 48%, respectively. The production of vegetable crops such as squash plants requires the addition of organic fertilizers and mulching to increase yield and quality of fruits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 52 (4) ◽  
pp. 960-970
Al-Obaidi & Abdul-Ratha

A field experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Research and Experiments (station A), which belong to the college of Agricultural Engineering Sciences/University of Baghdad with a silty loam soil by using Randomized Block Design with three replicates to evaluate the effect of using a combination of bacterial biofertilizer consist of Bacillus megaterium , Bacillus mucilagenosus and Rhizobium phaseoli with two levels of vermicompost (0 and 10 mcgh-1) on plant growth parameters of Green Beans and its yield and availability of N,P and K in soil under two levels of mineral fertilization (0% and 50%) of fertilizer recommendation in addition to using the full fertilizer recommendation treatment(100%) as a second control treatment. The results showed the significant superiority of the bacterial combination biofertilizer with (10 mcgh-1 ) vermicompost and 50% of mineral fertilizer compared with the treatment of full fertilizer recommendation in most of the growth and yield parameters of green beans, as the number of pods, nodules number and total yield were 150.00 plant pod-1 ,8.33 plant node-1and 71.48 mcg h-1respectively,whereas the soil content of a available NPK was 85.00,14.00 and 198.00 mcgh-1 in the same treatment above respectively in compare with the control(without any addition) treatment which its availability of NPK was (29.00,4.07 ,89.00)mgkg-1respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 276
Huan Pablo De Souza ◽  
Angélica Costa Malheiros ◽  
Dione Richer Momolli ◽  
Aline Aparecida Ludvichak ◽  
Claudiney Couto Guimarães ◽  

Young stands on sandy soils with low natural fertility are more dependent on chemical fertilization. The litterfall becomes the most important route for biogeochemical cycling in an ecosystem. Therefore, the aim of the study was to quantify the annual litterfall, evaluate the seasonality of deposition and verify the litterfall response under different amounts of fertilizers in a young eucalyptus stand implanted in soil degraded by arenization in southern Brazil. Litterfall was evaluated using litter traps with an area of 0.5 m². Fortnightly, over a year, collections and quantification of dry mass were performed. Each of the 5 fertilizer treatments received increasing amounts of nutrients. The litterfall had seasonal pattern, with larger quantities for the spring season, with statistical difference at a level of 5% probability of error from other seasons evaluated, marked by the increase in temperatures. The amount of litterfall, in descending order, followed the amount of nutrients applied in the treatments: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1. The annual litterfall ranged from 518 to 1326 kg ha-1 of the treatment that received natural phosphate (T1) and triple superphosphate (T5), respectively. This variation represents an increase of 156%. The increase in litterfall is associated with the amount of fertilizers.

Sławomir Głuszek ◽  
Lidia Sas-Paszt ◽  
Edyta Derkowska ◽  
Beata Sumorok ◽  
Mirosław Sitarek

 The experiment was established in the Pomological Orchard of The National Institute of Horticultural Research in Skierniewice in a system of randomized blocks. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the impact of innovative organic fertilizers: BioIlsa, BioFeed Ecomix, biostimulator Ausma and mycorrhizal inoculum Mykoflor on the fine roots growth characteristics of ‘Vanda’ sweet cherry trees in comparison with NPK mineral fertilization. The experiment involved five combinations, in three repetitions of three trees each, treated with tested preparations. The study assessed the influence of fertilization on the lifespan of the roots, the depth of their formation, their diameter and survivorship using minirhizotron camera. The highest numbers of roots were found in the treatment where the plants were fertilized with NPK and the lowest following the use of the biofertilizer BioFeed Ecomix. The longest lifespan was shown by the roots of the trees treated with BioFeed Ecomix – 347 days, and the shortest – by those fertilized with the Ausma – 225 days. The lifespan of the roots increased with their diameter. The roots that lived the longest had a diameter in the range from 0.9 to 1.0 mm – 568 days, and the shortest-living were the roots with a diameter smaller than 0.3 mm – 238 days. The roots that formed in late autumn and winter had the shortest median lifespan of 159 days, while the roots formed in the spring where characterized by the longest lifespan of 300 days. The lifespan of the roots formed close to the soil surface was the shortest – 225 days, while that of the roots formed at a depth of 10 to 20 cm was the longest – 326 days. Biological origin, organic nitrogen rich fertilizers positively influence on fine roots lifespan and longevity. Mineral fertilization increases number of new formed roots.

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