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Heiki Valk

This article discusses the archaeological background of the Leivu and Lutsi Finnic language islands. In contrast to the earlier research tradition, a hidden Finnic presence is suggested by the distribution area of Roman Iron Age tarand graves up to and including the Medieval Period when the presence of a Finnic population in northeastern Latvia (“the Chud in Ochela”) is noted in 1179/80. The Leivu language island west of Alūksne may be the last descendants of this population, formed by the merging of a Finnic substrate and Latgalian superstrate and standing between the Estonians and Livonians. The borders of this Finnic area in northern and northeastern Latvia – a diverse network of communities, existing in parallel with Latgalian ones and based on various ethnic components – are difficult to determine, as archaeological traces of its cultural pattern in the 12th–14th centuries have much in common with the Latgalians despite definite peculiarities. The Finnic traces in the Lutsi area are more difficult to identify archaeologically, although physical anthropology suggests a former Finnic presence there too. Kokkuvõte. Heiki Valk: Lõunaeesti keelesaared Ida-Lätis: arheoloogiline taust ja perspektiiv. Artikkel käsitleb leivu ja lutsi keelesaarte arheolooglist kujunemist. Erinevalt varasemast, baltikesksest vaatenurgast eeldatakse läänemeresoome rahvastiku varjatud püsimist rooma rauaaja tarandkalmete alal kuni keskajani ja ka keskaja vältel – kirjalikud allikad mainivad aastatel 1179– 1180 “Otšela tšuude” (tinglikult “adsele maarahvast”). Leivu keelesaar võiks endast kujutada selle läänemere substraadi ja latgali superstraadi ühtesulamise tulemusena kujunenud ning eestlaste ja liivlaste vahel paiknenud rahvastiku viimaseid järeltulijaid. Läänemeresoome asuala piire Läti põhja- ja kirdeosas on raske määratleda, kuna ilmselt oli tegemist eriilmeliste, läti asustuse kõrval eksisteerinud kogukondade võrgustikuga ja 12.–14. sajandi rahvastiku kultuuri arheoloogilised jäljed on vaatamata teatud iseärasustele paljuski latgalipärase ilmega. Lutsi asualal on läänemeresoome jälgi arheoloogias raskem leida, kuigi füüsilise antropoloogia andmed sellele viitavad.

Synthese ◽  
2021 ◽  
Bobby Vos

AbstractThe project of integrated HPS (‘integrated history and philosophy of science’) has occupied philosophers of science in one form or another since at least the 1960s. Yet, despite this substantial interest in bringing together philosophical and historical reflections on the nature of science, history of science and formal philosophy of science remain as divided as ever. In this paper, I will argue that the continuing separation between historical and formal philosophy of science is ill-founded. I will argue for this in both abstract and concrete terms. At the abstract level, I reconstruct two possible arguments for the incompatibility of historical and formal philosophy of science and argue that they are both wanting. At the concrete level, I discuss how historical and formal philosophy of science have been brought together in practice, namely: in the form of a largely forgotten research tradition that I will refer to here as the study of formalized macro-units. After a brief exposition, I argue that this research tradition has been unduly overlooked by historically minded philosophers of science. Bringing together these observations, I argue that the divide between historical and formal philosophy of science is not grounded in any substantive arguments, but can be primarily attributed to disciplinary happenstance.

Litera ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 116-123
Karina Rashitovna Ibragimova

This article is dedicated to the peculiarities of pathetic language in Geoffrey Chaucer's “Canterbury Tales” and rhetorical techniques used for saturating the speech of the narrator and the characters. On the example of the “Man of Law's Tale” and the “Second Nun’s Tale”, in which the vicissitudes of the heroines are in the limelight, the author of this article examines the specificity of pathetic speech and its functions in Chaucer’s text. The goal of this research lies in determination of the cause for using pathetic speech in these two tales. Research methodology employs structural, semantic, and historical-cultural methods of analysis of the literary text. The scientific novelty consists in reference to the analysis of rhetorical techniques in the poetics of Geoffrey Chaucer reflected in the context of the categories of tragic and pathetic, which have not been thoroughly studied in the Russian and foreign research tradition. The following conclusions were made: the abundance of pathetic speech is a means to draw the attention of audience; its heightened expansiveness allows reaching the expected emotional response. In most instances, pathetic speech is associated with the positive characters of the tales, as well as the narrator, who comments on the actions of the heroes and emphasizes the touching episodes in their lives. The speech of the negative characters in these two tales is rather neutral, and in some cases replaced by the speech of the narrator. Granting the word to the negative characters, Chaucer means expansion of their role, allowing the audience to look at them not only as the minister of evil.

2021 ◽  
Lydia Maniatis

“Gestalt” is a fashionable buzzword in the vision research community. The people invoking it tend to have little to no understanding of the groundbreaking ideas the term represents, and which they badly misrepresent. This is the case in Karlovich & Wallisch (2021), who misuse Gestalt citations to cover the theoretical gap left by a dominant vision research tradition uninterested in and incapable of addressing problems of shape and organization in vision.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 84-94
Yulia Sorokina ◽  
Vladimir Shukovski ◽  

This article is devoted to identifying the uniqueness of the works of the genre "group portrait" by etymological research of the concept "group portrait", identifying the typology of this genre, exploring the traditional possibilities of its systematization in order to comprehensively consider the essence of the group portrait in the research tradition. The aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of the genre of group portrait and its specific features. The methodological bases of the research are the basic categories of the theory of reflection of G. V. F. Hegel, the basic principles of the synthetic concept of the ideal by D. V. Pivovarov, the theory of fine art by V. I. Zhukovsky, N. P. Koptseva, as well as general scientific empirical and theoretical research methods.

Paleo-aktueel ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 165-174
Yftinus Van Popta

Wooden ships and digital wrecks. A reflection upon the development and future of maritime archaeology in The Netherlands. This paper explores the development of the Dutch maritime archaeological research tradition, the current status of the discipline, and its future perspective. To that end, the focus is mainly on the most important maritime archaeological entity: the shipwreck. Many of the Dutch shipwrecks have been found and studied in the former seabed of the Zuiderzee (the current polders of the province of Flevoland). Ever since the 1940s, shipwrecks have been examined in this region. Until the beginning of the 21st century, many of these wrecks were studied in a more or less traditional (analogue and manual) way. Nowadays, traditional and modern excavation techniques and methods are combined for fast, accurate and detailed research results. We should realize that, whereas the quality of maritime archaeological research will improve over the next 25 years, the preservation quality of the shipwrecks will continue to decrease due to soil disturbance, dehydration and decompression. Therefore, future maritime archaeological developments should focus not only on research techniques, but also on new and better methods that will help to prevent a further deterioration of the Dutch wrecks.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (11) ◽  
pp. 5984
Ahmad Yaman Abdin ◽  
Claus Jacob ◽  
Lena Kästner

In the mid-1950s, Bert Lester Vallee and his colleague Marvin Margoshes discovered a molecule referred to today as metallothionein (MT). Meanwhile, MTs have been shown to be common in many biological organisms. Despite their prevalence, however, it remains unclear to date what exactly MTs do and how they contribute to the biological function of an organism or organ. We investigate why biochemical research has not yet been able to pinpoint the function(s) of MTs. We shall systematically examine both the discovery of and recent research on Dr. Vallee’s beloved family of MT proteins utilizing tools from philosophy of science. Our analysis highlights that Vallee’s initial work exhibited features prototypical of a developing research tradition: it was upward-looking, exploratory, and utilized mere interactions. Since the 1960s, MT research has increasingly become intervention- and hypothesis-based while it remained largely upward-looking in character. Whilst there is no reason to think that upward-looking research cannot successfully yield structure-function mappings, it has not yet been successful in the case of MTs. Thus, we suggest it might be time to change track and consider other research strategies looking into the evolution of MTs. Recent studies in mollusks render research in this direction worthy of pursuit.

Amir B. Marvasti ◽  
Jaber F. Gubrium

Stories and storytelling are found everywhere, from an overall cultural presence to the narrative study of self and society. Within a tradition of sociological research stemming from the 1920s, this chapter discusses the narrative study of self and society in the context of social interaction. Three forms of narrative study and aims are distinguished—ethnographic, strategic, and conversational. Substantive topics include the interactionist research tradition, Erving Goffman’s preeminent contribution, the narrative construction of selves, society as a complex narrative environment, and narrative power and practice. We end with cautionary words about methodological, conceptual, and ethical limitations of narrative form and analysis.

LingVaria ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 169-180
Olga Ziółkowska

Old Polish Present Participle as a Predicative Attribute The author of the article shows that Old Polish (present) participles are transitional categories – they combine the syntactic features of an attribute and a predicate. She also tries to answer the question of how to recognize their nature. Is one of the functions dominant or are they equal? It is also important to reflect on how the choice of terminology used for syntactic description affects the way of perceiving and interpreting linguistic phenomena. The author considers the functionality of terms which already exist in the research tradition and are designed to name the double function of a participle. She also proposes the term: “predicative attribute” (in Polish: “predykatywny atrybut”) referring to the functional syntax of Stanisław Karolak. She shows that an entire separation, in a syntactic description, of the two syntactic functions performed by a participle, is ahistorical and incorrect as it suggests the existence of something which was unclear and only emerging.

Irina G. Nagibina ◽  
Liudmila V. Kulikova

The article provides a systematic description of the trends in the development of the Chinese discursive and communicative linguistics. Discursive research and its results in the Chinese academic community have their own specifics, which are based on the traditional philosophical and ideological foundation and a unique language picture of the world. The scientific findings explicate culturally determined communicative and discursive conventions of the Chinese social interaction. The aim of the research is to highlight the Chinese cultural discourse studies as a new research tradition in the Chinese linguistics of the modern stage, to expand its methodology, and to construct the discursive space of China as the totality of the dominant cultural and communicative vectors, these vectors being an interpretative tool to help understand and evaluate Chinese discourses

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