aberrant expression
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sung Hye Kim ◽  
David A. MacIntyre ◽  
Lynne Sykes ◽  
Maria Arianoglou ◽  
Phillip R. Bennett ◽  

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can exhibit aberrant expression under different physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, differentially expressed circulating miRNAs have been a focus of biomarker discovery research. However, the use of circulating miRNAs comes with challenges which may hinder the reliability for their clinical application. These include varied sample collection protocols, storage times/conditions, sample processing and analysis methods. This study focused on examining the effect of whole blood holding time on the stability of plasma miRNA expression profiles. Whole blood samples were collected from healthy pregnant women and were held at 4°C for 30 min, 2 h, 6 h or 24 h prior to processing for plasma isolation. Plasma RNA was extracted and the expression of 179 miRNAs were analyzed. Unsupervised principal component analysis demonstrated that whole blood holding time was a major source of variation in miRNA expression profiles with 53 of 179 miRNAs showing significant changes in expression. Levels of specific miRNAs previously reported to be associated with pregnancy-associated complications such as hsa-miR-150-5p, hsa-miR-191-5p, and hsa-miR-29a-3p, as well as commonly used endogenous miRNA controls, hsa-miR-16-5p, hsa-miR-25-3p, and hsa-miR-223-3p were significantly altered with increase in blood holding time. Current protocols for plasma-based miRNA profiling for diagnostics describe major differences in whole blood holding periods ranging from immediately after collection to 26 h after. Our results demonstrate holding time can have dramatic effects on analytical reliability and reproducibility. This highlights the importance of standardization of blood holding time prior to processing for plasma in order to minimize introduction of non-biological variance in miRNA profiles.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Lili Zhong ◽  
Xiumin Liu ◽  
Lixing Wang ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  
Duohan Zhang ◽  

Abstract Objective High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is an aggressive gynaecological malignancy and associated with poor prognosis. Here we examined the effects of miR-625-3p on proliferation, treatment, migration and invasion in HGSOC. Methods The proliferation of HGSOC cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Transwell assay was performed to examine migration and matrigel assay were used to assess invasion. The effect of miR-625-3p on cisplatin-induced apoptosis was investigated by Caspase-Glo3/7 assay. The dual-luciferase reporter assay was carried out to confirm the potential binding site. Results Overexpression of miR-625-3p promoted proliferation, and increased migration and invasion in HGSOC cells. MiR-625-3p significantly inhibited cisplatin sensitivity in HGSOC cells. Meanwhile, miR-625-3p decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis by regulation of BAX and Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, aberrant expression of miR-625-3p changed PTEN expression by directly binding to 3’UTR of PTEN. Further study showed miR-625-3p expression was higher in human HGSOC tissue than normal ovarian tissues and associated with higher clinical stage. Conclusions miR-625-3p promotes HGSOC growth, involves chemotherapy resistance and might serve as a potential biomarker to predict chemotherapy response and prognosis in HGSOC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 849
Markus V. Heppt ◽  
Anja Wessely ◽  
Eva Hornig ◽  
Claudia Kammerbauer ◽  
Saskia A. Graf ◽  

The neural crest transcription factor BRN3A is essential for the proliferation and survival of melanoma cells. It is frequently expressed in melanoma but not in normal melanocytes or benign nevi. The mechanisms underlying the aberrant expression of BRN3A are unknown. Here, we investigated the epigenetic regulation of BRN3A in melanocytes and melanoma cell lines treated with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), histone acetyltransferase (HAT), and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. DNMT and HAT inhibition did not significantly alter BRN3A expression levels, whereas panHDAC inhibition by trichostatin A led to increased expression. Treatment with the isoform-specific HDAC inhibitor mocetinostat, but not with PCI-34051, also increased BRN3A expression levels, suggesting that class I HDACs HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3, and class IV HDAC11, were involved in the regulation of BRN3A expression. Transient silencing of HDACs 1, 2, 3, and 11 by siRNAs revealed that, specifically, HDAC2 inhibition was able to increase BRN3A expression. ChIP-Seq analysis uncovered that HDAC2 inhibition specifically increased H3K27ac levels at a distal enhancer region of the BRN3A gene. Altogether, our data suggest that HDAC2 is a key epigenetic regulator of BRN3A in melanocytes and melanoma cells. These results highlight the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating melanoma oncogenes.

Chenguang Yao ◽  
Jun Weng ◽  
Lingyun Feng ◽  
Wanjun Zhang ◽  
Yan Xu ◽  

Increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis is characteristic of most cancer cells, whereas the mechanism underlying the promotion of aerobic glycolysis in metastatic breast cancer cells under ambient oxygen has not been well understood. Here, we demonstrated that aberrant expression of signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 (SIPA1) enhanced aerobic glycolysis and altered the main source of ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in breast cancer cells. We revealed that SIPA1 promoted the transcription of EPAS1, which is known as the gene encoding hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) and up-regulated the expression of multiple glycolysis-related genes to increase aerobic glycolysis. We also found that blocking aerobic glycolysis by either knocking down SIPA1 expression or oxamate treatment led to the suppression of tumor metastasis of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, aberrant expression of SIPA1 resulted in the alteration of glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis even at ambient oxygen levels, which might aggravate the malignancy of breast cancer cells. The present findings indicate a potential target for the development of therapeutics against breast cancers with dysregulated SIPA1 expression.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 295
John Alexander ◽  
Odette Mariani ◽  
Celine Meaudre ◽  
Laetitia Fuhrmann ◽  
Hui Xiao ◽  

Mutations and loss of E-cadherin protein expression define the vast majority of invasive lobular carcinomas. In a subset of these cases, the heterogeneous expression of E-cadherin is observed either as wild-type (strong membranous) expression or aberrant expression (cytoplasmic expression). However, it is unclear as to whether the two components would be driven by distinct genetic or epigenetic alterations. Here, we used whole genome DNA sequencing and methylation array profiling of two separately dissected components of nine invasive lobular carcinomas with heterogeneous E-cadherin expression. E-cadherin negative and aberrant/positive components of E-cadherin heterogeneous tumours showed a similar mutational, copy number and promoter methylation repertoire, suggesting they arise from a common ancestor, as opposed to the collision of two independent tumours. We found that the majority of E-cadherin heterogeneous tumours harboured CDH1 mutations in both the E-cadherin negative and aberrant/positive components together with somatic mutations in additional driver genes known to be enriched in both pure invasive carcinomas of no special type and invasive lobular breast cancers, whereas these were less commonly observed in CDH1 wild-type tumours. CDH1 mutant tumours also exhibited a higher mutation burden as well as increased presence of APOBEC-dependent mutational signatures 2 and 13 compared to CDH1 wild-type tumours. Together, our results suggest that regardless of E-cadherin protein expression, tumours showing heterogeneous expression of E-cadherin should be considered as part of the spectrum of invasive lobular breast cancers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
Meng Li ◽  
Jiang Chang ◽  
Honglin Ren ◽  
Defeng Song ◽  
Jian Guo ◽  

Background Increased CCKBR expression density or frequency has been reported in many neoplasms. Objective We aimed to investigate whether CCKBR drives the growth of gastric cancer (GC) and its potential as a therapeutic target of immunotoxins. Methods A lentiviral interference system was used to generate CCKBR-knockdown gastric cancer cells. Cell Counting Kit-8 and clonogenic assays were used to evaluate cell proliferation. Wound-healing and cell invasion assays were performed to evaluate cell mobility. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Tumor growth in vivo was investigated using a heterologous tumor transplantation model in nude mice. In addition, we generated the immunotoxin FQ17P and evaluated the combining capacity and tumor cytotoxicity of FQ17P in vitro. Results Stable downregulation of CCKBR expression resulted in reduced proliferation, migration and invasion of BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells. The impact of CCKBR on gastric cancer cells was further verified through CCKBR overexpression studies. Downregulation of CCKBR expression also inhibited the growth of gastric tumors in vivo. Furthermore, FQ17P killed CCKBR-overexpressing GC cells by specifically binding to CCKBR on the tumor cell surface. Conclusion The CCKBR protein drives the growth, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells, and it might be a promising target for immunotoxin therapy based on its aberrant expression, functional binding interactions with gastrin, and subsequent internalization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Tingting Zheng ◽  
Youxing Zhou ◽  
Xiaowei Xu ◽  
Xin Qi ◽  
Jiameng Liu ◽  

Abstract Background The aberrant expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino-1 (PELI1) contributes to several human cancer development and progression. However, its expression patterns and functional importance in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) remains unknown. Methods PELI1 expression profiles in PTC tissues were obtained and analyzed through the starBase v3.0 analysis. Real-time PCR, Immunohistochemical assays (IHC) and Western blot were used to investigate the mRNA and protein levels of PELI1 in PTC. The effects of PELI1 on PTC cell progression were evaluated through CCK-8, colony formation, Transwell, and Wound healing assay in vitro, and a PTC xenograft mouse model in vivo. The downstream target signal of PELI1 in PTC was analyzed by using Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG), and bioinformatics tools were used to identify potential miRNAs targeting PELI1. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were modified by miR-30c-5p and the miR-30c-5p containing extracellular vesicles were collected (miR-30c-5p-EVs) by ultra-high-speed centrifugation method. Then, the effects of miR-30c-5p-EVs on PELI1 expression and PTC progression were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Results Both mRNA and protein expression of PELI1 were widely increased in PTC tissues, and overexpression of PELI1 was positively correlated with bigger tumor size and lymph node metastases. PELI1 promoted PTC cell proliferation and migration in vitro. While, PELI1 silencing significantly suppressed PTC growth in vivo accompanied with reduced expression of Ki-67 and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2). Mechanistically, PI3K-AKT pathway was identified as the downstream target of PELI1, and mediated the functional influence of PELI1 in PTC cells. Moreover, we found that the expression of miR-30c-5p was inversely correlated with PELI1 in PTC samples and further confirmed that miR-30c-5p was a tumor-suppressive miRNA that directly targeted PELI1 to inhibit PTC cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, we showed that miR-30c-5p-EVs could effectively downregulate PELI1 expression and suppress the PTC cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion This study not only supported the first evidence that miR-30c-5p loss-induced PELI1 accumulation facilitated cell proliferation and migration by activating the PI3K-AKT pathway in PTC but also provided novel insights into PTC therapy based on miR-carrying-hUCMSC-EVs.

2022 ◽  
Kiriko Kotani ◽  
Aya Iwata ◽  
Iwao Kukimoto ◽  
Eiji Nishio ◽  
Takeji Mitani ◽  

Abstract Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Although cytology or HPV testing is available for screening, these techniques have their drawbacks and optimal screening methods are still being developed. Here, we sought to determine whether aberrant expression of miRNAs in cervical mucus could be an ancillary test for cervical neoplasms. The presence of miRNAs in 583 and 126 patients (validation and external cohorts) was determined by real-time RT-PCR. Performance of a combination with five miRNAs (miR-126-3p, -451a -144-3p, -20b-5p and -155-5p) was estimated by ROC curve analysis. Predicted probability (PP) was estimated by nomograms comprising -ΔCt values of the miRNAs, HPV genotype and age. A combination of five miRNAs showed a maximum AUC of 0.956 (95%CI: 0.933-0.980) for discriminating cancer. Low PP scores were associated with good prognosis over the 2-year observation period (p<0.05). Accuracy for identifying cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)3+ by nomogram was 0.983 and 0.966, respectively. PP was constant with different storage conditions of materials. We conclude that nomograms using miRNAs in mucus, HPV genotype and age could be useful as ancillary screening tests for cervical neoplasia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Chenming Zhong ◽  
Yiyao Dong ◽  
Qiudan Zhang ◽  
Chunhui Yuan ◽  
Shiwei Duan

miR-1301 is a newly discovered miRNA, which is abnormally expressed in 14 types of tumors. miR-1301 inhibits 23 target genes, forms a ceRNA network with 2 circRNAs and 8 lncRNAs, and participates in 6 signaling pathways, thereby affecting tumor cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis, apoptosis, angiogenesis, etc. Abnormal expression of miR-1301 is often associated with poor prognosis of cancer patients. In addition, miR-1301 is related to the anti-tumor effect of epirubicin on osteosarcoma and imatinib on chronic myeloid leukemia(CML) and can enhance the cisplatin sensitivity of ovarian cancer. This work systematically summarizes the abnormal expression and prognostic value of miR-1301 in a variety of cancers, depicts the miR-1301-related signaling pathways and ceRNA network, and provides potential clues for future miR-1301 research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Raheleh Heydari ◽  
Zohreh Jangravi ◽  
Samaneh Maleknia ◽  
Mehrshad Seresht-Ahmadi ◽  
Zahra Bahari ◽  

AbstractAlthough sex hormones play a key role in sex differences in susceptibility, severity, outcomes, and response to therapy of different diseases, sex chromosomes are also increasingly recognized as an important factor. Studies demonstrated that the Y chromosome is not a ‘genetic wasteland’ and can be a useful genetic marker for interpreting various male-specific physiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Y chromosome harbors male‑specific genes, which either solely or in cooperation with their X-counterpart, and independent or in conjunction with sex hormones have a considerable impact on basic physiology and disease mechanisms in most or all tissues development. Furthermore, loss of Y chromosome and/or aberrant expression of Y chromosome genes cause sex differences in disease mechanisms. With the launch of the human proteome project (HPP), the association of Y chromosome proteins with pathological conditions has been increasingly explored. In this review, the involvement of Y chromosome genes in male-specific diseases such as prostate cancer and the cases that are more prevalent in men, such as cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, and cancers, has been highlighted. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying Y chromosome-related diseases can have a significant impact on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases.

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