moral principles
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Валентина Володимирівна Яценко

The article provides insights into the nature and specifics of social responsibility of higher education institutions in the context of transformational economy. In particular, it is argued that in the frameworks of structural and innovative transformations, technogenic safety as a readiness to be socially responsible, contributes to implementing the idea of integration of philosophical, legal, sociological and pedagogical approaches to enhance the performance of modern higher education institutions. The most critical factors in building social responsibility are the focus on professional responsibility, autonomy of higher education institutions, as well as the compliance with the principle of freedom of choice and responsibility in providing dual education services and applied research. The hypothesis of the study is the statement that in the context of structural and innovative transformations, the gnoseological nature of social responsibility of higher education institutions is embodied in gradual building of a technogenic safety paradigm. The research objective is to explore the specifics of social responsibility of higher education institutions from the perspectives of structural and innovative transformations. To attain the study agenda, the following research methods have been employed: historical analysis – to track successive changes in social responsibility concepts in the area of higher education subject to evolutionary development of society; analysis and synthesis techniques – to reveal the content and structure of a social responsibility framework. The findings demonstrate that a technological background to facilitate successive change in the structure of social responsibility elements is the following chain relationship: goals – knowledge – methods – activities. In this chain, goals are considered as expected professional performance outcomes; knowledge, methods and activities – as the capacity (readiness) of higher education institutions to implement effective professional technologies to attain the best results along with meeting all stakeholders’ demands. The summary concludes that the gnoseological implications in building social responsibility in higher education institutions affect the content of goals and the qualitative variety of tools which rely upon worldview and cultural societal values, as well as moral principles and ethical standards of educational activities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 ◽  
pp. 121-140
Anna Ayse Akasoy

Histories of Arabic and Islamic philosophy tend to focus on texts which are systematic in nature and conventionally classified as philosophy or related scholarly disciplines. Philosophical principles, however, are also defining features of texts associated with other genres. Within the larger field of philosophy, this might be especially true of ethics and within the larger body of literature this might be especially the case for stories. Indeed, it is sometimes argued that the very purpose of storytelling is to reinforce and disseminate moral conventions. Likewise, the moral philosopher can be conceptualized as a homo narrans.The aim of this contribution is to apply the approach to narratives as a mode of debating ethical or moral principles to biographies of Alexander the Great. More than any other figure of the classical world, Alexander was religiously validated in the Islamic tradition due to his quasi-prophetic status as the ‘man with the two horns’ in the Qur’an. He appears prominently in the larger orbit of Arabic and Islamic philosophy as interlocutor and disciple of Aristotle and is adduced anecdotally in philosophical literature as an example to teach larger lessons of life. As a world conqueror, he provided an attractive model for those who sought to reconcile philosophical insight with worldly ambition.Focusing on biographies of Alexander, this article explores ethical principles which are inscribed in this body of literature and thus reads the texts as a narrativized form of philosophy. The analysis is comparative in two ways. Biographies of different periods and regions of the Islamicate world will be discussed, but comparisons with pre-Islamic biographies of Alexander (notably Roman biographies and the Alexander Romance) are included as well.

2021 ◽  
Arvid Erlandsson ◽  
Hajdi Moche ◽  
Stephan Dickert

Charitable giving, volunteering, climate-friendly choices, and most recently changing one’s lifestyle to stop the spread of the coronavirus are all examples of prosocial behavior. Prosociality can be investigated from different perspectives including the “who-question” (which people are more likely to help), and the “when-question” (which situational factors stimulate helping?), but in this article we focus primarily on the “why-question” (which emotions and cognitions motivate helping?)Specifically, this article tries to organize and synthesize literature related to emotions, thoughts, and beliefs (i.e. psychological mechanisms) that motivate or demotivate human helping behavior. To do this, we present a new typology including four overarching interrelated categories, each encompassing multiple subcategories.(1) Emotions: (a) emotional reactions elicited by the need situation such as empathic concern/sympathy, (b) positive or negative attitudes toward the beneficiary or the requester, (c) incidental mood. (2) Moral principles: (a) personal responsibility, (b) fairness-concerns, (c) aversion towards causing harm. (3) Anticipated impact: (a) self-efficacy (e.g. “can I make a difference?”) and (b) response-efficacy (e.g., “is this cause/project efficient and worthwhile?”). (4) Anticipated personal consequences: (a) material, (b) social and (c) emotional costs and benefits that the helper expects will follow if she helps or if she does not help. Increased knowledge about the “who” (e.g. individual differences in demography or personality) and “when” (situational antecedents such as characteristic of those in need, or type of solicitation) can surely help predict and even increase prosociality, but we argue that to understand the psychology of helping we need to also consider the psychological mechanisms underlying prosocial decisions (the “why-question”).We compare our typology against related theoretical frameworks, and present the pros and cons with different methodological approaches of testing psychological mechanisms of helping, with the aim to help researchers and practitioners better organize and understand the many psychological factors that influence prosocial decisions.

V. I. Arshinov ◽  
O. A. Grimov ◽  
V. V. Chekletsov

The boundaries of social acceptance and models of convergence of human and non-human (for example, subjects of artificial intelligence) actors of digital reality are defined.The constructive creative possibilities of convergent processes in distributed neural networks are analyzed from the point of view of possible scenarios for building “friendly” human-dimensional symbioses of natural and artificial intelligence. A comprehensive analysis of new management challenges related to the development of cyber-physical and cybersocial systems is carried out.A model of social organizations and organizational behavior in the conditions of cyberphysical reality is developed.The possibilities of reconciling human moral principles and “machine ethics” in the processes of modeling and managing digital reality are studied. The significance of various concepts of digital, machine and cyber-anymism for the socio-cultural understanding of the development of modern cyber-physical technologies, the anthropological dimension of a smart city is revealed. The article introduces the concept of hybrid society and shows the development of its models as self-organizing collective systems that consist of co-evolving biohybrid and socio-technical spheres. The importance of modern anthropogenic research for sustainable development is analyzed. The process of marking ontological boundaries between heterogeneous modalities in the digital world is investigated. Examples of acute social contexts that are able to set the vector of practical philosophy in the modern digital era are considered.

2021 ◽  
pp. 321-323
Martin Wight

In Wight’s view, ‘Perhaps the most interesting thing about this book is that it does not mention Morgenthau’s colleague at Chicago, Leo Strauss [ … ] Agreed in their concern about the retreat of political science into “the trivial, the formal, the methodological, the purely theoretical, the remotely historical”, they are divided by the gulf of natural law.’ Morgenthau asserted, however, that Wight in his review had made ‘a factual error’. Morgenthau quoted another one of his books, In Defense of the National Interest: ‘There is a profound and neglected truth hidden in Hobbes’s extreme dictum that the state creates morality as well as law and that there is neither morality nor law outside the state. Universal moral principles, such as justice or equality, are capable of guiding political action only to the extent that they have been given concrete content and have been related to political situations by society.’ Morgenthau wrote in criticism of Wight’s review: ‘To say that a truth is “hidden” in an “extreme” dictum can hardly be called an endorsement of the dictum. To call a position “extreme” is not to identify oneself with the position but to disassociate oneself from it. In the quoted passage I was trying to establish the point, in contrast to Hobbes’s, that moral principles are universal and, hence, are not created by the state.’ Wight replied: ‘I am sorry to have misinterpreted Professor Morgenthau, but I rejoice that my error has evoked an authoritative exegesis of a disputed passage.’

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 166
Tahreem Noor Khan

Purpose: The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been widely known in the Islamic banking sector yet there is criticism and lack of trust which exists among stakeholdersDesign/Method/Approach: To reduce negative concern and to fill the gap in the literature, this research reinforces the integration of ethical and moral principles in the banking business.Findings: One of the integral and core elements of Islamic economics is ‘falah’; which focuses on wellness and the concept of reward in this world and hereafterOriginality/Values: To fulfil the needs of the ethical aspect of Islamic banks which leads to ‘falah’, this research has extracted the underlying theoretical issues of Islamic bank Corporate Social Responsibility (web visibility, initiatives, strategy).  This research also determines the extent of CSR visibility in twelve leading Islamic banks’ corporate websites.

Yusuf Oktan

In the global world, cultural interaction and global organizations lead to great activities in the field of business. However, this situation has brought with it negative situations such as unfair competition, discrimination, mobbing, bribery, nepotism and corruption in the job, employer and worker. Especially in the last fifty years, with the strengthening of socialism and the decline of liberalism, business ethics has become a matter of debate in the West. In this context, the European Business Ethics network was established, and many rights regarding work and workers were brought to the agenda in the United States. It is possible to see the aforementioned measures that the business world tried to implement only in the 20th century, in the words and practices of the Prophet towards social life. As a matter of fact, among the general moral principles that the Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) presented to humanity, the principles related to business ethics are too many to be denied. The narrations about work and worker, which are also related to general moral principles, show that the Prophet Muhammad aimed to establish an inclusive system on this issue. According to this study; It aims to present the principles that today's business ethics defends within its own body, in terms of business, employer and employee, by examining it with the historical development process. It aims to reveal the existence of the business ethics principles presented on the western axis in the general words and practices of the Prophet.

2021 ◽  
pp. 127-141
Bogumił Gacka

The article presents the notion of person in Confucianism in the context of biographical background of Confucius (551-479 B.C.). As an itinerant sage Confucius taught the practical significance of moral values in the social and political life. His disciples collected his teachings in Analects, in which Confucius noticed that at his age of 50 he knew the will of Heaven (A 11:4). He began to teach Humanism with respect to Transcendence (T’ien).According to the great specialists, Prof. Tu Wei-Ming (Harvard University) and Prof. John Berthrong (Boston University), “the social dimension” of the human person in Confucianism is important and the person is conceived as “a center of relationships” and as a self of personal development (selfhood as creative transformation). There are five universal ways in human relations which are governed by five moral principles. The five ways are those governing the relationships between ruler and minister, between father and son, between husband and wife, between elder and younger brothers, and those in the intercourse between friends. The core of the human person is humanity (jen or ren).Just as “compassion” is the greatest Buddhist virtue, and “love” the Christian, jen is the ultimate goal of conduct and self-transformation for the Confucian. According to Confucius, education reforms a personal life as well as a social and political life in order to realize a universal love and a personal development of man (juncy).

A.A. Morozova

The processes of the development of a market economy, entailing the commercialization in all spheres of social life, raise the question of the correlation between the role of human beings as economic subjects and our role as moral beings. In economics, this this issue is associated with the discussion about the way norms pervade economic theory, expressed in the dichotomy between holistic and individualistic methods. The scope of the influence of governmental bodies and large corporate structures on the socio-economic, cultural and natural environment highlights the philosophical problem of applying moral criteria to collective economic actors, which is reflected in the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The author, in this paper, opines that the question of introducing ethical principles into economic practice cannot be entirely resolved within the framework of economic theory and requires an appeal to moral philosophy. The problem of the correlation between the economic and the moral spheres is considered on the basis of V.S. Solovyov’s work “The Justification of the Good”. The principal economic ideas stated in this work are discussed in the context of assessments by past and present researchers, of economic history, and of philosophical and economic-managerial conceptions. The author presents a comparative analysis of V.S. Solovyov’s ideas about the correlation between economics and morality and the principal ideas behind corporate social responsibility. The author reveals axiological and teleological differences between the two conceptions. Whereas V.S. Solovyov deals with moral and religious categories and notions of progress, the concept of corporate social responsibility is based on economic and legal priorities and is focused on sustainable development. At the same time, the similarities identified between the concepts (such as their complex nature, the acknowledgement of the role of moral principles of the economic participants, the importance of environmental issues and legal regulators) lead us to conclude about the possibility of their further convergence and the surmounting of the limitations of corporate social responsibility based on the teachings of V.S. Solovyov.

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