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H.C. Vikram ◽  
N. Mini Raj ◽  
Deepu Mathew ◽  
S.C. Priyanka ◽  
V.S. Sujatha

Background: Nutmeg is a perennial tree spices which is yielding twin spices; present days research thrust is to identify high yielding mother trees. But yield and quality both are equally important due to its wide spread medicinal as well as industrial usage. Methods: The core collection of nutmeg genotypes form different locations of Kerala evaluated for biochemical composition. Seventeen morphologically distinct types of nutmeg were analysed through GC/MS method. The change in volatiles after storage (at 4°C) was also assessed after one year. Result: The range of variation was observed for kernel oil, mace oil, kernel oleoresin, mace oleoresin and fixed oil of kernel. Myristicin, elemecin and sabinene were principal volatile compounds. The identification of distinct nutmeg chemotypes for specific volatile compounds which could be used in commercial cultivation/pharmaceutical application/industrial use. Present study highlights the high and low hallucinogen (myristicine, elemicine and safrole) genotypes along with high sabinene types.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 151
Vadim Lebedev

Breeding woody plants is a very time-consuming process, and genetic engineering tools have been used to shorten the juvenile phase. In addition, transgenic trees for commercial cultivation can also be used in classical breeding, but the segregation of transgenes in the progeny of perennial plants, as well as the possible appearance of unintended changes, have been poorly investigated. We studied the inheritance of the uidA gene in the progeny of field-grown transgenic pear trees for 7 years and the physical and physiological parameters of transgenic seeds. A total of 13 transgenic lines were analyzed, and the uidA gene segregated 1:1 in the progeny of 9 lines and 3:1 in the progeny of 4 lines, which is consistent with Mendelian inheritance for one and two transgene loci, respectively. Rare and random deviations from the Mendelian ratio were observed only for lines with one locus. Transgenic seeds’ mass, size, and shape varied slightly, despite significant fluctuations in weather conditions during cultivation. Expression of the uidA gene in the progeny was stable. Our study showed that the transgene inheritance in the progeny of pear trees under field conditions occurs according to Mendelian ratio, does not depend on the environment, and the seed vigor of transgenic seeds does not change.

M.A. Malek ◽  
R.M. Emon ◽  
M.K. Khatun ◽  
M.S.H. Bhuiyan ◽  
Adedze Yawo Mawunyo Nevame ◽  

Background: Soybean is an important source of food, protein and oil and hence more research is essential to increase its yield under different agro-ecological conditions, including stress. In this regard, four popular soybean varieties viz. Shohag, BDS-4, BAU-S/64 and BARI Soybean-5 were irradiated using Co60 gamma rays to create genetic variation for earliness, higher seed yield and other desirable agronomic traits. Methods: The experiments were conducted at Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) Headquarters farm, Mymensingh during 2006-2009 and 28 elite mutant lines were selected for evaluation. The mutant line, SBM-22 derived from mother variety BARI Soybean-5 irradiated with 300Gy of gamma rays was found to be superior compared to other mutants. Considering the superior performance of mutant SBM-22 including 28 mutants and mother check variety BARI Soybean-5, were evaluated through different trials. The evaluation trials were conducted at different agro-ecological zones of the country during Rabi season (January to April) of 2010-2018. Result: Significant variations were observed both in individual location and over locations for all traits. Reactions to major diseases and insect-pests infestation were also studied. Due to better performance of the mutant SBM-22, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) applied to the National Seed Board (NSB) of Bangladesh for registration as an important soybean variety “Binasoybean-6”. Consequently, the NSB of Bangladesh registered SBM-22 as an improved soybean variety in 2019 as Binasoybean-6 for commercial cultivation.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 122
Jacqueline Naalamle Amissah ◽  
Forgive Enyonam Alorvor ◽  
Benjamin Azu Okorley ◽  
Chris Mpere Asare ◽  
Dorcas Osei-Safo ◽  

Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schlt., the main source of cryptolepine alkaloid, is intensively exploited in the wild to treat malaria and Lyme disease. In this study, the influence of four inorganic fertilizers (supplying N, P, K, or NPK) and four growth periods (3, 6, 9, and 12 months after transplanting) on the herb’s root biomass, cryptolepine content and yield, and biological activities were investigated in a pot and field trial. The results showed the application of N (in the form of Urea or NPK) increased root biomass yield, cryptolepine content, and cryptolepine yield compared to unfertilized plants. The 9-month-old plants recorded the maximum cryptolepine content (2.26 mg/100 mg dry root) and cryptolepine yield (304.08 mg/plant), indicating the perfect time to harvest the herb. Plant age at harvest had a more significant influence (50.6–55.7%) on cryptolepine production than fertilizer application (29.2–33.3%). Cryptolepine extracts from 9- to 12-month-old plants had the highest antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 2.56–4.65 µg/mL) and drug selectivity index (2.15–3.91) against Plasmodium falciparum Dd2. These extracts were also cytotoxic to Jurkat leukaemia cell lines (CC50 < 62.56 µg/mL), indicating the possible use of cryptolepine for cancer management. Growing the herb in the field increased cryptolepine yield 2.5 times compared to growth in a pot, but this did not influence the antiplasmodial activity of the extract. Commercial cultivation of C. sanguinolenta for 9 months combined with N application could be a promising solution to the sustainable use of this threatened medicinal species.

Subhash Janardhan Bhore ◽  
Daniela Salgado Ochoa ◽  
Amina Al Houssari ◽  
Angela Lopez Zelaya ◽  
Ru Yang ◽  

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) plant fruits are well-known for their high nutritional value, unique test, and healthy oil. It has a history of about 10,000 years. Avocado fruit offers many health benefits, and its production is rapidly increasing. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)&rsquo;s recent data suggest that the Avocados produced in the world in 2019 was twice that of 2010 (3778010 tons). Avocado&rsquo;s global Gross Production Value was about 5.812 billion USD in 2018, and it is likely to increase rapidly because of the increasing demand for Avocado fruits. Avocado oil is also used in the cosmetic industry because of its therapeutic properties, and it boosts the economic value of the Avocado industry. Avocado fruits have a rough green-gold skin; however, fruits are called &lsquo;the green gold&rsquo; because of their massive global demand in the worldwide market and a lucrative business. The cultivation of Avocado has tremendous potential in increasing the rural economy, rural agriculture-based employment and reducing the poverty rate of growers. On the other hand, the Avocado industry is highly criticised because of deforestation, massive water utilisation, polluting water bodies with insecticides and fertilisers, posing a threat to other plant species, and environmental pollution. However, it doesn&rsquo;t preclude the importance of Avocado. Cameroon&rsquo;s average temperature is about 23 &deg;C, which is considered optimal for Avocado propagation and commercial cultivation. Cameroon Association of Active Youths (CAMAAY) want to explore the possibilities of engaging Cameroon youths in Avocado cultivation. This review is aimed to provide an overview of Avocado. The review also highlights Avocado cultivation related issues from one health and sustainability perspective in line with the global goals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (7) ◽  
pp. 61-67
Lidiia Shubenko ◽  
Svitlana Shokh ◽  
Lesia Karpuk ◽  
Andriy Pavlichenko ◽  
Larysa Philipova

One of the main requirements of the new stone fruit varieties recommended for commercial cultivation is a compact crown shape that allows for greater plant density and easier crown maintenance. The aim of the research was to establish the growth processes of the above-ground parts of cherry trees in varieties of different ripening periods. The article presents the results of studies of the features of apical and lateral growth of sweet cherry trees. Biological and varietal features of tree growth strength, growth and total length of annual shoots are determined. The dependence of tree trunk growth on apical growth force is established. According to the results of research, sweet cherry varieties are grouped according to the strength of growth: the vigorous varieties are Amazonka, Dar Mliyeva, Zoryana, Mliyivska zhovta; the semi dwarf are Aboryhenka, Alyonushka, Drohana zhovta, Mirazh; the dwarfing are Biryuza, Donetskyy uholyok, Melitopolska krapchasta, Meotida. The smallest increase in trunk diameter was found for the dwarfing variety Biryuza, and the largest – for the variety Drohana zhovta. The highest yield load per unit cross-sectional area of the trunk was recorded for the variety Donetskyy uholyok, the lowest – for Drohana zhovta. The amount of growth in the trunk diameter was inversely dependent on a load of trees with the crop and the strength of apical growth of sweet cherry trees. The features of shoot-forming ability allow characterising the shape of the crown of cherry trees: round – Donetskyy uholyok, Amazonka; high-round – varieties of Aborigenka, Dar Mliyeva, Zoryana; wide-pyramidal – Alyonushka, Drohana zhovta, Melitopolska krap-chasta; pyramidal – Mliyivska zhovta, Mirazh; low – Meotida, Biryuza. Dar Mliyeva, Zoryana, Mirazh, Melitopolska krapchasta and Drohana zhovta varieties have high shootability; the Mliyivska zhovta, Aboryhenka, Meotida, Amazonka varieties have medium shootability; Alyonushka, Biryuza, Donetskyy uholyok varieties have low shootability

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 42
Gehan Abdelghany ◽  
Penelope Wurm ◽  
Linh Thi My Hoang ◽  
Sean Mark Bellairs

Wild Oryza species are being targeted for commercial cultivation due to their high nutritional grain profile, and their association with Aboriginal people in many regions. Australian wild Oryza species have potential as high-value, low-volume, culturally identified, and nutritious food, especially in gourmet food, tourism, restaurants, and value-added products. However, the basic agronomic protocols for their cultivation as a field crop are unknown. In this review, we identify the major factors supporting the commercial production of wild Oryza, including their stress-tolerant capacity, excellent grain quality attributes, and Indigenous cultural identification of their grains. The key challenges to be faced during the development of a wild rice industry are also discussed which include management barriers, processing issues, undesirable wild traits, and environmental concern. This manuscript proposes the use of agronomic research, in combination with breeding programs, as an overarching framework for the conceptualization and implementation of a successful wild rice industry, using the North American wild rice industry as a case study. The framework also suggests an integrated system that connects producers, industry, and government stakeholders. The suggested procedures for developing a wild rice industry in Australia are also applicable for other wild Oryza species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1591-1599
Vidya VR

Kaempferia galanga L. or ‘aromatic ginger’ is a stem-less herb in Zingiberaceae having different pharmacological properties like antioxidant, antimicrobial, nemeticidal, vasorelaxant and wound healing activity. The plant is generally a vegetatively propagated annual herb; its conservation using conventional methods takes more time to get sufficient amount of planting materials for commercial cultivation. Micropropagation by in vitro methods helps to overcome the present demand for this high sought medicinal and aromatic species. At present the concern on in vitro propagation is directed to rhizome or storage organ induction for productive acclimatization and to reduce the injury during transportation. Microrhizomes are the small rhizomes developed in in vitro conditions and its induction is an effective biotechnological tool for the production of quality planting materials as they are genetically stable and disease free. The present study is discussing the role of silver nitrate (AgNO3) along with sucrose in in vitro microrhizome induction in K. galanga for the first time. MS medium fortified with 2.0 mgl-1 AgNO3 along with 6% (w/v) sucrose produced maximum amount of microrhizomes i.e., 4.52±0.11 g after 3 months that increased to 5.70±0.20 g in six months of harvesting. Here we also reports the comparative analysis of chemical constituents in the essential oil of in vivo rhizomes and in vitro microrhizome through GC-MS analysis that further reveals the superior characteristics of the microrhizomes in terms of the bioactive components ethyl p-methoxy cinnamate and ethyl cinnamate, the esters that contribute the nematicidal, antituberculosis, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and larvicidal properties to the oil. This protocol for in vitro microrhizome induction can be used for the commercial production of rhizomes and essential oil in K. galanga and the outcome of this study can be further used for mass production of pathogen-free microrhizomes and conservation for its sustainable utilization of the species.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Bibhuti Bhusan Champati ◽  
Bhuban Mohan Padhiari ◽  
Asit Ray ◽  
Sudipta Jena ◽  
Ambika Sahoo ◽  

Abstract Andrographis paniculata is an Indian medicinal plant with tremendous therapeutic values due to the presence of active diterpenoids in its aerial parts. However, high domestic and export demand has led to overexploitation of wild populations of this species. With a view to bringing A. paniculata into cultivation and to reduce the pressure on wild populations, the present study was undertaken to identify elite germplasm from different locations of eastern India by analysing intraspecific variation in the content of four major active diterpenoids. A total of 166 wild accessions of A. paniculata analysed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed remarkable variation in the sum of four active diterpenoids in the aerial parts, ranging from 0.41 to 8.55% on a dry weight basis. Three elite accessions (AP-6, AP-8, AP-46) having respectively 8.02, 8.36 & 8.55% of the sum of four major active diterpenoids were identified. These germplasm could be used for commercial cultivation and genetic improvement of A. paniculata.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Si-Hai Wang ◽  
Jian Chen ◽  
Wei Yang ◽  
Mei Hua ◽  
Yong-Peng Ma

AbstractMalania oleifera (Olacaceae), a tree species endemic to Southwest China, has seed oils enriched with nervonic acid and is therefore good source of this chemical. Because of this, there are promising industrial perspective in the artificial cultivation and use of this species. Understanding the variability in the fruit characters among individuals forms the basis or resource prospection. In the current investigation, fifty-three mature fruiting trees were sampled from two locations with divergent climates (Guangnan and Funing). Morphological characterization of fruits (fruit and stone weight, fruit transverse and longitudinal diameter, stone transverse and longitudinal diameter) was conducted, and the concentration of seed oil and its fatty acid composition were also analyzed in all individuals. Differences in all the morphological characters studied were more significant among individual trees than between different geographic localities, even though these had different climates. Eleven fatty acids were identified contributing between 91.39 and 96.34% of the lipids, and the major components were nervonic acid (38.93–47.24%), octadecenoic acid (26.79–32.08%), docosenoic acid (10.94–17.24%). The seed oil content (proportion of oil in seed kernel) and the proportion of nervonic acid were both higher in Funing, which has a higher average climatic temperature than Guangnan. The concentrations of nervonic acid and octadecenoic acid with the low coefficients of variation in the seed oil of M. oleifera were relatively stable in contrast to the other fatty acids. There were significant positive correlations between fruit morphological characters, but the amount of seed oil and the concentrations of its components were not correlated with any morphological character. This study provides an understanding of morphological variation in wild M. oleifera individuals. Wild individuals with excellent fruit traits could be selected and would make promising candidates for commercial cultivation.

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