Maximum Resistance
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2022 ◽  
Eliana-Isabel Rodríguez-Grande ◽  
Olga-Cecilia Vargas-Pinilla ◽  
Martha-Rocio Torres-Narvaez ◽  
Nelcy Rodríguez-Malagón

Abstract Objective to evaluate the effects of neuromuscular exercise, specifying the parameters and characteristics of effective interventions to improve balance, muscle strength and flexibility in children with DS between the ages of 4 and 18 years. Data Sources: A search was carried out on PubMed, PEDro, EMBASE, SCIELO, Lilacs, Cochrane library. Study Selection: The search yielded 1384 eligible articles. Randomized clinical trials were selected, and that would have reported the effectiveness in the outcomes. Data Extraction: The methodology and results of the studies were critically appraised in compliance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes guidelines. Data Synthesis: Ten studies were included. The interventions included mechanotherapy, vibration, and use of different unstable surfaces. The exercise frequency ranged from three days to five days a week, and the duration of each session was between six and 15 minutes. The frequency was between two and three times a week for 6 and 12 weeks and the intensity was between 60% and 80% of maximum resistance (MR). Conclusion neuromuscular exercise appears to be effective for the improvement of both lower limb and chest muscle strength and balance in children over 8 years of age.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1909-1912
N. Sarathkumar

Cholera is an acute infectious disease in countries with poor sanitation. The main clinical symptom of cholera is gastroenteritis and a symptom of the disease includes mild to moderate dehydration, vomiting, fever and abdominal pain. Antibiotic drug resistance in V. cholera has become a serious problem mostly in developing countries and muti-drug resistance to different antibiotics as well as Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Kanamycin, Trimethoprim, Sulphonamides Streptomycin and Gentamicin. Multi-drug resistant V. cholera showed resistance against three or more three contrasting classes of antibiotics for recent decades. Fifty diarrheal samples were collected from the different hospitals in and around the Tirupur district. 25 positive V. cholerae were isolated. The isolates were characterized morphologically and biochemically. The confirmed strains were taken to decide susceptibility patterns by the disc diffusion method. Vibrio cholerae isolated in this study was subjected to an antibiogram against 10 commonly used antibiotics. All the tested isolates showed maximum resistance to Erythromycin (97%) and minimum resistance was noted in Trimethoprime (50%) respectively. Electrophoretic examination of plasmid DNA was carried out by Agarose gel Electrophoresis on 0.7%. More than 90% of resists showed were taken for plasmid isolation. The molecular weights of the fragments were evaluated by using a 10,000 bp DNA ladder and it was determined to be 1500 bp respectively. It is crucial to know the sensitivity and resistance pattern of any bacterial species for intercession an effective drug of choice in future

Akbar Ali ◽  
Vijay R. Chidrawar

Aims: Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria pose a major public health issuer globally. The genes for antibiotic resistance are transferred vertically in the form of genomic DNA and horizontally in the form of plasmids or transposons. Antibiotic are extensively used in animal farming to treat and prevent animal diseases, and at sub-therapeutic doses, they are used to promote animal growth. This extensive use of antibiotics is causing an increase in resistance among bacteria. More frequent, chicken meat available at retail shops is reported to be contaminated with a variety of drug resistant bacteria including E. Coli. The aim of the present study was to investigate antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from chicken meat available in the local shops of Rafha, Saudi Arabia. Place and Duration of Study: Department of basic health sciences, College of Pharmacy, Northern Border University, Rafha, Saudi Arabia, between February and October, 2019 Methodology: Eighty-six E. coli strains, isolated from chicken meat, were tested for their antibiotic resistance profile, using the disc diffusion method.    Results: All the isolated E. coli strains were tested against 14 antibiotics. The maximum resistance was found against penicillin G (95%) followed by amoxicillin (85%), Cephalothin (81%), Erythromycin (72%), and Tetracycline (50%). Imipenem was the most effective agent of all with only 1% resistance followed by Cefepime with almost 6% resistance. A high percentage of the isolates (57%,) were multidrug resistant as they were non—susceptible to at least one antimicrobial in ≥3 antimicrobial classes including amoxicillin, erythromycin and tetracycline. Conclusion: The prevalence of MDR E. coli in retail chicken meat is very high and could pose a serious threat to public health.

M. Divyashree ◽  
Madhu K. Mani ◽  
Indrani Karunasagar

Abstract The study aimed to examine the relationship between antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and genes responsible for biofilm formation. Sixty-six Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were obtained from hospital wastewater and analyzed for their antibiotic resistance. Biofilm production among the isolates was tested by quantitative method crystal violet assay. Biofilm-associated genes among these isolates psl, alg, and pel were also checked. The maximum resistance was observed for ampicillins (88.24%) followed by nalidixic (83.82%), and nitrofurantoin (64.71%), respectively. Biofilm phenotypes are distributed in the following categories: high 39.39% (n = 26); moderate 57.57% (n = 38), and weak 3.0% (n = 2). Among the total isolates, biofilm-associated genes were detected in 84.84% (n = 56) of isolates and the remaining isolates 15.15% (n = 10) did not harbor any genes. In this study, pslB was the most predominant gene observed (71.21%, n = 47) followed by pslA (57.57%, n = 38), pelA (45.45%, n = 30), algD (43.93%, n = 29), and pelD (27.27%, n = 18), respectively. The present study reveals that the majority of the isolates are multidrug resistant being moderate and high biofilm formers. The study implies that biofilm acts as a machinery for bacteria to survive in the hospital effluent which is an antibiotic stress environment.

Meesha Singh ◽  
Rupsha Karmakar ◽  
Sayak Ganguli ◽  
Mahashweta Mitra Ghosh

Aims: This study aims at comparative identification of antibiotic resistance patterns in bacteria isolated from samples collected from rural environment (LS) and urban environments (SS). Metagenomic profiling gave us insights into the microbial abundance of the two samples. This study focused on culture-based methods for complete identification of antibiotic resistant isolates and estimation of comparative antibiotic resistance among the two samples. Study Design: Untreated medical waste and anthropogenic waste disposal can lead to the propagation of different antibiotic resistant strains in wastewater environments both in urban and rural set ups which provide an insight towards this study approach mentioned in the methodology segment. Place and Duration of Study: Sewer system of a medical facility located in Purulia, India was the collection site for liquid sludge. Solid sludge and associated wastewater were collected in vicinity of a large urban medical facility from central Kolkata, India. Methodology: Physico-chemical properties were analyzed followed by microbiological and biochemical characterization. The antibiotic resistance patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Potent multidrug resistant isolates were identified using 16srRNA gene amplification followed by Phylogenetic profiling, using CLC Genomics workbench. Results: We observed maximum resistance in an E. coli isolate which was resistant up to 22 antibiotics. Combined data for resistance from urban and rural samples were found to exhibit 83.9% resistance to beta lactams, 85.7% to macrolides, 44.2% to fluoroquinolones, 50% to glycopeptides and cephalosporins, 35.7 % to carbapenems and sulfonamides, 28.5 % to tetracycline, and 23.8 % to aminoglycosides. Conclusion: The high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harbouring diverse resistance traits across samples indicated towards probable horizontal gene transfer across environmental niches. This study can prove to be useful to understand and map the patterns of resistance and stringently apply the counter measures related to public health practices.

2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (1) ◽  
Rintaro Ueda ◽  
Kei Sawata ◽  
Takanobu Sasaki ◽  
Yoshihisa Sasaki

AbstractInformation on the properties of nailed joints with decayed member is necessary to evaluate the remaining structural properties of timber constructions. In this study, loading tests were conducted on nailed joints parallel and perpendicular to the grain with decayed members, and the relationship between the decrease in shear properties and the loading direction to the grain was investigated. After the loading tests, the extent of decay of the specimens was evaluated by the penetration depth of Pilodyn and the decay depth, and these were compared with the shear properties of the nailed joints. The nailed joints with decay had a low load at the initial deformation, regardless of the loading direction to the grain. The initial stiffness, yield resistance, and maximum resistance of the nailed joints parallel to the grain were negatively correlated with the Pilodyn penetration depth, and those of the nailed joints perpendicular to the grain showed no significant correlation with the Pilodyn penetration depth at the 5% level. The initial stiffness, yield resistance, and maximum resistance of the nailed joints parallel to the grain tended to decrease with increasing decay depth, and those of the nailed joints perpendicular to the grain did not exhibit this tendency. The shear properties of the nailed joints significantly decreased at small decay depths.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2484
Muhammad Zakir ◽  
Maryam Khan ◽  
Muhammad Ihtisham Umar ◽  
Ghulam Murtaza ◽  
Muhammad Ashraf ◽  

Salmonella Typhi is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes typhoid fever in humans. The use of antibiotics to treat typhoid has considerably mitigated its fatality risk, but rising multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) resistance in Pakistan threatens effective treatment. This study determined the prevalence of MDR and XDR S. Typhi at a local hospital in Lahore. Blood samples (n = 3000) were obtained and processed for bacterial identification. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using VITEK® 2 Compound 30 System. Statistical data analysis was performed using a Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H test, respectively. The results revealed 600 positive cultures, of which the majority were found to be XDR S. Typhi (46.1%) and MDR S. Typhi (24.5%) strains. The disease burden of resistant Salmonella strains was greater in males (60.67%) than females (39.33%), with the most affected age group being 0–10 years old (70.4 %). In both the outpatient department (OPD) and general ward, the prevalence of XDR S. Typhi cases was found to be alarmingly high (48.24%), followed by MDR S. Typhi (25.04 %). The results of the statistical analysis demonstrated that the incidence of resistance in MDR and XDR S. Typhi strains was not affected by the age as well as the gender of patients (p > 0.05). The occurrence of resistant strains against four tested antibiotics (azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, and meropenem) was found to be similar in different wards and among hospitalized and OPD patients (p > 0.05). Maximum resistance was observed against chloramphenicol and ampicillin in the OPD and pediatric ward. Piperacillin/Tazobactam was observed to be the most effective antibiotic, followed by co-amoxiclav (p < 0.001). This study is effective in validating the existence of MDR and XDR S. Typhi in Lahore, where stringent methods should be applied for controlling its spread.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Mojtaba Moosavian ◽  
Mahtab Khoshkholgh Sima ◽  
Nazanin Ahmad Khosravi ◽  
Effat Abbasi Montazeri

Antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae are causative agents of global health problems. Bacterial infections due to multidrug resistance (MDR) may be mediated by the overexpression of efflux pumps. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of oqxA and oqxB genes as two encoding agents of efflux pumps and the determination of antibiotic resistance rate in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected from different clinical specimens of infectious patients, such as wounds, urine, blood, discharge, and abscesses except stool, were examined. Identification of the isolates was performed using standard biochemical tests such as TSI, citrate, urea, lysine, SIM, MR-VP, and gas production. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out by the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines, and finally, the oqxA and oqxB genes were detected by the PCR method. Among 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter gergoviae were the most common isolates with 71% and 20%, respectively. Also, the lowest isolates belonged to Enterobacter cloacae (3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1%). Out of 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 37 isolates (37%) were positive for at least one of oqxA or oqxB genes, while both of these genes were detected among 12% of them. oqxAB genes were detected in 8 cases of 20 (40%) Enterobacter gergoviae and 4 cases of 71 (5.7%) E. coli isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that all isolates (100%) were susceptible to imipenem, while the maximum resistance to piperacillin, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime were 69%, 55%, and 55%, respectively. Also, the results of this study showed that antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates caused by oqxAB genes is increasing among patients in Iran. Therefore, identification of resistant isolates and antibiotic monitoring programs are essential to prevent the spread of MDR isolates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (11) ◽  
pp. 291
Elide Nastri ◽  
Vincenzo Piluso ◽  
Alessandro Pisapia

The ultimate behaviour of aluminium members subjected to uniform compression or bending is strongly influenced by local buckling effects which occur in the portions of the section during compression. In the current codes, the effective thickness method (ETM) is applied to evaluate the ultimate resistance of slender cross-sections affected by elastic local buckling. In this paper, a recent extension of ETM is presented to consider the local buckling effects in the elastic-plastic range and the interaction between the plate elements constituting the cross-section. The theoretical results obtained with this approach, applied to box-shaped aluminium members during compression or in bending, are compared with the experimental tests provided in the scientific literature. It is observed that the ETM is a valid and accurate tool for predicting the maximum resistance of box-shaped aluminium members during compression or in bending.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 41-50

Modeling and simulation of system design adjustment is respectable training for design and engineering decisions in real world jobs. In this paper, the exact perseverance connected with the strain of components is very important for structural designs, analyses, and for excellent control. The information linked to this type of test is usually related to the exact dimensions connected with the pressure within a flexible region. This paper proposed the design and simulation of a torque sensor with a piezoresistive V-shaped strain gauge. The piezoresistive measure of a precious metal for a stable base was made according to the results of an ANSYS simulation. A torque sensor with a piezoresistive V-shaped tension measure on a base was made. The result of the particular simulation shifted the fraction of tension on the base to enable the torque on the substrate to be measured. Theoretical studies on the piezoresistive measure of a metal for the stable base as well as the torque sensor were introduced. A maximum of 127.29 με and a maximum resistance change in gauge equal to 0.091Ω were achieved for an applied torque of 22.0725 Nm. Here, computer systems modeling and simulation are going to be used.

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