Aberrant Expression
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hui Hou ◽  
Rong Yu ◽  
Haiping Zhao ◽  
Hao Yang ◽  
Yuchong Hu ◽  
...  

Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers. Cisplatin resistance remains a major hurdle in the successful treatment of cervical cancer. Aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in cisplatin resistance. However, the regulatory functions of lncRNAs and miRNAs in cervical cancer cisplatin resistance and the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Our qRT-PCR assays verified that miR-206 levels were down-regulated in cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells. The introduction of miR-206 sensitized cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells to cisplatin. Our qRT-PCR and luciferase reporter assays showed that Cyclin D2 (CCND2) was the direct target for miR-206 in cervical cancer cells. The cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells expressed higher CCND2 expression than the parental cells, whereas inhibition of CCND2 could sensitize the resistant cells to cisplatin treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that lncRNA OTUD6B-AS1 was up-regulated in cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells, and knocking down OTUD6B-AS1 expression induced re-acquirement of chemosensitivity to cisplatin in cervical cancer cells. We also showed that OTUD6B-AS1 up-regulated the expression of CCND2 by sponging miR-206. Low miR-206 and high OTUD6B-AS1 expression were associated with significantly poorer overall survival. Taken together, these results suggest that OTUD6B-AS1-mediated down-regulation of miR-206 increases CCND2 expression, leading to cisplatin resistance. Modulation of these molecules may be a therapeutic approach for cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2232-2238
Author(s):  
Ruiping Yu ◽  
Changfen Wu ◽  
Ying Qin ◽  
Cong Li ◽  
Zhongfu Mo ◽  
...  

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are potentially efficacious in treating recurrent pregnancy disorders and endometrial injury. Uterine parenchymal cells interact with BMSCs to promote functional recovery. Our research aimed to explore the effect of BMSCs-derived miR-31 on recurrent pregnancy loss. A recurrent pregnancy loss mouse model was constructed followed by nanoparticle analysis of BMSC and miR-31 expressing by RT-PCR. The levels of miR-31 in BMSCs (miR-31+BMSCs or BMSCs) and their counterpart exosomes were up- or down-regulated to explore the effects of aberrant expression of miR-31 on endometrial damage in recurrent pregnancy loss. The analysis of BMSC nanoparticles showed that miR-31 was derived from BMSC. We found increased levels of miR-31 in miR-340 + BMSCs after incubation with endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) compared to controls. Labeling of exosomes by red fluorescent protein indicated that exosomes were liberated out of BMSCs and translocated into neighboring ESCs, and mice treated with miR-340 + BMSCs had improved functional recovery from recurrent pregnancy loss. BMSC-derived miR-31 mediates functional recovery induced in recurrent pregnancy miscarriage mice by regulating KISS1 expression and fibrosis gene expression.


Author(s):  
Yating Xu ◽  
Xiao Yu ◽  
Menggang Zhang ◽  
Qingyuan Zheng ◽  
Zongzong Sun ◽  
...  

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNAs with a length of no less than 200 nucleotides that are not translated into proteins. Accumulating evidence indicates that lncRNAs are pivotal regulators of biological processes in several diseases, particularly in several malignant tumors. Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1116 (LINC01116) is a lncRNA, whose aberrant expression is correlated with a variety of cancers, including lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, glioma, and osteosarcoma. LINC01116 plays a crucial role in facilitating cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and apoptosis. In addition, numerous studies have recently suggested that LINC01116 has emerged as a novel biomarker for prognosis and therapy in malignant tumors. Consequently, we summarize the clinical significance of LINC01116 associated with biological processes in various tumors and provide a hopeful orientation to guide clinical treatment of various cancers in future studies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chao Sun ◽  
Xin Zheng ◽  
Yingxin Sun ◽  
Ju Yu ◽  
Minfeng Sheng ◽  
...  

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification can alter gene expression and function by regulating RNA splicing, stability, translocation, and translation. It is involved in various types of cancer. However, its role in gliomas is not well known. This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of the m6A RNA methylation regulator in gliomas and investigate the underlying mechanisms of the aberrant expression of m6A-related genes.mRNA expression profiles and clinical information of 448 glioma samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and cBioportal. The expression of m6A-related genes in normal controls and low-grade glioma and glioblastoma was obtained from Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis. Further, m6A-related gene expression and its relationship with prognosis were obtained through The Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA). Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed, and a nomogram was built with potential risk factors based on a multivariate Cox analysis to predict survival probability. Online tools such as Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, STRING, Cytoscape, and Molecular Complex Detection were applied for bioinformatics analysis and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the aberrant expression of m6A-related genes. The multivariate Cox regression analysis found that higher expression levels of YTHDC2 and insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3, also called IMP3) were independent negative and positive prognostic factors for overall survival (OS), respectively. Data from the CGGA database showed that IGF2BP3 expression increased when the tumor grade increased. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive specificity and sensitivity. The area under the ROC curve indicated that the OS prediction was 0.92 (1-year) and 0.917 (3-years), indicating that m6A-related genes could predict patient survival. In addition, IGF2BP3 was closely related to the shorter survival period of patients. Copy number variation and DNA methylation, but not somatic mutations, might contribute to the abnormal upregulation of IGF2BP3 in gliomas. Significantly altered genes were identified, and the protein–protein interaction network was constructed. Based on the data presented, our study identified several m6A-related genes, especially IGF2BP3, that could be potential prognostic biomarkers of gliomas. The study unveiled the potential regulatory mechanism of IGF2BP3 in gliomas.


10.2196/31150 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. e31150
Author(s):  
Fatemah O F O Alshammari ◽  
Yousef M Al-saraireh ◽  
Ahmed M M Youssef ◽  
Yahya M Al-Sarayra ◽  
Hamzeh Mohammad Alrawashdeh

Background Current standard treatments for patients with recurrent cervical cancer are not very effective and are associated with severe toxicity. Recently, the rational approach for the discovery of new therapies for cervical cancer is based on the alterations in the molecular biology of cancer cells. One of the emerging molecular changes in cancer cells is the aberrant expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1). This unique enzyme has been reported to be selectively overexpressed in several cancers. Objective The aim of this study was to examine CYP1B1 expression in cervical cancers and to assess the enzyme’s relationship with several clinicopathological features. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine CYP1B1 expression in 100 patient samples with cervical cancer and 10 patient samples with normal healthy cervical tissues. Results CYP1B1 was expressed in the majority of the cervical cancer samples (91/100, 91.0%) but not in normal healthy cervical samples. The difference in the expression of CYP1B1 between healthy and tumorous cervical tissues was significant (P=.01). Moreover, the frequency of CYP1B1 expression was found to be significantly higher in patients with advanced grades of the disease (P=.03) and in patients having metastasis to the lymph nodes (P=.01). Surprisingly, there was a significantly higher expression of CYP1B1 in patients with a high prevalence of human papilloma virus 16/18 (P=.04). Conclusions The differential profile of CYP1B1 expression between cervical cancer tissues and normal cervical tissues suggests that CYP1B1 may be used as a target for future therapeutic exploitations.


Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 1603
Author(s):  
Silvia Trombetti ◽  
Raffaele Sessa ◽  
Rosa Catapano ◽  
Laura Rinaldi ◽  
Alessandra Lo Bianco ◽  
...  

GATA-1 is a key regulator of hematopoiesis. A balanced ratio of its two isoforms, GATA-1FL and GATA-1S, contributes to normal hematopoiesis, whereas aberrant expression of GATA-1S alters the differentiation/proliferation potential of hematopoietic precursors and represents a poor prognostic factor in myeloid leukemia. We previously reported that GATA-1S over-expression correlates with high levels of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit C (SDHC). Alternative splicing variants of the SDHC transcript are over-expressed in several tumors and act as potent dominant negative inhibitors of SDH activity. With this in mind, we investigated the levels of SDHC variants and the oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in myeloid leukemia K562 cells over-expressing GATA-1 isoforms. Over-expression of SDHC variants accompanied by decreased SDH complex II activity and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) efficiency was found associated only with GATA-1S. Given the tumor suppressor role of SDH and the effects of OXPHOS limitations in leukemogenesis, identification of a link between GATA-1S and impaired complex II activity unveils novel pro-leukemic mechanisms triggered by GATA-1S. Abnormal levels of GATA-1S and SDHC variants were also found in an acute myeloid leukemia patient, thus supporting in vitro results. A better understanding of these mechanisms can contribute to identify novel promising therapeutic targets in myeloid leukemia.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jun Wan ◽  
Guanggui Ding ◽  
Min Zhou ◽  
Xiean Ling ◽  
Zhanpeng Rao

Abstract Background Increasing evidence indicates that the aberrant expression of circular RNAs (circRNAs) is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAC). However, the function and molecular mechanisms of hsa_circ_0002483 (circ_0002483) in LUAC remain unclear. Methods The association between circ_0002483 expression and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in patients with LUAC was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The functional experiments such as CCK-8, colony formation and Transwell assays and a subcutaneous tumor model were conducted to determine the role of circ_0002483 in LUAC cells. The specific binding between circ_0002483 and miR-125a-3p was validated by RNA immunoprecipitation, luciferase gene report and qRT-PCR assays. The effects of circ_0002483 on miR-125a-3p-mediated C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4)-CCR5 axis were assessed by Western blot analysis. Results We found that circ_0002483 was upregulated in LUAC tissue samples and associated with Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) stage and poor survival in patients with LUAC. Knockdown of circ_0002483 inhibited proliferation, colony formation and invasion of A549 and PC9 cells in vitro, whereas overexpression of circ_0002483 harbored the opposite effects. Furthermore, circ_0002483 sponged miR-125a-3p and negatively regulated its expression. CCL4 was identified as a direct target of miR-125a-3p. The rescue experiments showed that miR-125a-3p mimics reversed the tumor-promoting effects of circ_0002483 by targeting CCL4-CCR5 axis in A549 and PC9 cells. In addition, the in vivo experiment further validated that knockdown of circ_0002483 repressed tumor growth. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that circ_0002483 could act as a sponge of miR-125a-3p to upregulate CCL4-CCR5 axis, contributing to the tumorigenesis of LUAC, and represent a potential therapeutic target for LUAC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Weiwei Zou ◽  
Dongmei Ji ◽  
Zhiguo Zhang ◽  
Li Yang ◽  
Yunxia Cao

Mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion) are essential physiological processes for mitochondrial metabolic function, mitochondrial redistribution, and mitochondrial quality control. Various proteins are involved in regulating mitochondrial dynamics. Aberrant expression of these proteins interferes with mitochondrial dynamics and induces a range of diseases. Multiple therapeutic approaches have been developed to treat the related diseases in recent years, but their curative effects are limited. Meanwhile, the role of mitochondrial dynamics in female reproductive function has attracted progressively more attention, including oocyte development and maturation, fertilization, and embryonic development. Here, we reviewed the significance of mitochondrial dynamics, proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics, and disorders resulting from primary mitochondrial dynamic dysfunction. We summarized the latest therapeutic approaches of hereditary mitochondrial fusion–fission abnormalities and reviewed the recent advances in female reproductive mitochondrial dynamics.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Eirini Martinou ◽  
Giulia Falgari ◽  
Angeliki Angelidi ◽  
Izhar Bagwan

Abstract Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is worldwide the third leading cause of cancer-related death, and despite therapeutic advances, survival remains low. Emerging evidence shows that Homeobox (HOX) genes are important in carcinogenesis, and their dysregulation has been linked with metastatic potential and poor prognosis. This systematic review aims to present the current evidence on the role of HOX genes as biomarkers in CRC and the impact of their modulation in tumour growth and progression. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases were searched by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. Eligible studies investigated two research questions: a) the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of HOX gene dysregulation in patients with CRC and b) the functional role of HOX genes in CRC progression. This study was registered in the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO), CRD42020190953. Results: Twenty-five studies enrolling 3003 patients with stage I-IV CRC, showed that 26 out of 39 HOX genes were dysregulated in cancerous versus normal colon. Aberrant expression of HOX proteins was significantly related to tumour depth, nodal invasion, distant metastases, advanced stage and poor prognosis. Twenty-two preclinical studies showed that HOX proteins are crucially related to tumour growth and metastatic potential by affecting cell proliferation and altering the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition modulators. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that HOX proteins play vital roles in CRC progression and significantly affect survival. Further research, though, is required to elucidate their potential role as biomarkers in CRC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gaoming Wang ◽  
Ludi Yang ◽  
Jinli Gao ◽  
Huiling Mu ◽  
Yanxiang Song ◽  
...  

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal diseases with a 5-year survival rate of about 8%. ASXL2 is an epigenetic regulator associated with various tumors including colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and myeloid leukemia. However, the role of ASXL2 in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. This is the first research focusing on the prognostic value of ASXL2 in pancreatic cancer. In this research, we aimed to explore the correlation between ASXL2 and the prognosis, as well as other features in PAAD. We obtained gene expression profiles of PAAD and normal tissues from TCGA, GEO, and Xena databases. TIMER and CIBERSORT algorithms were employed to investigate the effect of ASXL2 on tumor microenvironment. GSEA along with GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were conducted to uncover the biological functions of ASXL2. The response to various chemotherapeutic drugs was estimated by algorithms in R package “pRRophetic”, while the sensitivity to immunotherapy was quantified by TIDE score. We found that ASXL2 was upregulated in the PAAD samples and elevated expression of ASXL2 was linked to poor overall survival. ASXL2 DNA methylation contributed to ASXL2 expression. Functional annotation indicated that ASXL2 was mainly involved in inflammatory response and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Patients with high ASXL2 expression were more likely to benefit from immune checkpoint blockade, gemcitabine, and mitomycin-C. Finally, external datasets and biospecimens were used and the results further validated the aberrant expression of ASXL2 in PAAD samples. In summary, our results highlight that ASXL2 is a potential prognostic and predictive biomarker in pancreatic cancer.


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