nutrient deficiencies
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Jia Yuan Ye ◽  
Wen Hao Tian ◽  
Chong Wei Jin

AbstractNitrogen is one of the most important nutrient for plant growth and development; it is strongly associated with a variety of abiotic stress responses. As sessile organisms, plants have evolved to develop efficient strategies to manage N to support growth when exposed to a diverse range of stressors. This review summarizes the recent progress in the field of plant nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) uptake, which are the two major forms of N that are absorbed by plants. We explore the intricate relationship between NO3-/NH4+ and abiotic stress responses in plants, focusing on stresses from nutrient deficiencies, unfavorable pH, ions, and drought. Although many molecular details remain unclear, research has revealed a number of core signaling regulators that are associated with N-mediated abiotic stress responses. An in-depth understanding and exploration of the molecular processes that underpin the interactions between N and abiotic stresses is useful in the design of effective strategies to improve crop growth, development, and productivity.

Jing Liu ◽  
Xiaolong Ge ◽  
Chunhui Ouyang ◽  
Dongxu Wang ◽  
Xiaoqi Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Malnutrition is prevalent among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nutritional profiles among Asian patients with IBD have seldom been investigated. We assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for malnutrition, use of nutrition support, and sociopsychological status associated with malnutrition among patients with IBD in China. Methods Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) recruited from 43 tertiary referral hospitals were screened for malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies in this cross-sectional study. The use of nutrition support was recorded. The sociopsychological status was assessed by subjective questionnaires. Factors associated with malnutrition were analyzed, and multivariate regression was used to determine independent predictors for malnutrition. Results We recruited 1013 patients with a median age of 35.0 years, 58.5% of them had CD, and 61.4% of all patients were male. Overall, 49.5% (501) of patients were diagnosed with malnutrition, including 57.0% of patients with CD, 38.8% of patients with UC, and 44.1% of patients with quiescent or mildly active disease. Nutrient deficiencies were prevalent despite the absence of malnutrition. Malnutrition was associated with adverse sociopsychological status, including decreased social support, higher perceived stress, and impaired quality of life. Moderate to severe disease activity and extensive disease were two independent risk factors for malnutrition. In total, 41.6% of patients received nutrition support, and patients with risk factors were more likely to receive nutrition support. Conclusions Malnutrition was highly prevalent and associated with adverse consequences in Chinese patients with IBD. Malnutrition screening and early initiation of nutrition support are essential components in IBD care.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 148
Mayuri Sharma ◽  
Keshab Nath ◽  
Rupam Kumar Sharma ◽  
Chandan Jyoti Kumar ◽  
Ankit Chaudhary

Computer vision-based automation has become popular in detecting and monitoring plants’ nutrient deficiencies in recent times. The predictive model developed by various researchers were so designed that it can be used in an embedded system, keeping in mind the availability of computational resources. Nevertheless, the enormous popularity of smart phone technology has opened the door of opportunity to common farmers to have access to high computing resources. To facilitate smart phone users, this study proposes a framework of hosting high end systems in the cloud where processing can be done, and farmers can interact with the cloud-based system. With the availability of high computational power, many studies have been focused on applying convolutional Neural Networks-based Deep Learning (CNN-based DL) architectures, including Transfer learning (TL) models on agricultural research. Ensembling of various TL architectures has the potential to improve the performance of predictive models by a great extent. In this work, six TL architectures viz. InceptionV3, ResNet152V2, Xception, DenseNet201, InceptionResNetV2, and VGG19 are considered, and their various ensemble models are used to carry out the task of deficiency diagnosis in rice plants. Two publicly available datasets from Mendeley and Kaggle are used in this study. The ensemble-based architecture enhanced the highest classification accuracy to 100% from 99.17% in the Mendeley dataset, while for the Kaggle dataset; it was enhanced to 92% from 90%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 76-80
Ramandeep Kamboj ◽  
Dharminder Singh ◽  
Lakhwinder Kaur

Direct-seeded rice (DSR) is a possible alternative to conventional puddled transplantedrice, where rice crop is seeded directly in non-puddled fields. The study was conducted toascertain the adoption status of recommended practices of DSR. Personal interviews wereconducted to collect data from randomly selected 210 farmers from three districtsrepresenting different agro-climatic regions of Punjab. Study revealed that selected farmershad adopted DSR on 49.20 per cent of their total area under paddy cultivation. Slightlyhigher number of selected farmers had adopted Tar-Wattar, a new technique of DSR overdry soil method. Only 18.52 per cent respondents had applied first irrigation as perrecommendations of Tar-Wattar method, whereas majority (67.59%) had applied firstirrigation before 21 days. 26.67 per cent farmers had adopted most suitable variety PR-126 and sown it at recommended time. However, in case of other varieties, majority offarmers did not follow recommended time of sowing. A smaller number of farmers haveapplied zinc, iron and sulphur fertilizers to ameliorate micro nutrient deficiencies. Averageyield of others varieties and PR 126 were found to be nearly identical, but due to lessercost of cultivation in DSR as compared to transplanted rice, adopter farmers’ fetched highernet return.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 87
Roberta Marra ◽  
Nadia Lombardi ◽  
Alessandro Piccolo ◽  
Navid Bazghaleh ◽  
Pratibha Prashar ◽  

Biofortification of crops via agricultural interventions represents an excellent way to supply micronutrients in poor rural populations, who highly suffer from these deficiencies. Soil microbes can directly influence plant growth and productivity, e.g., by contrasting plant pathogens or facilitating micronutrient assimilation in harvested crop-food products. Among these microbial communities, Trichoderma fungi are well-known examples of plant symbionts widely used in agriculture as biofertilizers or biocontrol agents. In this work, eleven Trichoderma strains and/or their bioactive metabolites (BAMs) were applied to lentil plants to evaluate their effects on plant growth and mineral content in greenhouse or field experiments. Our results indicated that, depending upon the different combinations of fungal strain and/or BAM, the mode of treatment (seed and/or watering), as well as the supplementary watering with solutions of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), the mineral absorption was differentially affected in treated plants compared with the water controls. In greenhouse conditions, the largest increase in Fe and Zn contents occurred when the compounds were applied to the seeds and the strains (in particular, T. afroharzianum T22, T. harzianum TH1, and T. virens GV41) to the soil. In field experiments, Fe and Zn contents increased in plants treated with T. asperellum strain KV906 or the hydrophobin HYTLO1 compared with controls. Both selected fungal strains and BAMs applications improved seed germination and crop yield. This biotechnology may represent an important challenge for natural biofortification of crops, thus reducing the risk of nutrient deficiencies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 175
Anuradha A. Shastri ◽  
Joseph Lombardo ◽  
Samantha C. Okere ◽  
Stephanie Higgins ◽  
Brittany C. Smith ◽  

Understanding metabolic and immune regulation inherent to patient populations is key to improving the radiation response for our patients. To date, radiation therapy regimens are prescribed based on tumor type and stage. Patient populations who are noted to have a poor response to radiation such as those of African American descent, those who have obesity or metabolic syndrome, or senior adult oncology patients, should be considered for concurrent therapies with radiation that will improve response. Here, we explore these populations of breast cancer patients, who frequently display radiation resistance and increased mortality rates, and identify the molecular underpinnings that are, in part, responsible for the radiation response and that result in an immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment. The resulting immune phenotype is discussed to understand how antitumor immunity could be improved. Correcting nutrient deficiencies observed in these populations should be considered as a means to improve the therapeutic index of radiation therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Cécile Jacques ◽  
Marion Forest ◽  
Vincent Durey ◽  
Christophe Salon ◽  
Alain Ourry ◽  

Legume plants, such as peas, are of significant nutritional interest for both humans and animals. However, plant nutrition and thus, seed composition, depends on soil mineral nutrient availability. Understanding the impact of their deprivation on the plant mineral nutrient content, net uptake, and remobilization is of key importance but remains complex as the elements of the plant ionome are linked in intricate networks, one element deprivation impacting uptake and remobilization of other nutrients. To get a better insight into pea mineral nutrition, the transitory deprivations of 13 mineral nutrients were imposed during the vegetative growth phase. Thereafter, plants were grown under optimal mineral conditions until physiological maturity. Plant nutritional status and seed quality impacts caused by the deprivations were characterized using measurement of mineral nutrient concentration and plant biomass allocation. Our results highlight: (i) the preferential allocation of dry weight and elements to shoots at the expense of the roots under non-limiting conditions, and more particularly to the tendrils in comparison to the other shoot organs, (ii) the positive and/or negative impact of one mineral nutrient deprivation on other elements of the ionome, (iii) four different remobilization strategies for eight mineral nutrients, and (iv) possible strategies to improve seed quality via fine control of fertilization during a period of mineral nutrient deficiency.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Michele J. Alkalay

Lactose malabsorption (LM), celiac disease (CD), non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are conditions associated with food triggers, improvement after withdrawal, treatment with dietary restriction, and subsequent nutritional detriments. LM occurs when there is incomplete hydrolysis of lactose due to lactase deficiency and frequently produces abdominal symptoms; therefore, it can cause lactose intolerance (LI). A lactose-restricted diet is frequently recommended, although it can potentially lead to nutrient deficiencies. Furthermore, lactose is an essential component of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and is subsequently associated with intolerance to these compounds, especially in IBS. LM commonly presents in CD. Nutritional deficits are common in CD and can continue even on a gluten-free diet (GFD). Conditions triggered by gluten are known as gluten-related disorders (GRDs), including CD, wheat allergy, and NCGS. IBS can also be associated with a gluten sensitivity. A GFD is the treatment for CD, GRDs, and gluten sensitive IBS, although compliance with this restricted diet can be difficult. Strict dietary therapies can have a negative effect on quality of life. This review aims to provide an overview of the difficult nutritional elements of these disorders, which are critical for medical providers to recognize when managing these patients.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4427
Sheryl Salis ◽  
Anju Virmani ◽  
Leena Priyambada ◽  
Meena Mohan ◽  
Kajal Hansda ◽  

Nutrition is crucial for maintaining normal growth, development, and glycemic control in young people with diabetes (PwD). Undue restrictions cause nutrient deficiencies as well as poor adherence to meal plans. Widespread availability of low-cost, ultra-processed, and hyperpalatable food is further damaging. Most families struggle to find ways to provide nutritious, yet attractive, food with a low glycemic index (GI). India is one of the oldest continuous civilizations with a rich and diverse cultural and culinary heritage. Traditional dietary practices, including the centuries-old ‘Thali’ (meaning plate) concept, emphasize combinations (grains, lentils, vegetables, dairy, spices, prebiotics and probiotics, and fats) of local, seasonal, and predominantly plant-based ingredients. These practices ensure that all of the necessary food groups are provided and fit well with current evidence-based recommendations, including the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) 2018 Guidelines. Techniques for the preparation, cooking, and preservation of food further impact the GI and nutrient availability. These practices benefit nutrient density, diet diversity, and palatability and thus improve adherence to meal plans and glycemic control. This narrative review describes the ancient wisdom, food composition, and culinary practices from across India which are still valuable today. These may be of benefit worldwide to improve glycemic control as well as quality of life, especially in PwD.

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