For decades, public schools in the United States have employed retributive discipline systems that rely heavily on exclusion as a primary means to mete punishment. More recently, some schools have begun employing restorative practices which encourage relationship-building, healing, learning, and collaboration before, during, and after discipline events. Used proactively as a means to build a culture of caring and support, restorative circles foster communication and relationship-building among school stakeholders, but restorative conferences and circles may also be used in lieu of exclusion as alternatives to traditional discipline models. Advocates of restorative justice assert that recidivism is reduced through purposeful community-building processes espoused by RJ principles.
University websites and online portals are the primary means through which potential students and other stakeholders find important information about an institution. University websites are essential to these organizations’ marketing and communication efforts. In this paper, focus has been put on the need to complement these websites with the use of an AI Chatbot (UniBot) in order to serve more efficiently. This study aims at performing an extensive literature survey on intelligent conversational agents and the feasibility of applying them in enhancing online communication in universities. The study utilizes an iterative – incremental methodology to aid in design and development of UniBot, using AIML (Artificial Intelligent Markup Language) Pattern matching algorithm on the Pandorabot (AIAAS) platform, to generate high quality training data, with which, the agents Natural Language Understanding (NLU) model is trained. The study also provides for training and testing the agent using data which is acquired from Online Communication, University Website department at Kenyatta University.
ObjectiveGiven the inconvenience and financial burden of frequent ovarian cancer surveillance and the risks of in-person visits due to COVID-19, which have led to the acceleration of telehealth adaptation, we sought to assess the role of in-person physical examination for the detection of ovarian cancer recurrence among patients enrolled in a routine surveillance program.MethodsThis was a retrospective study of patients initially seen from January 2015 to December 2017 who experienced ovarian cancer recurrence during first clinical remission. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were performed to compare differences in detection methods and in patient and disease characteristics.ResultsAmong 147 patients who met our inclusion criteria, there were no recurrences detected by physical examination alone. Forty-six (31%) patients had recurrence first detected by tumor marker, 81 (55%) by radiographic scan, 17 (12%) by presentation of new symptoms, and 3 (2%) by biopsies taken during non-oncological surgery. One hundred and eleven patients (75%) had multiple positive findings at the time of recurrence. Of all 147 patients, 48 (33%) had symptoms, 21 (14%) had physical examination findings, 106 (72%) had increases in tumor markers, and 141 (96%) had changes on imaging.ConclusionsIn-person physical examination was not a primary means of detection for ovarian cancer recurrence for any patient. Substituting in-person visits for virtual visits that include patient-reported symptoms, alongside a regular surveillance protocol that includes tumor marker testing and imaging, may be a suitable approach for the detection of ovarian cancer recurrence while also reducing patient inconvenience and risks to health.
Mobility as a service (MaaS) integrates various transportation modalities and connects these modalities to enable users to travel from departure points to destination points. The objectives of this study were to analyze the factors influencing the intention to use MaaS and determine a direction for the implementation of this service. Hence, this study utilized an ordered probit model and marginal effect analysis. Specifically, a survey was conducted based on citizens living in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, to prepare logical MaaS operation measures customized in this province. Subsequently, variables related to MaaS were classified, and statistical analysis was performed based on these variables. The need for integrated transportation service, intention to use shared mobility, gender, household income, and region are found to have significant effects. Moreover, demographic groups with high levels of intention to use MaaS were identified. Finally, the intention to use MaaS was found to be mainly affected by whether public transportation was the primary means of transportation or whether the subjects spent a comparatively long time commuting. It is expected that these findings will serve as the basis for MaaS implementation in the future and will also be used as fundamental data for transportation service planning.
PurposeThis research seeks to identify the motivations, means and outcomes of supply chain integration (SCI) among firms in the middle market (i.e. those with annual revenues between US$10m and US$1bn). These firms often interface with larger, more powerful firms in the supply chain – both suppliers and customers. Understanding how these firms are challenged and benefit from integrative mechanisms in supply chain relations can lead to better outcomes more often.Design/methodology/approachThe research utilizes an online focus group methodology featuring 39 participants. The participants were able to interact in written form with a professional moderator, as well as each other, over the course of three days.FindingsThe research presents evidence that firms in the middle market adopt SCI as a response to pressure from customers and suppliers. These firms also view technology as a primary means of achieving integration. Despite their disadvantageous size position relative to larger customers and suppliers, firms in the middle market achieved positive outcomes from integration.Research limitations/implicationsBecause of the specific context of middle-market firms, this research may lack generalizability. However, providing contextualization regarding firm size contributes specificity to the large number of studies detailing the challenges and benefits of SCI.Practical implicationsManagers of firms in the middle market should find value in this study as it explicates the possible benefits their firms may realize through integration with customers and suppliers. Moreover, this research outlines several of the possible means through which integration can be achieved. Further, managers in smaller and larger firms can better understand the motives and needs of middle-market companies with which they interact.Originality/valueDespite voluminous literature on SCI, this paper provides context-specific findings by isolating the implications of SCI to firms in the middle market.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the primary means of managing chronic osteoarthritis (OA) pain. The choice of NSAIDs is based on an analysis of the risk of adverse reactions (ARs). Objective: to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term use of NSAIDs for pain control in patients with OA in real clinical practice.Patients and methods. To assess the results of long-term use of NSAIDs in OA, a 12-month observational non-interventional study was conducted. It included 611 patients with knee, hip and generalized OA, and nonspecific back pain associated with OA of the facet joints. All patients were prescribed aceclofenac (Aertal®) 200 mg/day. The patients' condition was assessed 2 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the start of therapy. The following parameters were determined: the intensity of pain during movement and the general health assessment (GA) according to the visual analogue scale (VAS, 10 cm); pain intensity according to the Likert verbal rating scale (VRS) (0–4); the number of patients with a pain reduction of ≥50% from baseline; patients' assessment of the result of therapy according to Likert VRS (1–5). The development of ARs was recorded at each visit.Results and discussion. By month 12, 46.8% of patients had dropped out of observation. In patients who continued the study, the average severity of pain according to the VAS at baseline, after 2 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months was: 6.5±1.2; 4.8±1.4; 3.2±1.4; 2.6±1.4; 2.2±1.1; 1.4±1.1 cm, respectively (significant differences compared to the baseline for all points – p<0.05). The same differences were obtained in GA assessment.Within the indicated time frame, the number of patients with moderate / severe pain (on the Likert scale) decreased from 77.8 to 24.9; 2.9; 2.3; 0.9 and 0%, respectively. The number of patients with a pain reduction of ≥50% from baseline was 12.0; 65.1; 81.0; 88.5 and 84.0%, respectively. A good or excellent assessment of treatment results after 2 weeks was given by 63.3% of patients, and after 12 months – by 95.6%. ARs were observed in about 30% of patients, mainly mild or moderate dyspepsia (in 11.1–23.3%) and arterial hypertension (in 7.1–10.9%). No serious ARs were registered.Conclusion. Aceclofenac is an effective and relatively safe drug for the long-term management of chronic pain in OA.
Traditionally, universities are committed to the missions of conducting research and teaching. Recently, they were also called to contribute to supporting sustainable development in society. Many universities worldwide have experienced sustainability and social reporting practices to demonstrate their commitment to sustainability. However, while sustainability reporting represents the primary means to communicate this commitment externally, research has barely unveiled how universities use other communication technologies, such as social media. This study investigates how universities use social media to engage their stakeholders in their sustainability initiatives and how this is associated with their sustainability reporting practices. We examine some best practices from Italian public universities, which, in addition to their experience in sustainability reporting, use social media (i.e., Facebook, Twitter, Instagram) to create a dialogue with their stakeholders about sustainability. We find that sustainability reporting is often the seed to instil innovative means for stakeholder engagement through social media. The universities with long-standing and continuous sustainability reporting experience use social media to enhance their communication, engage stakeholders and thereby improve their sustainability reporting practices. More worthily, we find that social media is also used as an educational tool to make people aware and foster a culture of sustainability in society.
Though episodes of lucidity (EL) in Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia (ADRD), reportedly more common near end of life, have significant implications for care, they are poorly understood due to underdeveloped methodological approaches for capturing and measuring these events. This prospective observational study addresses these gaps through audiovisual observation among persons with ADRD surrounding end of life to inform data-driven definitions for EL and distinguish EL from routine fluctuations in ADRD. Audiovisual observation is well-suited to addressing gaps in operationalization of EL, providing an objective data source to assess verbal and nonverbal communication, the primary means through which EL are evidenced. Our study is designed to establish optimal procedures for capturing audiovisual data of targeted populations and timeframes to maximize opportunities for detecting EL. Operationalization of EL will be informed by computational linguistic and behavioral-event coding of linguistic and non-linguistic communication features of EL and associated temporal qualities.
As a result of COVID-19, older adults have experienced isolation, lost social contacts, and a decrease in connections. A recent study found that “approximately one-quarter of community-dwelling older adults are considered to be socially isolated, and 43% of them report feeling lonely.” Various innovative interventions have emerged, including technology-based interventions as a means to reduce social isolation in older adults, particularly as information communication technology (ICT) use is on the rise among this population. However, it remains to be known how these connections are faring for older adults in the pandemic and whether these ICT connections lead to greater or lesser feelings of social connectedness. Thirty-nine (N=39) in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the lived experiences of technology use among older adults during COVID-19. Participants experiences with ICT ranged from illiterate to savvy. Most participants indicated Zoom was the primary means to stay socially connected to family and friends. Participants emphasized that ICT may be a possible solution to deal with loneliness for those older adults who are especially isolated due to COVID-19 restrictions. Barriers and challenges to ICT use included taking too much time to use and needing help to fix any problems that arose. Finally, participants shared essential aspects of ICT use, revealing that it was ‘technology or nothing.’ Findings from this study indicate a need for a simple ICT for the older adult population. Moreover, findings suggest opportunities for peer-support ICT training programs for older adults.
This paper explains how South Korea's democracy has controlled the military since 1993. It reveals why the overpowered military has not faded even after the eradication of Hanahoe and the consolidation of democracy in South Korea in its aftermath. The democratic control over the military is examined focusing on: (1) budget, personnel, organization; (2) the judicial system; (3) security and defense policy; (4) personnel affairs, roles, and responsibilities; and an explanation based on laws and institutions, the strategy of key actors, and historical conditions of military confrontation. Under South Korea's democracy, the military budget, personnel, and organization are only partially controlled, leaving military commanders with jurisdiction over the military's judicial system. This is a result of legal and institutional limitations, as well as resistance from the Ministry of National Defense (MND) and the military. In matters of security and defense policy, the president has taken the initiative to revitalize obsolete systems through political compromise with the military. The primary means for the president to control the military has been the personnel management of the MND and the military. The military is likely to pledge its allegiance to the regime instead of citizens because the former has control over personnel affairs, which has frequently led to unofficial private groups of military officers and their political interference. This case in South Korea shows that the way society controls the military sows the very seeds of risk and allows us to rethink the challenges in controlling the military in a democracy.