Irrigation District
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Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 126
Juan Herrero ◽  
Carmen Castañeda ◽  
Rosa Gómez-Báguena

This article presents and reviews the soil salinity data provided by a rescued vintage agronomic report on an irrigated area of 35,875 ha located in the center of the Ebro River basin, in the NE of mainland Spain. These data come from a soil sampling campaign conducted from May to the first half of July 1975 for the purpose of delineating saline and non-saline soils. The agronomic report was produced in response to demands from farmers to combat soil salinity, and represents the state of the art in those years for salinity studies. Our paper presents the scrubbed soil salinity data for this year, checking their consistency and locating the study sites. The main finding is the unearthing of this heritage report and the discussion of its soil salinity data. We show that the report supplies an assessment and a baseline for further soil salinity tracking by conducting new measurements either by direct soil sampling or by nondestructive techniques, providing an estimate of soil salinity at different locations. This task is feasible, as shown in our previously published articles involving nearby areas. A comparison of the salt amount in the soil over the years would provide a means to evaluate irrigation methods for sustainable land management. This comparison can be conducted simultaneously with analysis of other agricultural features described in the report for the irrigation district in 1975.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 187
Xiang Li ◽  
Xueqin Zhang ◽  
Xiaoming Xu

Climate change and anthropogenic activities are widely considered the main factors affecting vegetation growth. However, their relative contributions are under debate. Within the non-climatic impact, detailed human activities, particularly government policy adjustments, are less investigated. In this study, we develop a fractional vegetation coverage (FVC) extraction method based on MODIS-EVI satellite data to analyze the spatiotemporal variation of vegetation and its attributions in the China–Mongolia–Russia Economic Corridor (CMREC). The average FVC has improved, with a general increase of 0.02/10a from 2000 to 2020. We construct a driving factor identification system for FVC change, based on partial and multiple correlation coefficients, and we divide the driving forces of FVC changes into seven climate-driven types and one non-climate-driven type. The results reveal that FVC changes caused by climatic factors account for 28.2% of CMREC. The most prominent greening (19.5%) is precipitation-driven, and is extensively distributed in Khentii Aimag, Mongolia; southeast Inner Mongolia; west Jilin Province; and southwest Heilongjiang Province, China. Moreover, we quantify the relative contribution of climatic and non-climatic factors to significant FVC change using the first-difference multivariate regression method. The results indicate that the effects of non-climatic factors on vegetation change outweigh those of climatic factors in most areas. According to the land cover change and regional policy adjustment, anthropogenic activities such as afforestation, reclamation, and planting structure adjustment explain most vegetation improvement in the Northeast Plain; eastern Inner Mongolia; and the Hetao Irrigation District, China. Meanwhile, both vegetation improvement and degradation disperse concurrently in the Mongolian and Russian parts of CMREC, where climate change and anthropogenic activities positively and negatively affect vegetation change, respectively. Despite the greening in most CMREC, it must be noted that human-induced greening is unsustainable to some degree. The overdevelopment of black soil area and sandy land, adverse effects of afforestation projects, and natural hazards related to weather and climate extremes altogether threaten the local ecological security in the long run. Therefore, governments should develop new desertification countermeasures in accordance with the laws of nature, and enhance international cooperation to guarantee the ecological safety of CMREC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 52 (4) ◽  
Cesar Augusto Terán-Chaves ◽  
Sonia Mercedes Polo-Murcia

Sustainable agricultural development is one of the most important tools for the economic growth of a country. Therefore, water and land use management is considered a priority. This research aimed to develop a framework to optimize crops’ spatial and temporal distribution in an irrigation district. The AquaCrop- OS (FAO) water productivity model was integrated with a nonlinear optimization model to maximize the annual net profitability and minimize the water consumption of three crops (rice, corn, and forage). It was applied at a regional level to 905 simulation sub-units in the Zulia irrigation district (Colombia), in three typical climatic years’ scenarios, and at a multi-period level (monthly). The results indicated that: i) crop simulation for the study area was applicable and feasible; ii) rice can be combined with forage and corn; iii) corn is a viable option under dry year conditions; iv) under a wet year, forage production is the best option. On average, in the dry year, profitability decreased by 14.5% compared to the normal year in half of the study area, and in some areas, economic losses of up to 53% were obtained. In the wet year, profitability remained at the same level as the normal year in 43.8% of the area. However, there were significant decreases in profitability in 23.1% of the district. In the normal year, the water demand of the crops in each simulated period allows savings of up to 50% of water compared to the current concession amount, which is 1000 mm. This study is useful for making decisions on sustainable resources management and optimal irrigation water and land use under different biophysical and economic conditions.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 3538
Xinjian Guan ◽  
Baoyong Wang ◽  
Wenge Zhang ◽  
Qiongying Du

With the increasingly serious problems of water security and water shortage in the Yellow River Basin, the establishment of a fair and efficient water rights distribution system is an important way to improve water resource utilization efficiency and achieve high-quality development. In this paper, a double-level water rights allocation model of national canals–farmer households in irrigation districts is established. The Gini coefficient method is used to construct the water rights allocation model among farmer households based on the principle of fairness. Finally, the Wulanbuhe Irrigation Area in the Hetao Irrigation District is taken as an example. Results show that the allocated water rights of the national canals in the irrigation district are less than the current; for example, water rights of the Grazing team (4) canal are reduced by 73,000 m3 than before, in which water rights of farmer households 1, 2, 3, and 4 obtain compensation and 5, 6, 7, and 8 are cut by the water rights allocation model and the Gini coefficient is reduced from 0.1968 to 0.1289. The research has fully tapped the water-saving potential of irrigation districts, improved the fairness of initial water rights distribution, and can provide a scientific basis for the development of water rights allocation of irrigation water users in irrigation districts of the Yellow River Basin.

2021 ◽  
Hongying Yuan ◽  
Shuqing Yang ◽  
Bo Wang

Abstract Groundwater is an important resource of water in arid and semi-arid agricultural regions. This study considered the spatial differentiation of geographical features and the concentration of groundwater flow. The upstream of the Hetao Irrigation District Shenwu Irrigation Area (SWIA) and the downstream Wulate Irrigation Area (WLTIA) were selected as the study area, and a total of 85 groundwater samples (42 from SW and 43 from WLTIA) were collected. The aims of the study were to analyze the chemical composition and main control mechanisms of groundwater, and to evaluate the suitability of groundwater irrigation in the study area from the perspective of salt and alkali damage. Geological and environmental factors increase the spatial variability of groundwater chemical characteristics in the Hetao Irrigation District. In addition the groundwater of the study area is weakly alkaline, with the flow of groundwater; the solute content of downstream (WLTIA) is higher than that of upstream (SWIA); SWIA is mainly fresh water (47.62%); and WLTIA is mainly brackish water (65.12%). The main water chemistry types are Cl-Na type, Cl·SO-Ca· Mg type, Na+ and Cl− have obvious advantages in WLTIA, and they are the main contribution indicators of groundwater TDS in the study area. Rock weathering, ions exchange and evaporate crystallization are the main controlling factors for groundwater in the Hetao Irrigation District. Na+ mainly originates from the dissolution of evaporate salt rock and silicate rock, and Ca2+ from the dissolution of gypsum and carbonate. The order of contribution of different rocks is evaporation rock > silicate rock > carbonate rock, and the contribution rates of human activities and atmospheric input are small. The groundwater quality of the upstream SW is better than that of the downstream WLTIA. However, due to the high chemical ion concentration of the groundwater, most of the groundwater cannot be directly used for irrigation, which may cause salt and alkali damage. Therefore, when using groundwater irrigation, either drip irrigation or irrigation water aeration pretreatment can be used to avoid damages such as reduced soil permeability and compaction.

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