Defense Policy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 589-596
Author(s):  
Eko G. Samudro ◽  
I Dewa Ketut Kerta Widana ◽  
Adi Subiyanto ◽  
Ersha Mayori

The development and progression in humankind’s understanding of the world and life, ensured a continuous evolution in the response to events threatening our livelihoods. Humankind also developed techniques to deal with natural hazards, either by aiming to contain the forces of nature, or by altering human own behavior. The humanitarian assistance and disaster relief are crucially important in order to protect the nations. This research employed literature review method. The results showed that every nation should prepare and manage their capabilities in Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR), both in protection for own countries or in providing aids for the others. Military Operation Other Than War (MOOTW) does not involve the use or threat of violence but prioritizes the provision of HADR. In MOOTW, military forces synergize with other institutions/organizations, especially those related to diplomacy, economy, government, even politics and religion. Moreover, in handling disasters, especially in Indonesia, the combination between civilians and the military is crucial in realizing Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC) and Civil-Military Coordination (CMCoord). Under certain mechanism, the military power is only used to support civilian institution in HADR.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (12) ◽  
pp. 918-932
Author(s):  
Muhammad Achyar ◽  
I Wayan Midhio ◽  
Khaerudin Khaerudin

The purpose of this study is to analyze the strategies and constraints of Indonesia's defense policy in responding to the development of China's military base construction in the South China Sea. Data obtained through literature study and interviews with informants, then analyzed using qualitative methods. The results of this study can be concluded that Indonesia's current defense strategy has not been concretely described and the problems found in the formulation of Indonesian policies have yet to be found a solution because there are still egos and differences in interests among policy makers, the solution requires commitment from the Ministry of Defense, TNI Headquarters, and Main Command to faithfully adhere to execute all planning and road map that were prepared together.


Author(s):  
Sergey Bolshakov

The article analyzes the strategy and principles of building the national security strat-egy of the Russian Federation, considers the priorities of ensuring national security. Security doc-trines are aimed at security in the military, political, and informational environment. The article highlights the priority tasks in the field of national defense of the Russian Federation. The review analyzes the integrated security strategies of the countries of the Baltic region – Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia; analyzes the effectiveness of the doctrine of “total defense” of Estonia, the procedure and forms of its implementation. It is stated that the Baltic countries are considering various options to improve security, the concept of “total defense”, is based on the protection of the position of neu-trality, the defense policy of the countries is based on cooperation with large European and regional countries (Finland, Sweden, Poland). The article states that the military security of countries is associated with the need to deepen cooperation with NATO. The doctrine of territorial defense of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, directions of defense policy and territorial security is analyzed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Antonio Fonfría

As in other areas, technological transformations, along with their high speed, have been incorporated into weapons systems throughout the global defense industry. However, it is not possible to know to what extent the new technological leaderships are undermining the foundations of those that existed until now. Along with this, changes in the geo-political and geo-economics spheres are generating a reality in which aspects such as the international arms trade, the emergence of SMEs in the sector or, as far as the EU is concerned, the promotion of defense policy, transform the morphology and relationships between the agents that intervene in this market. What can be the future trends considering the main stylized facts that are observed today?


Author(s):  
Kyung-Pil Kim

Abstract This paper explains how South Korea's democracy has controlled the military since 1993. It reveals why the overpowered military has not faded even after the eradication of Hanahoe and the consolidation of democracy in South Korea in its aftermath. The democratic control over the military is examined focusing on: (1) budget, personnel, organization; (2) the judicial system; (3) security and defense policy; (4) personnel affairs, roles, and responsibilities; and an explanation based on laws and institutions, the strategy of key actors, and historical conditions of military confrontation. Under South Korea's democracy, the military budget, personnel, and organization are only partially controlled, leaving military commanders with jurisdiction over the military's judicial system. This is a result of legal and institutional limitations, as well as resistance from the Ministry of National Defense (MND) and the military. In matters of security and defense policy, the president has taken the initiative to revitalize obsolete systems through political compromise with the military. The primary means for the president to control the military has been the personnel management of the MND and the military. The military is likely to pledge its allegiance to the regime instead of citizens because the former has control over personnel affairs, which has frequently led to unofficial private groups of military officers and their political interference. This case in South Korea shows that the way society controls the military sows the very seeds of risk and allows us to rethink the challenges in controlling the military in a democracy.


Inovasi ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 149-167
Author(s):  
Fatkhuri Fatkhuri

This study aims to grasp the policy of state defense which embedded through the form of school culture which plays an important role to shape the character of state defense in Katolik Karya, Toboali Elementary School, Bangka Belitung. This also seeks to capture how state defense culture is effectivelly implemented to support the students’ character. This study uses descriptive qualitative, in which data and information are obtained through interviews, questionnaires, and documents involving principals, teachers, education staff, and students. This study found that the school already has developed policy to instill a state defense culture which is introduced by the Tunas Karya Foundation. The state defense policy is developed through a set of values which are arranged in the ten main character as a genuine of cultural product to form of student character. Schools conduct a state defense policy through habituation with a nurturing and modeling approach by teachers. This study also shows that the habituation of the ten main character values in making state defense behavior is quite effective. Based on the assessment results, the data shows that the majority of students have regularly employed the habituation of the state defense with average marks at 82 point.


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