resistance change
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Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 506
Martin Hirman ◽  
Jiri Navratil ◽  
Michaela Radouchova ◽  
Jiri Stulik ◽  
Radek Soukup

This article addresses reliability under the sweat of interconnection techniques for the mounting surface mounted device (SMD) components and fully printed humidity sensors onto conductive stretchable textile ribbons. Samples underwent testing for the effect of ageing by artificial sweat on their electrical resistance using both alkaline and acidic artificial sweat. The best results in terms of electrical resistance change were obtained for samples soldered to the conductive fibers interwoven in the ribbon. However, this method can damage the ribbon due to the high temperature during soldering and significantly reduce the mechanical properties and flexibility of the ribbon, which can lead to a limited service life of samples. On the other hand, adhesive bonding is a very interesting alternative, where the above-mentioned properties are preserved, but there is a significant effect of sweat ageing on electrical resistance. The results of fully printed graphene-based humidity sensors show that, for the intended use of these sensors (i.e., detection of changes in moisture on the human body), usage of the samples is possible, and the samples are sufficiently reliable in the case of sweat degradation. In addition, the response of the sensor to humidity is quite high: 98% at a relative humidity of 98%.

Lingyun Cheng ◽  
Nianwen Xiang ◽  
Kejie Li ◽  
Weijiang Chen ◽  
Kai Bian ◽  

Abstract After cumulative discharge of gas discharge tube (GDT), it is easy to form a short circuit pathway between the two electrodes, which increases the failure risk and causes severe influences on the protected object. To reduce the failure risk of GDT and improve cumulative discharge times before failure, this work aims to suppress the formation of two short-circuit pathways by optimizing the tube wall structure, the electrode materials and the electrode structure. A total of five improved GDT samples are designed by focusing on the insulation resistance change that occurs after the improvement; then, by combining these designs with the microscopic morphology changes inside the cavity and the differences in deposition composition, the reasons for the differences in the GDT failure risk are also analyzed. The experimental results show that compared with GDT of traditional structure and material, the method of adding grooves at both ends of the tube wall can effectively block the deposition pathway of the tube wall, and the cumulative discharge times before device failure are increased by 149%. On this basis, when the iron-nickel electrode is replaced with a tungsten-copper electrode, the difference in the electrode’s surface splash characteristics further extends the discharge times before failure by 183%. In addition, when compared with the traditional electrode structure, the method of adding an annular structure at the electrode edge to block the splashing pathway for the particles on the electrode surface shows no positive effect, and the cumulative discharge times before the failure of the two structures are reduced by 22.8% and 49.7% respectively. Among these improved structures, the samples with grooves at both ends of the tube wall and tungsten-copper as their electrode material have the lowest failure risk.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 326
Darko Vasić ◽  
Ivan Rep ◽  
Dorijan Špikić ◽  
Matija Kekelj

Computationally fast electromagnetic models of eddy current sensors are required in model-based measurements, machine interpretation approaches or in the sensor design phase. If a sensor geometry allows it, the analytical approach to the modeling has significant advantages in comparison to numerical methods, most notably less demanding implementation and faster computation. In this paper, we studied an eddy current sensor consisting of a transmitter coil with a finitely long I ferrite core, which was screened with a finitely thick magnetic shield. The sensor was placed above a conductive and magnetic half-layer. We used vector magnetic potential formulation of the problem with a truncated region eigenfunction expansion, and obtained expressions for the transmitter coil impedance and magnetic potential in all subdomains. The modeling results are in excellent agreement with the results using the finite element method. The model was also compared with the impedance measurement in the frequency range from 5 kHz to 100 kHz and the agreement is within 3% for the resistance change due to the presence of the half-layer and 1% for the inductance change. The presented model can be used for measurement of properties of metallic objects, sensor lift-off or nonconductive coating thickness.

Vestnik MGTU ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 350-360
E. I. Gracheva ◽  
A. N. Gorlov ◽  
A. N. Alimova ◽  
P. P. Mukhanova

The main Russian and foreign manufacturers of low-voltage electrical devices - circuit breakers, fuses, magnetic starters, knife switches and packet switches are presented. The data of experiments for determining the resistance values of contact groups of low-voltage switching equipment are considered. The design features of the devices that determine the value of the resistances of the power circuits of low-voltage equipment are investigated and a classification is proposed depending on the design elements of the devices. A methodological approach and an algorithm for experiments and detailed analysis of the contact groups of devices are given. Experimental schemes for the study of contact groups are proposed. The data of the conducted experiments on the study of contact groups and the resistance values as a function of the flowing currents are shown. During the experiments it is revealed that the value of the resistance of the contacts changes depending on the value, type and time of exposure to current within +/-5 %. The laws that characterize the ratio of the resistance values of the structural components of devices (contact systems, thermal relay, coil of the maximum relay) have been revealed and defined. Empirical expressions and graphical dependences of the resistances of contacts and contact systems are obtained as a function of the magnitude of the rated currents of low-voltage contact equipment. The minimum sample size of the number of devices during experimental research is determined, sufficient to calculate the mathematical expectation of the resistances of the contact connections of the devices with a given accuracy. As a result of experimental studies, it is revealed that the resistance value of contacts and contact joints can increase during operation by 2-2.5 times. The established dependences of the change in contact resistance can be used to predict the technical state of electrical installations of intrashop low-voltage networks, to clarify the amount of electricity losses in shop networks up to 1 kV, and can also be used as an additional regulation for maintenance and scheduled preventive maintenance.

2021 ◽  
Wei Qin ◽  
Tiansong Gu ◽  
Hongliang Li

Inter-turn short circuit is a common fault in reactor. In view of the current situation of insufficient condition based maintenance of reactor, an on-line monitoring method suitable for Inter-turn short circuit fault of distribution reactor was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the equivalent circuit model of reactor was built, and the calculation method of electrical parameters of reactor was obtained; Then, a set of on-line monitoring system for reactor short-circuit fault was built. Finally, the short-circuit test of reactor under different fault location and fault degree was carried out. The results show that the equivalent reactance and resistance change rate of inter-turn short circuit of reactor have the symmetry of short circuit position, the absolute value of change rate in the middle is the largest, and the absolute value of change rate at both ends is the smallest. With the deepening of short-circuit fault, the equivalent reactance decreases and the decreasing range increases. The equivalent resistance shows an increasing trend, and the increasing range increases. This research technology can realize the effective monitoring of inter-turn short circuit fault of distribution reactor.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Chenqi Yan ◽  
Mengchao Tan

The purpose is to make defect detection in microelectronic processing technology fast, accurate, reliable, and efficient. A new optical remote sensing-optical beam induced resistance change (ORS-OBIRCH) target recognition and location defect detection method is proposed based on an artificial intelligence algorithm, optical remote sensing (ORS), and optical beam induced resistance change (OBIRCH) location technology using deep convolutional neural network. This method integrates the characteristics of high resolution and rich details of the image obtained by ORS technology and combines the advantages of photosensitive temperature characteristics in OBIRCH positioning technology. It can be adopted to identify, capture, and locate the defects of microdevices in the process of microelectronic processing. Simulation results show that this method can quickly reduce the detection range and locate defects accurately and efficiently. The experimental results reveal that the ORS-OBIRCH target recognition defect location detection method can complete the dynamic synchronization of the IC detection system and obtain high-quality images by changing the laser beam irradiation cycle. Moreover, it can analyze and process the detection results to quickly, accurately, and efficiently locate the defect location. Unlike the traditional detection methods, the success rate of detection has been greatly improved, which is about 95.8%, an increase of nearly 40%; the detection time has been reduced by more than half, from 5.5 days to 1.9 days, and the improvement rate has reached more than 65%. In a word, this method has good practical application value in the field of microelectronic processing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 413 ◽  
pp. 146-153
Santa Stepina ◽  
Igors Klemenoks ◽  
Gita Sakale ◽  
Maris Knite

The aim of this work is to investigate chemo-resistivity properties of natural rubber-carbon nanostructure composite, that’s why a change of diffusion characteristics and reversibility of electro-chemical properties of the composite with different degree values of crosslinks have been analysed. The composites are made from natural rubber (polyisoprene) as matrix material and high structure carbon black as electro-conductive filler. In order to investigate diffusion characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in relation to chemo-resistive response of composites simultaneous mass, length and electrical resistance change measurements of the samples, when samples are held in VOC and after exposures to VOC were carried out. Electrical resistance increase mechanism in the composite advances with the composite structure development during vulcanization.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 8085
Santosh Pandit ◽  
Mengyue Li ◽  
Yanyan Chen ◽  
Shadi Rahimi ◽  
Vrss Mokkapati ◽  

Microbial colonization to biomedical surfaces and biofilm formation is one of the key challenges in the medical field. Recalcitrant biofilms on such surfaces cause serious infections which are difficult to treat using antimicrobial agents, due to their complex structure. Early detection of microbial colonization and monitoring of biofilm growth could turn the tide by providing timely guidance for treatment or replacement of biomedical devices. Hence, there is a need for sensors, which could generate rapid signals upon bacterial colonization. In this study, we developed a simple prototype sensor based on pristine, non-functionalized graphene. The detection principle is a change in electrical resistance of graphene upon exposure to bacterial cells. Without functionalization with specific receptors, such sensors cannot be expected to be selective to certain bacteria. However, we demonstrated that two different bacterial species can be detected and differentiated by our sensor due to their different growth dynamics, adherence pattern, density of adhered bacteria and microcolonies formation. These distinct behaviors of tested bacteria depicted distinguishable pattern of resistance change, resistance versus gate voltage plot and hysteresis effect. This sensor is simple to fabricate, can easily be miniaturized, and can be effective in cases when precise identification of species is not needed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hui Bai ◽  
Jinsong Wu ◽  
Xianli Su ◽  
Haoyang Peng ◽  
Zhi Li ◽  

AbstractElectric field-induced changes in the electrical resistance of a material are considered essential and enabling processes for future efficient large-scale computations. However, the underlying physical mechanisms of electroresistance are currently remain largely unknown. Herein, an electrically reversible resistance change has been observed in the thermoelectric α-Cu2Se. The spontaneous electric dipoles formed by Cu+ ions displaced from their positions at the centers of Se-tetrahedrons in the ordered α-Cu2Se phase are examined, and α-Cu2Se phase is identified to be a multipolar antiferroelectric semiconductor. When exposed to the applied voltage, a reversible switching of crystalline domains aligned parallel to the polar axis results in an observed reversible resistance change. The study expands on opportunities for semiconductors with localized polar symmetry as the hardware basis for future computational architectures.

Mokhtar Touam ◽  
Mohammed Chenafa ◽  
Soufyane Chekroun ◽  
Ramzi‎ Salim

<span lang="EN-US">The induction motor is complex because its dynamic is nonlinear, multivariable and highly coupled. In addition, the induction motor (IM) controller design can be degraded due to wide ranges operating speed specially in low and near-zero speeds and also to variation of interval parameters such as the stator resistance change because of stator heating during operation. Our contribution is the use of a nonlinear sliding mode control using a fuzzy mutual reference adaptive system observer based on two fuzzy adaptation mechanisms to estimate both rotor speed and stator resistance. The proposed work was verified and compared by simulation and tested in various ranges of speed with motor and regenerating regions of operation. The results show that the proposed approach has proved good effectiveness in tracking and observation.</span>

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