Abstract: Covid-19 means Corona Virus Disease which is an emergency disease declared by World Health Organization. Its first case was reported on December, 2019 in a city of China name Wuhan. Responsible virus for Covid-19 is SARS-CoV-2. Disease can be transmitted by Sneezing, Coughing, Close Contact etc. Patient of Covid-19 advise to isolate themselves for minimum 14 days either in Home or Hospital setup.
Workplace health and safety has been of paramount importance for any nation and the stakeholders- authorities, employers and workers – must have reasonable sensitization for the same. During the COVID 19 pandemic, lots of policy formulations and regulations had to incorporate within the industries for the health and welfare of the workers. The “new normal” will take some time for adjustments, challenges and implications to be implemented effectively and consistently. Certain processes in the workplace, especially in the mechanical engineering companies, are likely for high close contact incidences. Special situations pertaining to workers’’ health, like crowded accommodations, travel risks as well common canteens, all need to be reconsidered for providing safer environment to the workers, as far as the current pandemic is concerned. This requires coordinated efforts from all the stakeholders within the mechanical field through subconscious acceptance of the norms of safety and hygiene at all levels.
PurposeThe objective of our study was to report a case of encephalitis and endophthalmitis caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), identified using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS).Case PresentationA 54-year-old worker, from a swine slaughterhouse, developed signs of severe encephalitis, including fever, disturbance of consciousness, hypopnea, and status epilepticus, after finger injury at work. The PRV sequences were successfully identified from the blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and aqueous humor of the patient through mNGS, which was further verified using a Sanger sequencing.ConclusionOur case emphasizes the importance of mNGS in early diagnoses of infectious diseases, and gives a clue that PRV can spread across species and infect human. It is necessary to carry out a skin protection and education about disease prevention for people who have close contact with swine.
The recent global health problem, COVID-19, has had far-reaching impacts on lifestyles. Although many effective WHO-approved vaccines have been produced that have reduced the spread and severity of the disease, it appears to persist in humans for a long time and possibly forever as everyday it turns out to have new mutations. COVID-19 involves the lungs and other organs primarily through cytokine storms, which have been implicated in many other inflammatory disorders, including periodontal diseases. COVID-19 is in a close association with dental and periodontal practice from two respects: first, repeated mandatory lockdowns have reduced patient referrals to dentists and limited the dental and periodontal procedures to emergency treatments, whereas it is important to recognize the oral manifestations of COVID-19 as well as the influence of oral and periodontal disease on the severity of COVID-19. Second, dentistry is one of the high-risk professions in terms of close contact with unmasked individuals, necessitating redefining the principles of infection control. The pressures of the economic recession on patients as well as dentists add to the difficulty of resuming elective dental services. Therefore, this study is divided into two parts corresponding to what mentioned above: the first part examines the clinical and immunological associations between COVID-19 and periodontal and oral diseases, and the second part delineates the measures needed to control the disease transmission in dental clinics as well as the economic impact of the pandemic era on dental services.
Background: SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global pandemic since its outbreak in Wuhan, 2019. Virus transmission primarily occurs through close contact, respiratory droplets, and aerosol particles. However, since SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in fecal and rectal samples from infected individuals, the fecal-oral route has been suggested as another potential route of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical implications of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding in Danish COVID-19 patients.Methods: Hospitalized and non-hospitalized adults and children who were recently tested with a pharyngeal COVID-19 test, were included in the study. A rectal swab was collected from all participants. Hospitalized adults and COVID-19 positive children were followed with both pharyngeal and rectal swabs until two consecutive negative results were obtained. RT-qPCR targeting the envelope gene was used to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the samples. Demographic, medical, and biochemical information was obtained through questionnaires and medical records.Results: Twenty-eight of 52 (53.8%) COVID-19 positive adults and children were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in rectal swabs. Seven of the rectal positive participants were followed for more than 6 days. Two of these (28.6%) continued to test positive in their rectal swabs for up to 29 days after the pharyngeal swabs had turned negative. Hospitalized rectal positive and rectal negative adults were comparable regarding demographic, medical, and biochemical information. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the severity of the disease among the two groups.Conclusions: We provided evidence of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding in Danish COVID-19 patients. The clinical importance of rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding appears to be minimal.
Filth flies, cockroaches, and dung beetles have been close neighbors with humans and animals throughout our joint histories. However, these insects can also serve as vectors for many zoonotic enteric parasites (ZEPs). Zoonoses by ZEPs remain a paramount public health threat due to our close contact with animals, combined with poor water, sanitation, and hygiene access, services, and behaviors in many global regions. Our objective in this systematic review was to determine which ZEPs have been documented in these vectors, to identify risk factors associated with their transmission, and to provide effectual One Health recommendations for curbing their spread. Using PRISMA guidelines, a total of 85 articles published from 1926 to 2021 were reviewed and included in this study. Qualitative analysis revealed that the most common parasites associated with these insects included, but were not limited to: Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. Additionally, prominent risk factors discovered in the review, such as poor household and community WASH services, unsafe food handling, and exposure to domestic animals and wildlife, significantly increase parasitic transmission and zoonoses. The risk of insect vector transmission in our shared environments makes it critically important to implement a One Health approach in reducing ZEP transmission.
Gas–liquid flow in a pipeline is a very common. Slug two-phase flow is dominated in the case of slightly upward flow (+0.25°) and considered to be the comprehensive flow configuration, and can be in close contact with all the other flow patterns. The models of different flow patterns can be unified. Precise prediction of the slug flow is crucial for proper design and operation. In this paper, we develop hydrodynamics unified modeling for gas–liquid two-phase slug flow, and the bubble and droplet entrainment is optimized. For the important parameters (wall and interfacial friction factors, slug translational velocity and average slug length), the correlations of these parameters are optimized. Furthermore, the related parameters for liquid droplet and gas bubble entrainment are given. Accounting for the gas–liquid interface shape, hydrodynamics models, i.e., the flat interface model (FIM) and the double interface model (DIM), of liquid film in the slug body are applied and compared with the experimental data. The calculated results show that the predictions for the liquid holdup and pressure gradient of the DIM agree with experimental data better than those of the FIM. A comparison between the available experimental results and Zhang’s model calculations shows that the DIM model correctly describes the slug dynamics in gas–liquid pipe flow.
The impact of COVID-19 on various aspects of our life is evident. Proximity and close contact with individuals infected with the virus, and the extent of such contact, contribute to the intensity of the spread of the virus. Healthy and infected household members who both require sanctuary and quarantine space come into close and extended contact in housing. In other words, housing and living conditions can impact the health of occupants and the spread of COVID-19. This study investigates the relationship between housing characteristics and variations in the spread of COVID-19 per capita across Sweden’s 290 municipalities. For this purpose, we have used the number of infected COVID-19 cases per capita during the pandemic period—February 2020 through April 2021—per municipality. The focus is on variables that measure housing and housing conditions in the municipalities. We use exploratory analysis and Principal Components Analysis to reduce highly correlated variables into a set of linearly uncorrelated variables. We then use the generated variables to estimate direct and indirect effects in a spatial regression analysis. The results indicate that housing and housing availability are important explanatory factors for the geographical spread of COVID-19. Overcrowding, availability, and quality are all critical explanatory factors.
The shaping of the human embryo begins with compaction, during which cells come into close contact and form a tighter structure. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) studies suggest that human embryos fail compaction primarily because of defective adhesion. Based on our current understanding of animal morphogenesis, other morphogenetic engines, such as cell contractility, could be involved in shaping the human embryo. However, the molecular, cellular and physical mechanisms driving human embryo morphogenesis remain uncharacterized. Using micropipette aspiration on human embryos donated to research, we have mapped cell surface tensions during compaction. This reveals a 4-fold increase of tension at the cell-medium interface while cell-cell contacts keep a steady tension. Comparison between human and mouse reveals qualitatively similar but quantitively different mechanical strategies, with human embryos being mechanically least efficient. Inhibition of cell contractility and cell-cell adhesion in human embryos reveal that only contractility controls the surface tension responsible for compaction. Interestingly, if both cellular processes are required for compaction, they exhibit distinct mechanical signatures when faulty. Analyzing the mechanical signature of naturally failing embryos, we find evidence that non-compacting embryos or partially compacting embryos with excluded cells have defective contractility. Together, our study reveals that an evolutionarily conserved increase in cell contractility is required to generate the forces driving the first morphogenetic movement shaping the human body.
Our hospital experienced a hospital shutdown and quarantine for two weeks after one case of COVID-19 was diagnosed during hospitalization. We analyzed the reopening process following hospital closure and possible factors that prevented hospital spread.
We retrospectively reviewed the confirmed patient’s medical records and results of epidemiological survey available from the infection control team of our hospital.
A total of 117 hospital staff members were tested, 26 of whom were self-isolated. Of the 54 inpatients tested, 28 on the same floor and two close contacts in the endoscopic room were quarantined in a single room. Finally, all quarantined hospital staff, inpatients and outpatients were tested for COVID-19 on the 14th day of close contact. The results were all negative, and the hospital work completely resumed.
Although closing and isolating the hospital appeared to have played a useful role in preventing the spread of COVID-19 inside the hospital and to the local community, it is still debated whether or not the duration of hospital closure or quarantine was appropriate. The lessons from the two-week hospital closure suggest that wearing a mask, hand hygiene and the ward environment are important factors in preventing nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19.