Zebrafish have gained momentum as a leading experimental model in recent years. At present, the zebrafish vertebrate model is increasingly used due to its multifactorial similarities to humans that include genetic, organ, and cellular factors. With the emergence of novel research techniques that are very expensive, it is necessary to develop affordable and valid experimental models. This review aimed to highlight some of the most important similarities between zebrafish and humans by emphasizing the relevance of the first in simulating neurological disorders and craniofacial deformity.
Background and Aim: Swollen head syndrome (SHS) is a complex disease caused by various agents, including bacterial and viral pathogens, as well as environmental factors. Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is one of the most important causes of respiratory diseases and SHS in poultry and one of the most widespread viruses worldwide; however, it has not been recorded in Iraq. This study aimed at the molecular identification and subtyping of aMPV in poultry, with the objectives of investigating the prevalence of aMPV in infected broiler flocks with SHS and molecular typing using primers specific to the study of the prevalence of subtypes A, B, and C of aMPV.
Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 67 broiler farms that reported typical SHS from September 2018 to August 2019. Swabs were collected from the trachea, infraorbital sinuses, and lung, then uploaded on FTA cards and subjected to an RNA extraction protocol.
Results: aMPV was detected in 16 (23.8%) samples. Molecular typing using primers specific to the attachment glycoprotein (G) gene showed that all positive samples belonged to subtype B, as assessed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction technique.
Conclusion: aMPV may be the main etiological factor causing SHS in poultry. Moreover, this was the first report of the prevalence of subtype B aMPV strains in broiler farms in Iraq.
Background and Aim: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common form of carcinoma in cattle. Histopathological grading systems have been utilized over several decades for estimating the malignancy of cattle SCCs. This study aimed to detect p53 and Mdm2 expression in different SCC cases in cattle and correlate their expression with the SCC histopathological grading.
Materials and Methods: Cattle SCC cases were collected at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Nineveh. The SCC grading system categorized the cases histologically based on their differentiation grade into three groups: Well, moderately, and poorly differentiated. The SCC cases were subsequently verified for p53 and Mdm2 immunoexpression.
Results: Fourteen of 16 examined cattle SCC samples tested positive for p53 expression. Moreover, 15 out of the 16 SCC samples tested positive for Mdm2 expression. The increased immunoreactivity of both p53 and Mdm2 was associated with a poor histological grading of the cattle SCC. There is a positive correlation between the nuclear expression of p53 and Mdm2, and the degree of differentiation and the number of mitotic figures in the examined cattle SCC samples.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate an increased p53 and Mdm2 expression in cattle SCC cases characterized by poor histopathological grading, thus suggesting an essential role of these molecules in the development of moderately and poorly differentiated SCC in cattle.
Background and Aim: Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a tropical endemic tick-borne disease that causes fatality or chronic infection involving many organs in dogs. This study aimed to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and hematological and ultrasonographic changes in the liver, gallbladder, kidneys, and spleen following CME infection.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective study used 30,269 samples collected from dogs at the hematology section of the pathology unit of a university veterinary hospital and 35 samples collected from dogs at the diagnostic imaging unit. CME was determined using the buffy coat smear method. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios.
Results: CCl4 The data revealed that the average yearly prevalence of CME was 1.32%. Risk factors contributing to CME infection were a tick on the body during physical examination, lack of ectoparasite control, and outdoor living. All 148 dogs with CME infection had low platelet counts. The percentages of CME-infected dogs with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and both enzymes above the normal range were 33.6%, 65.9%, and 29.8%, respectively. The rates for elevated serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and both compounds were 33.1%, 19.1%, and 17.3%, respectively. The most common ultrasonographic changes were liver abnormalities (hyperechogenicity or hypoechogenicity, hepatomegaly, and hypoechoic nodules), hyperechogenicity of the kidneys, and an enlarged spleen. These ultrasonographic changes were consistent with the hematology results, which showed a greater elevation of serum liver enzyme levels than renal enzymes.
Conclusion: Ultrasonographic changes during CME infection and after treatment with doxycycline can help to monitor and identify persistent pathological changes in the target organs resulting from immune response to CME.
Background and Aim: The genetic improvement of cattle through livestock section is based on quantitative, qualitative, and molecular characteristics. This study examined polymorphisms of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and leptin genes as a reference for the selection of superior breeds in Madrasin cattle.
Materials and Methods: The leptin and MC4R genes of Madrasin cattle were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR); then, restriction fragment length polymorphism of the leptin gene was performed using the restriction enzyme BsaA1, at site 2793 with ACGT point position.
Results: The leptin gene was divided into three bands, namely, AA with one fragment (522 bp), CG with two fragments (441 bp and 81 bp), and AG with three fragments (522 bp, 441 bp, and 81 bp). The MCR-4 gene was divided into three bands, namely, 493 bp, 318 bp, and 175 bp.
Conclusion: The MC4R and leptin genes can act as molecular markers for growth traits in Madrasin cattle and can be used to genetically optimize and improve growth. The GG allele of the MC4R gene and the AA allele of the leptin gene can be used in Madrasin cattle.
Background and Aim: Metaflammation plays a significant role in the pathogenesis, development, and complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). This inflammation is associated with insulin resistance. Therefore, the inflammatory pathways have been targeted for pharmacological treatment. Petiveria alliacea can decrease blood glucose levels and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities; however, there are still insufficient data regarding its efficacy for the treatment of DM. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of P. alliacea leaf extract on the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance (IR) value and interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-five diabetic rat models were randomly divided into five groups. The first group received the SNEDDS of P. alliacea leaf extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight (BW), the second group received it at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW, the third group received it at a dose of 200 mg/kg BW, the fourth group received 18 mg of metformin, and the fifth group only received the SNEDDS formula. The treatment was administered once a day, orally, for 14 days. On the 15th day after treatment, the rats were sacrificed to obtain blood samples for cardiac examination. The IL-6, TNF-α, and insulin levels in the serum were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The HOMA-IR value was calculated using a formula.
Results: The mean IL-6 and TNF-α levels were low in the group that received the SNEDDS of P. alliacea leaf extract. There was no significant difference in the insulin level in all treatment and control groups. However, a significant difference in the HOMA-IR value was noted between the group that received the SNEDDS of P. alliacea leaf extract and metformin and the group that did not receive treatment (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The SNEDDS of P. alliacea leaf extract reduced the HOMA-IR value and suppressed the TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the STZ-induced diabetic rat model.
Background and Aim: Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have previously been isolated from animals' testes, cultured in vitro, and successfully transplanted into compatible recipients. The SSC unique characteristic has potential for exploitation as a reproductive tool and this can be achieved through SSC intratesticular transplantation to surrogate sires. Here, we aimed at comprehensively analyzing published data on in vitro maintenance of SSC isolated from the testes of livestock animals and their applications.
Materials and Methods: The literature search was performed in PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar electronic databases. Data screening was conducted using Rayyan Intelligent Systematic Review software (https://www.rayyan.ai/). Duplicate papers were excluded from the study. Abstracts were read and relevant full papers were reviewed for data extraction.
Results: From a total of 4786 full papers screened, data were extracted from 93 relevant papers. Of these, eight papers reported on long-term culture conditions (>1 month) for SSC in different livestock species, 22 papers on short-term cultures (5-15 days), 10 papers on transfection protocols, 18 papers on transplantation using different methods of preparation of livestock recipients, and five papers on donor-derived spermatogenesis.
Conclusion: Optimization of SSC long-term culture systems has renewed the possibilities of utilization of these cells in gene-editing technologies to develop transgenic animals. Further, the development of genetically deficient recipients in the endogenous germline layer lends to a future possibility for the utilization of germ cell transplantation in livestock systems.
Background and Aim: Rapid tests are routinely used to estimate serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations in diagnosing a failure of passive transfer (FPT) in calves. The study aimed to compare the Fassisi® Bovine IgG (FB-IgG) immunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantifying bovine IgG in neonatal calf serum.
Materials and Methods: A total of 277 calves of 1-10 days of age were used in this study. Blood samples were obtained, and serum was extracted by centrifuging the samples at 2740× g for 5 min at 20°C. The serum was analyzed using the FB-IgG according to the manufacturer's specifications. Serum IgG concentrations were also determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-IgG). FPT was defined as a serum IgG concentration <10 mg/mL.
Results: The mean ELISA-IgG serum concentration was 8.40 mg/mL (SD=7.02, range=0.10-47.50 mg/mL). FPT prevalence based on the ELISA measurements was 66.8%. The prevalence of partial and full FPT based on the FB-IgG was 54.5%. The ELISA-IgG and FB-IgG results were subjected to correlation and regression analysis. Overall sensitivity and specificity of the FB-IgG were 61.1% and 58.7%, respectively. A statistically significant dependence on age was identified in the results.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the FB-IgG rapid method is less accurate and provides no other advantages over established methods.
Background and Aim: Salmonella is one of the leading causes of zoonotic and foodborne infectious outbreaks in humans and poultry and its associated environment is a potential reservoir of Salmonella. In recent years, the antibiotic resistance of bacteria, including Salmonella, has been increasing. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolated from poultry, its environment, and the pest animals found at poultry farms and households of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Materials and Methods: A total of 3,055 samples were collected from the broiler farms and households of the Mekong Delta from 2017 to 2020. Salmonella was isolated using conventional methods (culturing on selective agar – BPLS and biochemical test) and the isolates were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 antibiotics using the disk diffusion method.
Results: Salmonella was isolated from 181 samples (5.92%), which included chicken feces (7.67%), pest animals (5.98%), and environmental samples (4.33%). The environmental samples comprised bedding (5.88%), feed (5.48%), and drinking water (0.70%). The prevalence of Salmonella was the highest in rats (15.63%) and geckos (12.25%) followed by ants (2.83%) and cockroaches (2.44%); however, Salmonella was not isolated from any fly species. Most of the isolates exhibited resistance to 1-9 antibiotics. The isolates were relatively resistant to chloramphenicol (62.98%), tetracycline (55.80%), ampicillin (54.14%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (53.04%). Sixty-two multiple resistance patterns were found in the isolates, with ampicillin-cefuroxime-chloramphenicol-tetracycline- sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim being the most frequent (7.18%).
Conclusion: The chickens, husbandry environment, and pest animals at poultry farms and households were found to be important Salmonella sources in the Mekong Delta. Salmonella isolates from these sources also exhibited a wide-ranging resistance to antibiotics as well as several resistance patterns. Hence, biosecurity should be addressed in poultry farms and households to prevent cross-contamination and reduce the spread of Salmonella infections.
Background and Aim: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogenic microorganisms have become a global problem in ruminants as a result of the intensive use of antibiotics, causing the development of resistance among gut microbiota. The antibiotic-resistant microorganisms can be transferred from diseased animals to humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MDR Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. isolated from cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats suffering from respiratory signs, diarrhea, and mastitis and to screen the antibiotic sensitivity of selected isolated bacteria. It also detected antibiotic-resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), produced green gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using plant extracts (Artemisia herba-alba and Morus alba), and evaluated the antimicrobial activities of these biosynthesized nanoparticles on selected pathogens (E. coli and Salmonella spp.).
Materials and Methods: MDR E. coli and Salmonella spp. were investigated using fecal samples (n=408), nasal swabs (n=358), and milk samples (n=227) of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats with or without clinical signs, including respiratory manifestations, pneumonia, diarrhea, and mastitis, from different governorates in Egypt. E. coli and Salmonella spp. were isolated and identified on selective media, which were confirmed by biochemical reactions and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 10 commonly used antibiotics was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance genes blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, and blaCTX-M were detected by PCR. The antibacterial effect of the biosynthesized AuNPs was evaluated by MIC and well diffusion assay. The biosynthesized AuNPs were also characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Results: Among all fecal samples, the prevalence of E. coli was 18.4% (183/993) and that of Salmonella spp. was 16.7% (66/408), as determined by cultural and molecular tests. All isolates of E. coli and Salmonella spp. were 100% resistant to ampicillin (AM) and amoxicillin and highly resistant to cefoxitin and AM-sulbactam. The total rate of resistance genes in E. coli was 61.2% (112/183), while that in Salmonella was 63.6% (42/66) for pathogens isolated from ruminants with respiratory manifestations, pneumonia, diarrhea, and mastitis. Among the resistance genes, blaTEM had the highest prevalence rate in E. coli (25.9%, 21/81) while blaSHV had the lowest (9.8%, 8/81) in fecal swabs. AuNPs were successfully synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of A. herba-alba and M. alba as bioreducing agents. TEM analysis showed particle size of 10-42 nm for A. herba-alba and M. alba AuNPs. The biosynthesized AuNPs showed antibacterial activity against MDR E. coli and Salmonella spp.
Conclusion: Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods are the cornerstone for effective treatment to reduce the risk of antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic microorganisms. This is particularly important for overcoming the increasing rate of MDR in ruminants with respiratory manifestations, pneumonia, diarrhea, and mastitis. This can be complemented by the development of AuNPs synthesized in an environmentally friendly manner AuNPs using natural plant extracts for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms.