theoretical derivation
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2022 ◽  
Qing-Yan Li ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  
Shi-Yu Yan ◽  
Bin Zhang ◽  
Chun-Hui Wang

Abstract 3D lidar has been widely used in various fields. The MEMS scanning system is one of its most important components, while the limitation of scanning angle is the main obstacle for its application in various fields to improve the demerit. In this paper, a folded large field of view scanning optical system is proposed. The structure and parameters of the system are determined by theoretical derivation of ray tracing. The optical design software Zemax is used to design the system. After optimization, the final structure performs well in collimation and beam expansion. The results show that the scan angle can be expanded from ±5° to ±26.5°, and finally parallel light scanning is realized. The spot diagram at a distance of 100 mm from the exit surface shows that the maximum radius of the spot is 0.506 mm with a uniformly distributed spot. The maximum radius of the spot at 100 m is 19 cm, and the diffusion angle is less than 2 mrad. The energy concentration in the spot range is greater than 90% with a high system energy concentration, and the parallelism is good. This design overcomes the shortcoming of the small mechanical scanning angle of the MEMS lidar, and has good performance in collimation and beam expansion. It provides a design method for large-scale application of MEMS lidar.

Xiaoshan Huang ◽  
Shenquan Liu ◽  
Pan Meng ◽  
Jie Zang

This paper mainly studied firing patterns and related bifurcations in the Purkinje cell dendrite model. Based on the methods of equivalent potentials and time scale analysis, the initial six-dimensional (6D) dendrite model is reduced to a 3D form to facilitate the calculation. We numerically show that the dendrite model could exhibit period-adding bifurcation and four bursting patterns for several vital parameters. Then the bifurcation mechanisms and transition of these four bursting patterns are discussed by phase plane analysis, and two-parameter bifurcation analysis of the fast subsystem, respectively. Moreover, we computed the first Lyapunov coefficient to determine the stability of Hopf bifurcation. Ultimately, we analyzed the codimension-two bifurcation of the whole system and gave a detailed theoretical derivation of the Bogdanov–Takens bifurcation.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107754632110623
Zhe Zhang ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Teng Ma ◽  
Bo Ai

This study presents fuzzy decoupling predictive functional control for nonlinear hydro-turbine governing systems with time delay and strong coupling. Here, the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy approach and fuzzy neural network decoupling algorithm are implemented in the pretreatment of a four-dimensional time delay hydro-turbine governing system model, aiming to solve the nonlinearity and separate coupling variables of the hydro-turbine governing system effectively. Then, a new fuzzy decoupling predictive functional control strategy proposed by combining the simplified hydro-turbine governing system model and predictive function control as well as the robustness and stability of the designed controller are verified by theoretical derivation. Numerical experiment demonstrates effectiveness and superiority of the proposed approach in comparison with fuzzy control under different operation conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 355 ◽  
pp. 03003
Jianxin Chen ◽  
Pengcheng Wang ◽  
Xinzhuo Ren ◽  
Haojie Meng ◽  
Yinfei Xu ◽  

The operating state of switch cabinet is significant for the reliability of the whole power system, collecting and monitoring its data through the wireless sensor network is an effective method to avoid accidents. This paper proposes a data compression method based on periodic transmission model under the condition of limited energy consumption and memory space resources in the complex environment of switch cabinet sensor networks. Then, the proposed method is rigorously and intuitively shown by theoretical derivation and algorithm flow chart. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out and compared with the original data. The comparisons of compression ratio and error results indicate that the improved algorithm has a better effect on the periodic sensing data with interference and can make sure the change trend of data by making certain timing sequence.

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 43
Jin Gan ◽  
Zhiquan Yang ◽  
Zhiwei Zhang ◽  
Chaoyue Li ◽  
Yi Yang ◽  

Porosity and particle arrangement are important parameters affecting soil tortuosity, so it is of great significance to determine the intrinsic relationship between them when studying soil permeability characteristics. Theoretical derivation and geometric analysis methods are used to derive a two-dimensional geometric tortuosity model. The model is a function of particle arrangement parameters (m and θ) and porosity. An analysis of the model and its parameters shows that: (1) The arrangement of particles is one of the reasons for the different functional relationship between tortuosity and porosity, which proved that the tortuosity is not only related to the porosity but also affected by the particle arrangement. (2) The greater the anisotropy parameter m is, the greater the tortuosity is, indicating m varies when fluid passes through the soil from different sides resulting in different values of permeability. (3) The tortuosity increases with the increase in the blocking parameters θ. (4) With increasing porosity, the influence of the parameters m and θ on the tortuosity gradually decreases, suggesting that the influence of particle arrangement on tortuosity gradually decreases. The results presented here increase the understanding of the physical mechanisms controlling tortuosity and, hence, the process of fluid seepage through soil.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Francesca Bevilacqua ◽  
Alessandro Lanza ◽  
Monica Pragliola ◽  
Fiorella Sgallari

The effectiveness of variational methods for restoring images corrupted by Poisson noise strongly depends on the suitable selection of the regularization parameter balancing the effect of the regulation term(s) and the generalized Kullback–Liebler divergence data term. One of the approaches still commonly used today for choosing the parameter is the discrepancy principle proposed by Zanella et al. in a seminal work. It relies on imposing a value of the data term approximately equal to its expected value and works well for mid- and high-count Poisson noise corruptions. However, the series truncation approximation used in the theoretical derivation of the expected value leads to poor performance for low-count Poisson noise. In this paper, we highlight the theoretical limits of the approach and then propose a nearly exact version of it based on Monte Carlo simulation and weighted least-square fitting. Several numerical experiments are presented, proving beyond doubt that in the low-count Poisson regime, the proposed modified, nearly exact discrepancy principle performs far better than the original, approximated one by Zanella et al., whereas it works similarly or slightly better in the mid- and high-count regimes.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Qingchun Luo ◽  
Yantao Zhou ◽  
Yihong Qi ◽  
Pu Ye ◽  
Francesco de Paulis ◽  

The measurement of the phased array antenna (PAA) is completely different from the traditional antenna, due to its multi beam patterns. Usually, each beam pattern of the PAA needs a separate measurement, which makes the overall time extremely long. Thus, the traditional method can no longer meet the efficiency and cost requirements of new PAA measurement. In this paper, a pattern reconstruction method is proposed which significantly reduce the measurement time of multi-beam PAAs. With the known array element patterns (AEP) and theoretical weighted port excitation of the beams, any beam pattern can be predicted by measuring only a certain beam pattern, due to the element excitation coefficient (including the matching, mutual coupling, and manufacturing factors, etc.) of the specific PAA being calculated. The approach has low reconstruction error in term of beam pointing accuracy, side lobe, and co-polar and cross-polar patterns while being validated for large scanning range. Through theoretical derivation and experiments, the effectiveness of the method is verified, and the testing efficiency of the phased array antenna can be improved by 10 times or even more.

Xiabing Li ◽  
Longfei Gan ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  
Jinlong Jiao ◽  
Shan Jin ◽  

Abstract A semiclassical method is developed to study the spin evolution of a relativistic electron in an fully relativistic laser pulse. Different from the previous classical method which is based on the direct generalization of nonrelativistic spin precession equation, we perform first-principle calculations on the mean values of various spin operators with respect to a relativistic electron wavepacket. It is demonstrated, via theoretical derivation and numerical simulation, that although the Foldy-Wouthuysen operator merits the single-particle interpretation, its mean value obviously deviates from the result of the classical method, which sheds light on not only the understanding of relativistic spin itself but also broad related applications. To achieve a direct observation of such effect, a feasible experimental setup utilizing the asymmetric field of a single-cycle laser is proposed. In such geometry, the deviation is evidenced in the total change of spin which can be easily measured after the interaction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 46
Li Cheng ◽  
Zhang Zhixin ◽  
Jin Yue

With the continuous development of China’s economy and the acceleration of urbanization, more and more rural labor force is gradually transferred to cities and non-agricultural industries. Although the transfer of rural labor force can increase farmers’ income, improve farmers’ quality of life, and accelerate the process of urbanization and agricultural modernization in China, the unreasonable transfer of rural labor force has also brought some problems to China’s agricultural development. This paper mainly through the method of combining theoretical derivation and empirical analysis, using the data from 2010 to 2015 to analyze, study the influence of rural labor transfer on agricultural production, explore the relationship between rural labor transfer and agricultural development and provide relevant policy suggestions.

Qingchun Luo ◽  
Yantao zhou ◽  
Yihong Qi ◽  
Pu Ye ◽  
Francesco de Paulis ◽  

The testing requirements of the active phased array antennas are very different from those of traditional passive antennas, due to its beam steering capability. Usually, each beam profile of the active phased array needs a separate radiation pattern test, which makes the overall testing time extremely long. Thus the traditional antenna test method can no longer meet the efficiency and cost requirements of new active phased array antennas test. In this paper, a fast test method tailored for phased array antennas is proposed that offers significantly reduced testing time at the expense of slight sacrifice of the accuracy. Using the simulated element pattern in array and ideal port excitation, the beam profile in any direction can be predicted by testing only a certain beam profile. Through theoretical derivation and experiments, the effectiveness of the method is verified, and the testing efficiency of the phased array antenna is demonstrated to be improved by ten times or even more.

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