lipid transfer protein
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-03
Navarro L ◽  
Lazo C ◽  
Pineda P ◽  
Labrador-Horrillo M ◽  
Roger A ◽  

The prevalence of cereal allergy is highly influenced by geographical area and consumption habits. According to data from Alergologica 2015 [1], cereal allergy accounts for 2.1% of all cases of food allergy in Spain. Beer is a barley-based alcoholic beverage that also contains hops, yeast, and other cereals (wheat, oats, corn, and even rye). Barley is also the basis of malt vinegar, whiskey, and gin. Several allergens of barley have been described, including lipid transfer protein (LTP), - and ß-amylase, gliadin, glutenin, peroxiredoxin, thionin, and trypsin inhibitor [2].

Carlo Giovanni Quintanilla ◽  
Wan-Ru Lee ◽  
Jen Liou

Homeostatic regulation of plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) in receptor-stimulated cells is mediated by the lipid transfer protein Nir2. Nir2 is dynamically recruited to endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane (ER-PM) junctions to facilitate replenishment of PM PIP2 hydrolyzed during receptor-mediated signaling. However, our knowledge regarding the activation and sustainment of Nir2-mediated replenishment of PM PIP2 is limited. Here, we describe the functions of Nir1 as a positive regulator of Nir2 and PIP2 homeostasis. In contrast to the family proteins Nir2 and Nir3, Nir1 constitutively localizes at ER-PM junctions. Nir1 potentiates Nir2 targeting to ER-PM junctions during receptor-mediated signaling and is required for efficient PM PIP2 replenishment. Live-cell imaging and biochemical analysis reveal that Nir1 interacts with Nir2 via a region between the FFAT motif and the DDHD domain. Combined, results from this study identify Nir1 as an ER-PM junction localized protein that promotes Nir2 recruitment for PIP2 homeostasis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yu Liang ◽  
Yang Huang ◽  
Kang Chen ◽  
Xiangdong Kong ◽  
Maoteng Li

Abstract Background Brassica napus is an important agricultural species, improving stress resistance was one of the main breeding goals at present. Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic proteins which are involved in some biotic or abiotic stress responses. B. napus is susceptible to a variety of fungal diseases, so identify the BnLTPs and their expression in disease responses is very important. The common reference genome of B. napus does not contain all B. napus genes because of gene presence/absence variations between individuals. Therefore, it was necessary to search for candidate BnLTP genes in the B. napus pangenome. Results In the present study, the BnLTP genes were identified throughout the pangenome, and different BnLTP genes were presented among varieties. Totally, 246 BnLTP genes were identified and could be divided into five types (1, 2, C, D, and G). The classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, and gene expression were analyzed. We also identified potential cis-elements that respond to biotic and abiotic stresses in the 2 kb upstream regions of all BnLTP genes. RNA sequencing analysis showed that the BnLTP genes were involved in the response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection. We identified 32 BnLTPs linked to blackleg resistance quantitative trait locus (QTL). Conclusion The identification and analysis of LTP genes in the B. napus pangenome could help to elucidate the function of BnLTP family members and provide new information for future molecular breeding in B. napus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Lisa David ◽  
Jianing Kang ◽  
Josh Nicklay ◽  
Craig Dufresne ◽  
Sixue Chen

After localized invasion by bacterial pathogens, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is induced in uninfected plant tissues, resulting in enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens. Although SAR requires mobilization of signaling molecules via the plant vasculature, the specific molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The lipid transfer protein defective in induced resistance 1 (DIR1) was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana by screening for mutants that were defective in SAR. Here, we demonstrate that stomatal response to pathogens is altered in systemic leaves by SAR, and this guard cell SAR defense requires DIR1. Using a multi-omics approach, we have determined potential SAR signaling mechanisms specific for guard cells in systemic leaves by profiling metabolite, lipid, and protein differences between guard cells in the wild type and dir1-1 mutant during SAR. We identified two long-chain 18 C and 22 C fatty acids and two 16 C wax esters as putative SAR-related molecules dependent on DIR1. Proteins and metabolites related to amino acid biosynthesis and response to stimulus were also changed in guard cells of dir1-1 compared to the wild type. Identification of guard cell-specific SAR-related molecules may lead to new avenues of genetic modification/molecular breeding for disease-resistant plants.

2021 ◽  
David Kovacs ◽  
Anne-Sophie Gay ◽  
Lucile Fleuriot ◽  
Delphine Debayle ◽  
Ana Rita Dias Araujo ◽  

Golgi lipid environment regulates sorting and cargo secretion. However, the mechanisms that spatiotemporally control the lipid composition of the secretory membranes to drive cargo trafficking are poorly understood. Lipid transfer proteins regulate the concentration of specific lipids at membrane contact sites. We hypothesised that by catalysing cholesterol/PI(4)P exchange at ER-trans-Golgi membrane contact sites the lipid transfer protein oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) affects the secretion of a subset of cargoes. Here, we report that OSBP is a major epithelial protein as its inhibition leads to complete loss of apico-basal polarity. By mapping the OSBP proximity proteome with the biotin ligase TurboID, we found that OSBP controls the secretion of multiple membrane associated proteins, including key polarity determinants such as E-cadherin. Mechanistically, we established that OSBP contributes to E-cadherin secretion by supplying cholesterol to post-Golgi membranes. Importantly, when cells downregulate cell-cell junctions upon epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, they re-wire their lipid homeostasis and downregulate OSBP as well, thus altering the trafficking of the OSBP-dependent secretory cargoes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13184
Long Hoa Chung ◽  
Da Liu ◽  
Xin Tracy Liu ◽  
Yanfei Qi

Sphingolipids are a class of essential lipids implicated in constructing cellular membranes and regulating nearly all cellular functions. Sphingolipid metabolic network is centered with the ceramide–sphingomyelin axis. Ceramide is well-recognized as a pro-apoptotic signal; while sphingomyelin, as the most abundant type of sphingolipids, is required for cell growth. Therefore, the balance between these two sphingolipids can be critical for cancer cell survival and functioning. Ceramide transfer protein (CERT) dictates the ratio of ceramide to sphingomyelin within the cell. It is the only lipid transfer protein that specifically delivers ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, where ceramide serves as the substrate for sphingomyelin synthesis. In the past two decades, an increasing body of evidence has suggested a critical role of CERT in cancer, but much more intensive efforts are required to draw a definite conclusion. Herein, we review all research findings of CERT, focusing on its molecular structure, cellular functions and implications in cancer. This comprehensive review of CERT will help to better understand the molecular mechanism of cancer and inspire to identify novel druggable targets.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Dan Wang ◽  
Zhanmin Sun ◽  
Xinxu Hu ◽  
Junbo Xiong ◽  
Lizhen Hu ◽  

Abstract Background The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) family are important regulatory factors involved in plants’ response to environmental stimuli. However, their roles in salt tolerance in Lotus corniculatus remain unclear. Results Here, the key salt-responsive transcription factor LcERF056 was cloned and characterised. LcERF056 belonging to the B3–1 (IX) subfamily of ERFs was considerably upregulated by salt treatment. LcERF056-fused GFP was exclusively localised to nuclei. Furthermore, LcERF056- overexpression (OE) transgenic Arabidopsis and L. corniculatus lines exhibited significantly high tolerance to salt treatment compared with wild-type (WT) or RNA interference expression (RNAi) transgenic lines at the phenotypic and physiological levels. Transcriptome analysis of OE, RNAi, and WT lines showed that LcERF056 regulated the downstream genes involved in several metabolic pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (ChIP-qPCR) and yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay demonstrated that LcERF056 could bind to cis-element GCC box or DRE of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes such as lipid-transfer protein, peroxidase and ribosomal protein. Conclusion Our results suggested that the key regulator LcERF056 plays important roles in salt tolerance in L. corniculatus by modulating ROS-related genes. Therefore, it may be a useful target for engineering salt-tolerant L. corniculatus or other crops.

2021 ◽  
Blessy Paul ◽  
Saroja Weeratunga ◽  
Vikas A Tillu ◽  
Hanaa Hariri ◽  
W. Mike Henne ◽  

Recent advances in protein structure prediction using machine learning such as AlphaFold2 and RosettaFold presage a revolution in structural biology. Genome-wide predictions of protein structures are providing unprecedented insights into their architecture and intradomain interactions, and applications have already progressed towards assessing protein complex formation. Here we present detailed analyses of the sorting nexin proteins that contain regulator of G-protein signalling domains (SNX-RGS proteins), providing a key example of the ability of AlphaFold2 to reveal novel structures with previously unsuspected biological functions. These large proteins are conserved in most eukaryotes and are known to associate with lipid droplets (LDs) and sites of LD-membrane contacts, with key roles in regulating lipid metabolism. Previous studies indicate they possess five domains, including an N-terminal transmembrane domain that anchors them to the endoplasmic reticulum, an RGS domain, a lipid interacting phox homology (PX) domain and two additional domains named the PXA and PXC domains of unknown structure and function. Here we report the crystal structure of the RGS domain of sorting nexin 25 (SNX25) and show that the AlphaFold2 prediction closely matches the experimental structure. Analysing the full-length SNX-RGS proteins across multiple homologues and species we find that the distant PXA and PXC domains in fact fold into a single unique structure that notably features a large and conserved hydrophobic pocket. The nature of this pocket strongly suggests a role in lipid or fatty acid binding, and we propose that these molecules represent a new class of conserved lipid transfer proteins.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jiaojie Zhao ◽  
Weishuai Bi ◽  
Shuqing Zhao ◽  
Jun Su ◽  
Mengyu Li ◽  

Plant apoplast serves as the frontier battlefield of plant defense in response to different types of pathogens. Many pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are accumulated in apoplastic space during the onset of plant–pathogen interaction, where they act to suppress pathogen infection. In this study, we found the expression of Triticum aestivum lipid transfer protein 3 (TaLTP3) gene was unregulated during incompatible interaction mediated by leaf rust resistance genes Lr39/41 at the early infection stage. Stable transgenic wheat lines overexpressing TaLTP3 exhibited enhanced resistance to leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. Transcriptome analysis revealed that overexpression of TaLTP3 specifically activated the transcription of pathogenesis-related protein 1a (TaPR1a) and multiple plant hormone pathways, including salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and auxin, in response to the infection of the model bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Further investigation indicated that TaLTP3 physically associated with wheat TaPR1a protein in the apoplast. Transgenic wheat lines overexpressing TaLTP3 and TaPR1a showed higher accumulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during plant defense responses. All these findings suggested that TaLTP3 is involved in wheat resistance against leaf rust pathogen infection and forming a TaLTP3-TaPR1a complex in apoplast against this pathogen, which provides new insights into the functional roles of PR proteins.

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