thyroid hormone receptor
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2022 ◽  
Wang Lu ◽  
Zhu Mengxuan ◽  
Zhang Yong ◽  
Ren Ming ◽  
Gao Zixu ◽  

Abstract Background: Skin melanoma is a malignant tumor originated from skin melanocytes. It is highly malignant and easy to relapse and metastasis. Finding new diagnostic and therapeutic targets has become a hot issue. Accumulating evidence now indicates that thyroid hormone receptor interactor 13 (TRIP13) plays important roles in tumor development. However, its role in melanoma remains unclear.Methods: Bioinformatic analyses were employed to excavate crucial genes in melanoma using several public databases. The expression of TRIP13 was detected by immunohistochemistry. MV3 cell and A2058 cell were steadily transfected with TRIP13 knock-down or overexpression lentiviruses, then the function and potential mechanism of TRIP13 were studied in vitro and in vivo. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and mass spectrum were employed to screen out the interacting molecule of TRIP13.Results: Our results showed that TRIP13 was generally upregulated in melanoma tissues and was related to the poor prognosis of melanoma patients. The overexpression of TRIP13 promotes the invasion, migration and EMT transformation of melanoma cells in vitro, and promotes lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanismly, TRIP13 interacts with FLNA, and activates the PI3K/AKT pathway, and then induces melanoma migration, invasion and EMT transformation.Conclusion: Elevated TRIP13 drives tumor progression via the FLNA/PI3K/AKT axis, and TRIP13 is a innovative prognostic molecule and potential target of targeted therapy in melanoma.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Chiara Tocco ◽  
Michele Bertacchi ◽  
Michèle Studer

The assembly and maturation of the mammalian brain result from an intricate cascade of highly coordinated developmental events, such as cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Any impairment of this delicate multi-factorial process can lead to complex neurodevelopmental diseases, sharing common pathogenic mechanisms and molecular pathways resulting in multiple clinical signs. A recently described monogenic neurodevelopmental syndrome named Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf Optic Atrophy Syndrome (BBSOAS) is caused by NR2F1 haploinsufficiency. The NR2F1 gene, coding for a transcriptional regulator belonging to the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily, is known to play key roles in several brain developmental processes, from proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors to migration and identity acquisition of neocortical neurons. In a clinical context, the disruption of these cellular processes could underlie the pathogenesis of several symptoms affecting BBSOAS patients, such as intellectual disability, visual impairment, epilepsy, and autistic traits. In this review, we will introduce NR2F1 protein structure, molecular functioning, and expression profile in the developing mouse brain. Then, we will focus on Nr2f1 several functions during cortical development, from neocortical area and cell-type specification to maturation of network activity, hippocampal development governing learning behaviors, assembly of the visual system, and finally establishment of cortico-spinal descending tracts regulating motor execution. Whenever possible, we will link experimental findings in animal or cellular models to corresponding features of the human pathology. Finally, we will highlight some of the unresolved questions on the diverse functions played by Nr2f1 during brain development, in order to propose future research directions. All in all, we believe that understanding BBSOAS mechanisms will contribute to further unveiling pathophysiological mechanisms shared by several neurodevelopmental disorders and eventually lead to effective treatments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1352
Julia Schnoell ◽  
Ulana Kotowski ◽  
Bernhard J. Jank ◽  
Stefan Stoiber ◽  
Elisabeth Gurnhofer ◽  

The proteins sodium iodide symporter (NIS), μ-crystallin (CRYM), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) have been associated with prognosis in various cancer entities. While NIS and THRB may serve as possible therapeutic targets, the role of CRYM in cancer is still unclear. Protein levels of 44 patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological data and outcome. NIS was positive in 72%, CRYM was positive in 55%, and THRB was positive in 39% of the patients. CRYM-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas were associated with a better cause-specific survival. Thus, our data indicate that CRYM might be a suitable positive prognostic marker in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Furthermore, expression of NIS was present in most patients and therefore evaluation of the use of radioiodine treatment is recommended.

2021 ◽  
Suvi Ruuskanen ◽  
Mikaela Hukkanen ◽  
Natacha Garcin ◽  
Nina Cossin-Sevrin ◽  
Bin-Yan Hsu ◽  

Maternal hormones, such as thyroid hormones transferred to embryos and eggs, are key signalling pathways to mediate maternal effects. To be able to respond to maternal cues, embryos must express key molecular "machinery" of the hormone pathways, such as enzymes and receptors. While altricial birds begin thyroid hormone (TH) production only at/after hatching, experimental evidence suggests that their phenotype can be influenced by maternal THs deposited in the egg. However, it is not understood, how and when altricial birds express genes in the TH-pathway. For the first time, we measured the expression of key TH-pathway genes in altricial embryos, using two common altricial ecological model species (pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca and blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus). Deiodinase DIO1 gene expression could not be reliably confirmed in either species, but deiodinase enzyme DIO2 and DIO3 genes were expressed in both species. Given that DIO2 coverts T4 to biologically active T3, and DIO3 mostly T3 to inactive forms of thyroid hormones, our results suggest that embryos may modulate maternal signals. Thyroid hormone receptor (THRA and THRB) and monocarboxyl membrane transporter gene (SLC15A2) were also expressed, enabling TH-responses. Our results suggest that early altricial embryos may be able to respond and potentially modulate maternal signals conveyed by thyroid hormones.

Beatriz Romartinez-Alonso ◽  
Maura Agostini ◽  
Heulyn Jones ◽  
Jayde McLellan ◽  
Deepali Sood ◽  

Mutations in thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα), a ligand-inducible transcription factor, cause Resistance to Thyroid Hormone α (RTHα). This disorder is characterised by tissue-specific hormone refractoriness and hypothyroidism, due to inhibition of target gene expression by mutant TRα-corepressor complexes. Using biophysical approaches, we show that RTHα-associated TRα mutants devoid of ligand-dependent transcription activation function, unexpectedly retain the ability to bind thyroid hormone. Visualisation of ligand (T3) within the crystal structure of a prototypic TRα mutant, validates this notion. This finding prompted synthesis of different thyroid hormone analogues, identifying a lead compound (ES08) which dissociates corepressor from mutant human TRα more efficaciously than T3. ES08 rescues developmental anomalies in a zebrafish model of RTHα and induces target gene expression in TRα mutation-containing cells from an RTHα patient, more effectively than T3. Our observations provide proof-of-principle for developing synthetic ligands that can relieve transcriptional repression by the mutant TRα-corepressor complex, for treatment of RTHα.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 13105
Andrea Caddeo ◽  
Marta Anna Kowalik ◽  
Marina Serra ◽  
Massimiliano Runfola ◽  
Andrea Bacci ◽  

Activation of thyroid hormone receptor β (THRβ) has shown beneficial effects on metabolic alterations, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we investigated the effect of TG68, a novel THRβ agonist, on fatty liver accumulation and liver injury in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice fed HFD for 17 or 18 weeks, a time when all mice developed massive steatohepatitis, were then given TG68 at a dose of 9.35 or 2.8 mg/kg for 2 or 3 weeks, respectively. As a reference compound, the same treatment was adopted using equimolar doses of MGL-3196, a selective THRβ agonist currently in clinical phase III. The results showed that treatment with TG68 led to a reduction in liver weight, hepatic steatosis, serum transaminases, and circulating triglycerides. qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated activation of THRβ, as confirmed by increased mRNA levels of Deiodinase-1 and Malic enzyme-1, and changes in lipid metabolism, as revealed by increased expression of Acyl-CoA Oxidase-1 and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. The present results showed that this novel THRβ agonist exerts an anti-steatogenic effect coupled with amelioration of liver injury in the absence of extra-hepatic side effects, suggesting that TG68 may represent a useful tool for the treatment of NAFLD.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (23) ◽  
pp. 7337
Lorena Tedeschi ◽  
Cristina Vassalle ◽  
Giorgio Iervasi ◽  
Laura Sabatino

The thyroid hormone receptors are the mediators of a multitude of actions by the thyroid hormones in cells. Most thyroid hormone activities require interaction with nuclear receptors to bind DNA and regulate the expression of target genes. In addition to genomic regulation, thyroid hormones function via activation of specific cytosolic pathways, bypassing interaction with nuclear DNA. In the present work, we reviewed the most recent literature on the characteristics and roles of different factors involved in thyroid hormone function in particular, we discuss the genomic activity of thyroid hormone receptors in the nucleus and the functions of different thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in the cytosol. Furthermore, we describe the integrin αvβ3-mediated thyroid hormone signaling pathway and its rapid nongenomic action in the cell. We furthermore reviewed the thyroid hormone transporters enabling the uptake of thyroid hormones in the cell, and we also include a paragraph on the proteins that mediate thyroid receptors’ shuttling from the nucleus to the cytosol.

2021 ◽  
Marcus Heldmann ◽  
Krishna Chatterjee ◽  
Carla Moran ◽  
Berenike Rogge ◽  
Julia Steinhardt ◽  

Background: Thyroid hormone action is mediated by two forms of thyroid hormone receptors (α,β) with differential tissue distribution. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) mutations lead to resistance to thyroid hormone action in tissues predominantly expressing the β form of the receptor (pituitary, liver). This study seeks to identify effects of mutant TRβ on pituitary size. Methods: High-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired in 19 patients with RTHβ in comparison to 19 healthy matched controls. Volumetric measurements of the pituitary gland were performed independently and blinded by four different raters (two neuroradiologists, one neurologist, one neuroscientist). Results: Patients with mutant TRβ (Resistance to Thyroid Hormone β,RΤΗβ) showed elevated fT3/4 levels with normal TSH levels, whereas healthy controls showed normal thyroid hormone levels. Imaging revealed smaller pituitary size in RTHβ patients in comparison to healthy controls (F(1,35)=7.05, p=0.012, partial η2 =0.17). Conclusion: RTHβ subjects have impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormones, along with decreased size of the pituitary gland.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Malte Sandsveden ◽  
Signe Borgquist ◽  
Ann H. Rosendahl ◽  
Jonas Manjer

Abstract Background The active thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) has been found to have an estrogen-like effect on breast cancer cells. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha-2 (THRα-2) acts as an antagonist for triiodothyronine (T3) signaling, and a low expression has been associated with unfavorable tumor characteristics and a higher mortality in breast cancer. However, the evidence are not conclusive. The present study evaluates tumor-specific THRα-2 expression in invasive breast cancers and its association with tumor characteristics and long-term mortality in a large population. Method The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), a population-based cohort in Sweden that included 17,035 women from 1991 to 1996, was used. Women diagnosed with breast cancer during 1991–2010 were eligible for inclusion. A tissue micro array was constructed from stored tumor material and stained for THRα-2 using immunohistochemistry. Tumors from 654 patients were scored regarding the intensity and the fraction of cells stained, then dichotomized into low or high expression. Date and cause of death were collected up until 2018-12-31. Tumor- and patient characteristics were available from the MDCS. Missing data was imputed using chained equations. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for low vs high expression of THRα-2 related to specific tumor factors. Mortality was evaluated with Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox regression, rendering hazard ratios (HRs). Analyses were also stratified for estrogen receptor (ER) status. Results We found strong evidence of an association between low THRα-2 and unfavorable tumor characteristics, including estrogen receptor negativity: OR 4.04 (95% CI 2.28–7.15) and tumor size > 20–50 mm: OR 2.20 (95% CI 1.39–3.49). We found evidence of increased breast cancer-specific mortality for women with low THRα-2, HR 1.38 (95% CI 0.96–1.99), which remained after adjusting for age at diagnosis, HR 1.48 (95% CI 1.03–2.14), but not after adjusting for relevant prognostic factors, HR 0.98 (95% CI 0.66–1.45). THRα-2 expression in ER-negative tumors had an inverse correlation with overall mortality, HR 0.27 (95% CI 0.11–0.65). Conclusion Low tumor-specific THRα-2 expression was in this study associated with prognostically unfavorable tumor characteristics and a higher mortality in breast cancer, but not independent from other prognostic factors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Yan-Yun Liu ◽  
Jingjing Jiang ◽  
Sujie Ke ◽  
Anna Milanesi ◽  
Kiyomi Abe ◽  

AbstractThyroid hormone (TH) and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) regulate stem cell proliferation and differentiation during development, as well as during tissue renewal and repair in the adult. THR undergoes posttranslational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO). We generated the THRA (K283Q/K288R)−/− mouse model for in vivo studies and used human primary preadipocytes expressing the THRA sumoylation mutant (K283R/K288R) and isolated preadipocytes from mutant mice for in vitro studies. THRA mutant mice had reduced white adipose stores and reduced adipocyte cell diameter on a chow diet, compared to wild-type, and these differences were further enhanced after a high fat diet. Reduced preadipocyte proliferation in mutant mice, compared to wt, was shown after in vivo labeling of preadipocytes with EdU and in preadipocytes isolated from mice fat stores and studied in vitro. Mice with the desumoylated THRA had disruptions in cell cycle G1/S transition and this was associated with a reduction in the availability of cyclin D2 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. The genes coding for cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and Culin3 are stimulated by cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB) and contain CREB Response Elements (CREs) in their regulatory regions. We demonstrate, by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, that in mice with the THRA K283Q/K288R mutant there was reduced CREB binding to the CRE. Mice with a THRA sumoylation mutant had reduced fat stores on chow and high fat diets and reduced adipocyte diameter.

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