electrical double layer
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jorge Morgado

AbstractThe electrical double layer (EDL) formed at the interface between various materials and an electrolyte has been studied for a long time. In particular, the EDL formed at metal/electrolyte interfaces is central in electrochemistry, with a plethora of applications ranging from corrosion to batteries to sensors. The discovery of highly conductive conjugated polymers has opened a new area of electronics, involving solution-based or solution-interfaced devices, and in particular in bioelectronics, namely for use in deep-brain stimulation electrodes and devices to measure and condition cells activity, as these materials offer new opportunities to interface cells and living tissues. Here, it is shown that the potential associated to the double layer formed at the interface between either metals or conducting polymers and electrolytes is modified by the application of an electric field along the conductive substrate. The EDL acts as a transducer of the electric field applied to the conductive substrate. This observation has profound implications in the modelling and operation of devices relying on interfaces between conductive materials (metals and conjugated polymers) and electrolytes, which encompasses various application fields ranging from medicine to electronics.

Evgeny Kitsyuk ◽  
Julia Kakovkina ◽  
Egor Lebedev ◽  
Dmitry Kuzmin ◽  
Aleksey Alekseyev ◽  

Controlling the ratio of capacitance and power of supercapacitors by changing the composition of the electrodes will allow to create optimal power systems for specific applications. For the formation of such electrodes, a method is required that combines the possibilities of creating a multicomponent composite with a high degree of uniformity of composition and morphology over the layer thickness. An example of such a method can be the eco-friendly method of electrophoretic deposition used in this work, which makes it possible to locally deposit a composite material from multicomponent suspensions at room temperature. We present an approach related to electrophoretic deposition from a suspension of composite material SuperC-RuO 2 , in which the ratio of the components can be changed to vary the proportion of electrochemical and electrical double layer storage. Nanocarbon, which has a large surface area, and ruthenium oxide with a significant electrochemical capacity, in combination, will allow combining high power and capacity in one device, and their ratio will determine the proportion of electrochemical and electrical double layer storage. In this work, approaches are investigated and recommendations are given for increasing the stability of suspensions, the effect of the composition of the suspension on the composition of composite electrodes and their capacitive and power characteristics is determined.

Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1546
Momoko Kumemura ◽  
Deniz Pekin ◽  
Vivek Anand Menon ◽  
Isabelle Van Van Seuningen ◽  
Dominique Collard ◽  

The adaptability of microscale devices allows microtechnologies to be used for a wide range of applications. Biology and medicine are among those fields that, in recent decades, have applied microtechnologies to achieve new and improved functionality. However, despite their ability to achieve assay sensitivities that rival or exceed conventional standards, silicon-based microelectromechanical systems remain underutilised for biological and biomedical applications. Although microelectromechanical resonators and actuators do not always exhibit optimal performance in liquid due to electrical double layer formation and high damping, these issues have been solved with some innovative fabrication processes or alternative experimental approaches. This paper focuses on several examples of silicon-based resonating devices with a brief look at their fundamental sensing elements and key fabrication steps, as well as current and potential biological/biomedical applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 82
Gbenro Babajide Folaranmi ◽  
Anthony Ekennia ◽  
Nkiruka Chidiebere Ani ◽  
Richard Chukwuemeka Ehiri

In this paper, a commercial polymeric resin precursor (polystyrene sulphonate beads) was used as a source of carbon spheres. The resin was pyrolyzed at different temperatures (700, 800, and 900 °C) and the resulting carbons were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the result of EIS, carbon spheres obtained at 700 °C (CS−700) have the least ohmnic resistance and highest capacitance. In furtherance, the resin was chemically activated with iron (III) chloride FeCl3·6H2O at different concentration (0.1 M, 0.3 M, and 0.5 M) and pyrolyzed at 700 °C to obtain activated carbon sphere namely (ACS 700−0.1, ACS 700−0.3, and ACS 700−0.5) in which the last digit of the samples denotes the concentration of FeCl3. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the carbon is of spherical shape; X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed successful introduction of Fe on the surface of the carbon. Out of all the activated carbon spheres, ACS 700−0.1 exhibited highest double layer capacitance of 9 µF cm−2 and lowest charge transfer resistance of 3.33 KΩ·cm2. This method shows that carbon spheres obtained from a polymeric source can be easily improved by simple resin modification and the carbon could be a potential candidate for an electrical double layer capacitor

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