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2022 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. 103891
Lukas Mauler ◽  
Laureen Dahrendorf ◽  
Fabian Duffner ◽  
Martin Winter ◽  
Jens Leker

M. I. Korabelnikov ◽  
S. N. Bastrikov ◽  
N. A. Aksenova ◽  
A. T. Khudaiberdiev ◽  

In the practice of oil production, there are oil deposits with high values of gas content (gas factor), from tens to hundreds of cubic meters of gas per one ton of oil produced. Gas dissolved in oil and coming from the reservoir into the well along with the liquid phase (oil, water), under certain thermodynamic conditions, is capable of forming hydrates, which complicate the operation of downhole pumping equipment, reduce the efficiency of pumps and well flow rate. The formation of gas hydrate plugs in the well requires the total overhaul, which leads to an increase in non-productive time, financial costs and an increase in lost profits on lost oil. Considered in the article technologies and devices that prevent the formation of gas hydrates in marginal wells with a high gas content in oil have shown their unreliability and low efficiency. The authors propose for the consideration a new effective technology for the operation of such wells, which makes it possible to avoid the formation of hydrates. Keywords: well; gas content; hydrates; production; oil; valve; coupling; pump.

Symmetry ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Kunal Sandip Garud ◽  
Seong-Guk Hwang ◽  
Jeong-Woo Han ◽  
Moo-Yeon Lee

Photovoltaics (PVs) are an effective technology to harvest the solar energy and satisfy the increasing global electricity demand. The effectiveness and life span of PVs could be enhanced by enabling effective thermal management. The conversion efficiency and surface temperature of PVs have an inverse relationship, and hence the cooling of PVs as an emerging body of work needs to have attention paid to it. The integration of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to PVs is one of the widely applied thermal management techniques to improve the performance of PVs as well as combined systems. The TEG utilizes the waste heat of PVs and generate the additional electric power output. The nanofluid enables superior thermal properties compared to that of conventional cooling fluids, and therefore the performance of photovoltaic/thermal–thermoelectric generator (PV/T-TEG) systems with nanofluid cooling is further enhanced compared to that of conventional cooling. The TEG enables a symmetrical temperature difference with a hot side due to the heat from PVs, and a cold side due to the nanofluid cooling. Therefore, the symmetrical thermal management system, by integrating the PV/T, TEG, and nanofluid cooling, has been widely adopted in recent times. The present review comprehensively summarizes various experimental, numerical, and theoretical research works conducted on PV/T-TEG systems with nanofluid cooling. The research studies on PV/T-TEG systems with nanofluid cooling were reviewed, focusing on the time span of 2015–2021. This review elaborates the various approaches and advancement in techniques adopted to enhance the performance of PV/T-TEG systems with nanofluid cooling. The application of TEG with nanofluid cooling in the thermal management of PVs is an emerging research area; therefore, this comprehensive review can be considered as a reference for future development and innovations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (48) ◽  
pp. 36-36
Liliya Ahmetova ◽  
Darya Semenova ◽  
Olga Molkanova ◽  
Hasyan Sharafutdinov

Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. is one of the most popular ornamental crops, used in landscape design. This article represents the study of the variety resistance of species and influence their of climatic change. In that sense the effective technology of plant shelter for the winter hardiness can be considered as a successful important factor for the promotion of this crop in northern area. Wherefore we consider in a comparative analysis of H. macrophylla varieties Forever & Ever Blue and Peppermint, which we carried out after winter hardiness in the conditions of central Russia. The most reliable and proven way to shelter for winter of hydrangea is the shelter of lutrasil, which contributed to an increase in the viability of shoots and the amount awakened buds, and also provided the better growth of shoots during the month. The highest percentage of overwintered shoots (77,8%), the amount of vegetative and generative buds (19,3±1,3 сm и 9,6±0,7 сm., respectively) and the total growth of shoots in spring (10,2 cm) were characteristic for variety Forever & Ever Blue for using lutrasil as a shelter. Keywords: HYDRANGEA MACROPHYLLA, VARIETIES, WINTER HARDINESS, FROST RESISTANCE, VIABILITY, SHELTER

S.A. Ramazanova ◽  
V.G. Savichenko ◽  
E.G. Ustarkhanova ◽  
E.D. Loginova ◽  

Soybean is the major protein-oil crop of a huge economic importance. Currently, to describe the new cultivars being applied for a patent there are used the modern methods based on an analysis of microsatellite (SSR) loci of DNA. The purposes of this work were a search of the new microsatellite markers to optimize the existing technology of soybean cultivars certification and identification as well as selection of conditions for PCR analysis and to test them on cultivars from the VIR’s collection. Seven microsatellite loci demonstrated the high polymorphism level on soybean cultivars and located in the different chromosomes were chosen in the literary sources and librarian data bases. The optimal temperatures for annealing were selected empirically for all the pairs of SSR-markers. The results of DNA amplification of 20 soybean genotypes showed all seven studied SSR-loci were polyallel. In general, we revealed 22 alleles that on average are 3.1 per a locus. The effective number of alleles Ne for the studied soybean genotypes varied from 1.69 to 2.27 and on average was equal to 2.01. An average meaning of an index of the polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.50. All the investigated soybean samples have the unique sets of alleles by the studied loci. Seven approbated loci can be used in development of an effective technology for identification and certification of the soybean genotypes.

Mi-feng Zhao ◽  
Juantao Zhang ◽  
Fangting Hu ◽  
Anqing Fu ◽  
Kelin Wang ◽  

Abstract Acid fracturing is an effective technology for increasing oil and gas production. However, acid will cause serious corrosion to the tubing. In this paper, the inhibition performance of TG202 inhibitor for acidizing of high temperature and high pressure gas wells on N80 carbon steel and 13Cr martensitic stainless steel tubing in 15% hydrochloric acid was studied by electrochemical noise technology. The results showed that with the increase of TG202 inhibitor content, the noise resistance increased and the corrosion rate of tubing steel decreased. Under the same condition, the order of corrosion rate of tubing steels: 13Cr > HP-13Cr > N80 > P110. The pitting corrosion of HP-13Cr and 13Cr is significant. The research showed that TG202 inhibitor had a protective effect on tubing during acidizing. The inhibition mechanism of TG202 inhibitor was discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (6) ◽  
pp. 795-803
A. Yu. Sharikov ◽  
M. V. Amelyakina

Extrusion can be considered not only as an effective technology for processing agricultural raw materials into feed and food products, but also as a thermo-mechanical method for modification of the chemical properties of biopolymers. Carbohydrates are the most represented class of organic compounds in raw materials processed by the agro-industrial complex. The assessment of the influence of the processing factor on the final physicochemical and technological properties of various types of carbohydrates included in the chemical composition of raw materials or used as mono-ingredients is an actual task for the food industry. The review considers the issues of extrusion modification of starch in terms of the difference in the properties of amylose and amylopectin as well as the presence of lipids and organic acids in the reaction system. Processes of macromolecular degradation, gelatinization, esterification and the formation of new chemical bonds in dependence on the conditions of extrusion and the composition of mixtures are discussed. The results of studies of the influence of extrusion cooking on the changes in the physicochemical properties of non-starchy polysaccharides, cellulose, araboxylans, inulin, pectin, chitosan, and gums of various origins are presented. It has been shown that extrusion and varying of its operating regimes can significantly affect the nutritional value of extrudates including changing the glycemic index, inactivating antinutritional factors, or increasing their content in extrudates.

Tamás Lovas ◽  
Árpád József Somogyi ◽  
Győző Simongáti

Terrestrial laser scanning is an effective technology to capture high density and accurate point clouds about objects with complex geometry. Ship industry requires 3D hull models for multiple reverse engineering purposes; renovation, as-built analysis, simulations etc. The paper discusses how terrestrial laser scanning can be applied to capture ship hull geometry to support hydrodynamic simulations. It presents recommendations of survey geometry and methods considering scanner locations, reflectivity issues. Hydrodynamic simulations require specific types of surface models as inputs; data processing procedure is discussed how the point clouds are effectively transformed to models to be applied. Resource analysis is also included, such as duration of survey and processing, equipment to be used.

Oleh Duma ◽  

The article presents the results of a scientific research the features of the Scandinavian model of technology transfer, which has demonstrated its effectiveness in Norway, Sweden and Finland. The Scandinavian model of technology transfer has been formed for a long time and has been subject to significant experiments by the governments of these countries, research centers, universities and business structures, which sought an effective model of organizing the innovation process from the perspective of their own goals and interests. The article presents the results of the functioning of technology transfer in the innovation ecosystem of these countries, through their place in the international rankings of innovations and related rankings. It is proposed to use a six-criteria scale to assess the effectiveness of technology transfer, which contains: Human development index, Global knowlede Index, Doing business, Global Innovations Index, The Global Competitiveness Index, The International Property Right Index. The results of the innovation ecosystem of countries have their expression in micro- and macroeconomic indicators. Most of these indicators are taken into account when ranking countries in one or more indices proposed for six criteria scale. Assessing the condition of technology transfer through these six criteria scale makes it possible to determine the productivity and level of organization of technology transfer in the country. The article analyzes the peculiarities of the functioning of technology transfer mechanisms in Norway, Sweden and Finland. The analysis revealed that the three countries studied have their own preconditions and priorities for the development of the innovation ecosystem. Nevertheless, there are a number of features that are common and fundamental for effective technology transfer in each. One of the important elements of effective technology transfer in the Scandinavian countries are universities and technology transfer centers in universities. Therefore, the article also explores the functions and tasks of technology transfer centers in Scandinavian universities. The peculiarities of the Scandinavian model, which determine its efficiency, have been researched, on the other hand, this peculiarities can and should be implemented in the Ukrainian practice of technology transfer

V. P. KUPRII ◽  

Purpose. On the basis of the comparative analysis to carry out a substantiation of the most expedient and rational way of strengthening of a weak massif during a construction of Dnipro metro escalator tunnels by NATM. Methodology. To achieve this goal, an analysis of construction technologies in weak soils was conducted. The most used technologies are Forepoling Umbrella System (FUS), artificial ground freezing and chemical cementation. The peculiarities of carrying out each of the technologies for the conditions of inclined production were analyzed. It is determined how each of the technologies is applied to escalator tunnels and implements the strengthening of weak soil. Findings. The advantages and disadvantages of three technologies for fixing weak soil around the escalator tunnel are identified. Based on comparative analysis, it was found that the only technology that provides increased strength parameters of loamy soils, characteristic for the upper part of the escalator tunnel of the Dnipro metro, is the technology of chemical strengthening (cementation). In some cases, if necessary, short sections of sloping course, characterized by particularly weak soil, can be supported by several pipes, without creating a continuous leading mount. The results of the analysis are the basis for further substantiation of cementation, which creates a multilayer system "reinforced soil massif – temporary fastening – permanent lining". Originality. Based on the results of comparative analysis of three technologies for escalator tunnel construction by NATM, it is proved that the use of cementation not only increases the strength of the soil during drilling, but also further in operation serves as an additional element of the multilayer system "reinforced soil massif – temporary fastening – permanent lining". Practical value. In the course of research, the substantiation of cementation as the most rational and effective technology of strengthening of the surrounding weak massif at construction of the Dnipro metro was carried out.

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