Lipid Molecular Species
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2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
S. G. B. Gowda ◽  
Y. Sasaki ◽  
E. Hasegawa ◽  
H. Chiba ◽  
S. P. Hui

Insects such as Tenebrio molitor have been considered an alternative source of nutrition for animals and have also been adopted as human food throughout history, especially in Asia and Africa. Lipids are the second most abundant component followed by proteins. However, studies focusing on comprehensive lipid composition analsysis of these widely reared species are limited. The untargeted lipidomic analysis of yellow mealworm larvae (T. molitor) led to the identification of several lipid molecular species from lipid classes such as: free fatty acids, sphingolipids, phospholipids, and triacylglycerols. The results revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (45%) are the most abundant fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) (42%) and saturated fatty acids (13%). Fatty acids such as FA 18:1 and FA 18:2 are the most abundant fatty acids and are substantially enriched in other complex lipids in the form of esters. Moreover, functional lipids such as sphingomyelins, ceramides, cardiolipins, phosphatidylinositols, and phosphatidylethanolamines were characterised for the first time, with a large number of MUFAs and PUFAs as their main acyl chains. Overall, our data showed the occurrence of multiple structurally diverse lipids in T. molitor, suggesting that mealworms are not only enriched with proteins but also have several functional lipids, which are highly beneficial to human and animal health. Thus, the larvae of T. molitor could serve as a promising candidate for the development of functional food and feed products.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Shuqiang Chen ◽  
Ming Wang ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Jun Wang ◽  
Xuhui Ma ◽  
...  

Abstract Background It has been previously demonstrated that cholesterol content and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio were significantly higher in asthenozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. The majority of published studies have investigated the fatty acid composition of phospholipids rather than lipids themselves. This study evaluated the lipid composition of asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic spermatozoa, and identified the exact lipid species that correlated with sperm motility. Methods A total of 12 infertile asthenozoospermia patients and 12 normozoospermia subjects with normal sperm motility values were tested for semen volume, sperm concentration, count, motility, vitality and morphology. High-coverage targeted lipidomics with 25 individual lipid classes was performed to analyze the sperm lipid components and establish the exact lipid species that correlated with sperm motility. Results A total of 25 individual lipid classes and 479 lipid molecular species were identified and quantified. Asthenozoospermic spermatozoa showed an increase in the level of four lipid classes, including Cho, PE, LPI and GM3. A total of 48 lipid molecular species were significantly altered between normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic spermatozoa. Furthermore, the levels of total GM3 and six GM3 molecular species, which were altered in normozoospermic spermatozoa versus asthenozoospermic spermatozoa, were inversely correlated with sperm progressive and total motility. Conclusions Several unique lipid classes and lipid molecular species were significantly altered between asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic spermatozoa, revealing new possibilities for further mechanistic pursuits and highlighting the development needs of culture medium formulations to improve sperm motility.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 4
Author(s):  
Caroline Gaud ◽  
Bebiana C. Sousa ◽  
An Nguyen ◽  
Maria Fedorova ◽  
Zhixu Ni ◽  
...  

Lipidomics increasingly describes the quantification using mass spectrometry of all lipids present in a biological sample.  As the power of lipidomics protocols increase, thousands of lipid molecular species from multiple categories can now be profiled in a single experiment.  Observed changes due to biological differences often encompass large numbers of structurally-related lipids, with these being regulated by enzymes from well-known metabolic pathways.  As lipidomics datasets increase in complexity, the interpretation of their results becomes more challenging.  BioPAN addresses this by enabling the researcher to visualise quantitative lipidomics data in the context of known biosynthetic pathways.  BioPAN provides a list of genes, which could be involved in the activation or suppression of enzymes catalysing lipid metabolism in mammalian tissues.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 4
Author(s):  
Caroline Gaud ◽  
Bebiana C. Sousa ◽  
An Nguyen ◽  
Maria Fedorova ◽  
Zhixu Ni ◽  
...  

Lipidomics increasingly describes the quantitation using mass spectrometry of all lipids present in a biological sample.  As the power of lipidomics protocols increase, thousands of lipid molecular species from multiple categories can now be profiled in a single experiment.  Observed changes due to biological differences often encompass large numbers of structurally-related lipids, with these being regulated by enzymes from well-known metabolic pathways.  As lipidomics datasets increase in complexity, the interpretation of their results becomes more challenging.  BioPAN addresses this by enabling the researcher to visualise quantitative lipidomics data in the context of known biosynthetic pathways.  BioPAN provides a list of genes, which could be involved in the activation or suppression of enzymes catalysing lipid metabolism in mammalian tissues.


Molecules ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 24 (24) ◽  
pp. 4609 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xin Gao ◽  
Wenru Liu ◽  
Jun Mei ◽  
Jing Xie

Shewanella putrefaciens is a well-known specific spoilage organism (SSO) and cold-tolerant microorganism in refrigerated fresh marine fish. Cold-adapted mechanism includes increased fluidity of lipid membranes by the ability to finely adjust lipids composition. In the present study, the lipid profile of S. putrefaciens cultivated at 30, 20, 10, 4, and 0 °C was explored using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) to discuss the effect of lipid composition on cold-adapted tolerance. Lipidomic analysis detected a total of 27 lipid classes and 606 lipid molecular species in S. putrefaciens cultivated at 30, 20, 10, 4, and 0 °C. S. putrefaciens cultivated at 30 °C (SP-30) had significantly higher content of glycerolipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, and fatty acids compared with that at 0 °C (SP-0); however, the lower content of phospholipids (13.97%) was also found in SP-30. PE (30:0), PE (15:0/15:0), PE (31:0), PA (33:1), PE (32:1), PE (33:1), PE (25:0), PC (22:0), PE (29:0), PE (34:1), dMePE (15:0/16:1), PE (31:1), dMePE (15:1/15:0), PG (34:2), and PC (11:0/11:0) were identified as the most abundant lipid molecular species in S. putrefaciens cultivated at 30, 20, 10, 4, and 0 °C. The increase of PG content contributes to the construction of membrane lipid bilayer and successfully maintains membrane integrity under cold stress. S. putrefaciens cultivated at low temperature significantly increased the total unsaturated liquid contents but decreased the content of saturated liquid contents.


2018 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Noriaki Kawanishi ◽  
Yuki Kato ◽  
Kyosuke Yokozeki ◽  
Shuji Sawada ◽  
Ryota Sakurai ◽  
...  

2015 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 147-153 ◽  
Author(s):  
Laura J. Pham ◽  
Nico G. Dumandan

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