Mental disorders are one of the health disorders that contribute to high rates of disability and mortality worldwide. The current therapeutic modalities used to treat mental disorders are medical and psychological approaches, but it becomes problematic in some conditions, such as drug-resistant mental disorders. Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC) technology can be used as an alternative to overcome this problem. This technology uses radio waves which are guaranteed to be non-invasive and do not cause side effects. This technology enables neuromodulation effects by maximizing cell polarity and optimizing endogenous bioelectric activity. Of course, the REAC's mechanism as a neuromodulator and being a non-invasive technology is safe to use. It allows REAC to be used as an adjuvant therapy to reduce symptoms of several mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, phobias, and stress.
Background. The basis of pre-surgical neurophysiological examinations of patients with pharmaco-resistant structural epilepsy is the method of monitoring bioelectrical activity of the brain, video-electroencephalographic monitoring and, if indicated, long-term invasive monitoring.Objective. The goal of the study is to estimate the diagnostic efficacy of the methods used for monitoring of the brain bioelectric activity on the basis of longterm results of surgical treatment of patients with temporal structural pharmaco-resistant epilepsy.Design and methods. The study included 61 patients with temporal lobe pharmaco-resistant epilepsy, who were divided into two groups: performance of video-EEG monitoring only (33 patients) and the additional use of invasive monitoring for the localization of the epileptogenic zone (28 patients). Each group was divided into subgroups depending on the outcome of surgical treatment: patients, in whom seizures ceased (Engel 1) and patients in whom seizures persisted to some degree (Engel 2-3-4). Invasive monitoring with ictal event recording was chosen as the reference method to calculate diagnostic efficacy.Results. Invasive monitoring was performed as part of the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with temporal lobe pharmaco-resistant epilepsy with a higher sensitivity (72.7 %) and accuracy (82.4 %) than video-EEG monitoring (sensitivity 50 %, accuracy 45.9 %).Conclusion. In simple monofocal variants of structural epilepsy, video-EEG monitoring has a sufficient level of diagnostic efficiency. The phenomenon of neurophysiological phenotypes convergence is responsible for the reduced diagnostic efficacy of noninvasive and invasive monitoring.
Значимость биоэлектрической активности головного мозга в оценке функционального состояния нервной системы при цереброваскулярных заболеваниях широко известна. В настоящей работе показана характеристика биоэлектрической активности головного мозга у больных, перенесших острое нарушение мозгового кровообращения. В данной статье приведены данные о том, что у больных в остром и раннем восстановительном периодах церебрального инсульта биоэлектрическая активность головного мозга характеризовалась, в основном, десинхронным и дезорганизованным типами электроэнцефалограммы. Вместе с тем, отмечались, выраженная дельта и тета активность, а также единичные острые волны, спайки, преимущественно в пораженном полушарии головного мозга, реже в контралатеральном полушарии, межполушарная асимметрия, повышение мощности спектров в сторону преобладания медленных волн. Показатели индекса когерентности по всем отведениям были снижены, что свидетельствует о нарушении функциональных межполушарных взаимосвязей. Более значительное повышение индекса когерентности в дельта и тета диапазонах у пациентов, перенесших геморрагический инсульт, может указывать на более грубые межполушарные нарушения, в сравнении с ишемическим инсультом. Результаты исследования относительной спектральной плотности мощности диапазонов показали, что при геморрагическом инсульте отмечена более высокая дельта и бета активность, а также более значительное снижение мощности альфа ритма, в сравнении с ишемическим инсультом. В тоже время, отмечается повышение интегрального индекса диапазона низкочастотной медленно-волновой активности, особенно выраженное у больных с геморрагическим инсультом р<0,05.
The significance of bioelectric activity of the brain in assessing the functional state of the nervous system in cerebrovascular diseases is widely known. In this paper, the characteristics of the bioelectric activity of the brain in patients with acute cerebral circulatory disorders are shown. This article presents data that in patients with acute and early recovery periods of cerebral stroke , the bioelectric activity of the brain was characterized mainly by desynchronous and disorganized types of electroencephalogram. At the, same time, pronounced delta and theta activity was noted , as well as single acute waves, spikes, mainly in the affected hemisphere of the brain, less often in the contralateral hemisphere, interhemispheric asymmetry, increased spectral power in the direction of predominance of slow waves. The coherence index values for all leads were reduced, which indicates a violation of functional interhemispheric relationships. A more significant increase in the coherence index in the delta and theta ranges in patients who have had a hemorrhagic stroke may indicate more severe interhemispheric disorders compared to ischemic stroke. The results of the study of the relative spectral power density of the ranges showed, that in hemorrhagic stroke, there was a higher delta and beta activity, as well as a more significant decrease in the power of the alpha rhythm, in comparison with ischemic stroke. At the same time, there is an increase in the integral index of the range of low-frequency slow-wave activity, especially pronounced in patients with hemorrhagic stroke p < 0.05.
Relevance. The focus of modern dental treatment not only on the elimination of aesthetic, but also functional disorders requires an understanding of the functional conjugation of the chewing muscles, the possibility of interprognosis of parameters. Objective. Assess the functional relationship between the tone of the chewing muscles proper and the bioelectric activity of the temporal and sublingual muscle groups in children with anomalies of the dentoalveolar system. Materials and Methods. The study involved 36 patients of Childrens Clinical Dental Clinic No. 2 of Voronezh, aged 6 to 12 years, who had not previously received orthodontic treatment and had distal occlusion anomalies. Evaluation of the bioelectric activity of temporal and sublingual muscles was carried out using surface electromyography on the Electromyograph Dental apparatus (Taganrog, Russia), the Chewing General sample. Evaluation of the tone of the chewing muscles proper was carried out using the Mioton-3C device in a state of physiological rest of the lower jaw. Statistical processing was carried out using Microsoft Excel, version 7.0 and the statistical programs SPSS Statistics 21 and STATISTICA 7. Results and Discussion. Correlation analysis revealed the presence of 4 weak positive, 2 weak negative, 14 moderate positive, 3 moderate negative, and 1 noticeable positive correlation between the tone of the right chewing muscle proper and the parameters of the bioelectric activity of the right and left temporal and sublingual muscles. Correlation analysis revealed the presence of 5 weak positive, 7 weak negative, 9 moderate negative correlations between the tone of the left chewing muscle proper and the parameters of bioelectric activity of the right and left temporal and sublingual muscles. Conclusion. A greater effect of the tone of the right chewing muscle on the bioelectric activity of temporal and sublingual muscles was found compared to the tone of the left chewing muscle itself. 27 equations have been derived that can be used as predictive models for calculating the tone of right and left chewing muscles proper depending on the indicators of bioelectric activity of temporal and sublingual muscles.
Relevance. According to a number of authors, it is known that full adaptation to complete removable dentures occurs within 3 months [3–5, 9]. The main criterion for patients getting used to removable dentures is the synchronization of the work of the masticatory muscles and, as a consequence, the normalization of the chewing function.The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioelectrical activity of the masticatory muscles in patients using the CSPP.Materials and methods. In patients of the control (n = 23) and main (n = 63) groups, electromyographic examination was performed using the electroneuromyographic system "Synapsis" (Neurotechnology, Russia). Registration of the bioelectric activity of the chewing muscles was carried out directly on the day of applying the prostheses, after 1 and 3 months, respectively.Results and discussion. The electromyographic indices of the masticatory muscles in the patients of the control group decreased within one month after the treatment and amounted to 231 ± 18.2 μV for the right and 229 ± 16.1 μV for the left proper chewing muscles. The values were also reduced for the right and left temporal muscles – 228 ± 15.2 μV and 225 ± 24.1 μV (p < 0.05). It should be noted that the electromyographic parameters in patients of the main group were comparable to the lower limit of the norm and amounted to 269 ± 16.5 μV and 256 ± 20.4 μV, respectively, after one month of treatment.Conclusions. In the treatment of dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint with the use of thermoplastic prostheses, an increase in the biopotentials of the masticatory muscles is observed. In the orthopedic treatment of patients with terminal dentition defects using thermoplastic prostheses, the electromyographic parameters of the masticatory muscles are most close to normal after 3 months of using these prostheses.
Objective: to study the electrophysiological parameters of brain bioelectric activity and features of the autonomous nervous system assessing heart rate variability, sympathetic skin response, clinical and physiological tests depending on the lateralization of migraine pain syndrome in the right or left brain hemisphere in patients with epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) signs and migraine.Material and methods. Thirty six patients with aura-free episodic migraine at risk of developing epilepsy and 9 age-matched healthy subjects were examined. All participants underwent EEG, clinical and physiological tests, assessment of heart rate variability and sympathetic skin response.Results. Patients with right-hemisphere migraine headache had signs of activated sympathetic nervous system at baseline level and during exercise, lower baseline EEG epileptiform activity and in provocative tests. In contrast to the subjects of this group, patients of other group featured with a more stable migraine pain syndrome in the left hemisphere tended to dominate with functional activity of the parasympathetic system such as increased trophotropic support during exercise, as well as greater magnitude of baseline epileptiform bioelectric activity and during load tests.Conclusion. Values of heart rate variability in combination with objective results of clinical and physiological assessment of the autonomous nervous system and electrophysiological parameters of brain bioelectric activity are reliable prognostic indicators for varying functional conditions in patients with episodic migraine.
Radial fracture is the most common trauma to the musculoskeletal system and accounts for 50 % of traumatic injuries to the bones of the upper limb. Disability in patients with fractures of the forearm bones ranges from 6 to 8 months, so the choice of the most effective method of treatment is very relevant. Currently, an important point is the tendency of optimizing the transosseous method by eliminating the disadvantages and looking for new advantages of external fixation. Bone fracture and associated surgical intervention are always accompanied by varying degrees of changes in the links of the central nervous system, hemodynamics and metabolism. In order to study the bioelectrical activity of the brain in 47 patients with a fracture of the radial diaphysis treated in the Traumatology Department of the Irkutsk Scientific Centre of Surgery and Traumatology, in the pre- and postoperative period we compared EEG indicators of two variants of the layout of the external fixation apparatus (EF): wire and rod. Analysis of the rhythms of bioelectrical activity of the brain in both groups in the preoperative period revealed a normal zonal distribution with the dominance of the alpha rhythm on the EEG, which generally reflects a rather high degree of organization of neuroactivity and indicates the stability of cerebral homeostasis. At the same time, in the group of patients with a wire-mounted EF device in the postoperative period, EEG indices significantly differed from the values of the norm and ndicators in the group with a rod-shaped arrangement. A decrease in the amplitude of alpha and beta rhythms was noted, as well as a shift in the frequency of bioelectric activity towards slow waves, which is a sign characteristic of discirculatory encephalopathy. An EEG study using the method of transosseous osteosynthesis with EF devise of a rod assembly showed its greater efficiency compared to the use of an EF device of a wire assembly during treatment and rehabilitation. Thus, the study of the bioelectric activity of the brain is a reliable method for assessing its functional state after an injury, as well as the effectiveness of the treatment.
Aim – to assess the electromyographic features of the pelvic floor muscles and the sphincter apparatus in patients who underwent radical cystprostatectomy with the formation of an artificial bladder.The main study group consisted of 57 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer who underwent a standard radical cystprostatectomy with ileocystoplasty. The study of the pelvic floor muscular bioelectric activity with computed electromyography (EMG) of the sphincter apparatus of the pelvic organs was carried out on a 2-channel computer electromyograph "NeuroTrac ™ MyoPlus4". The obtained results of the study of the bioelectric activity of the pelvic floor muscles showed a decrease in the amplitude of contractions in the Work Average mode by 42.1% (p≤0.001) for the perineal electrode, and by 35.7% (p≤0.05) for the rectal electrode, compared with the control group, which indicates a low contractility of the muscular diaphragm of the pelvis and may cause incontinence in patients with an artificial bladder. The average deviation over the entire duration of the session in Work mode in the group of patients with neobladder in channels A and B was 2.3 (p≤0.05) and 1.9 (p≤0.05) times higher, respectively, compared with control group. These data indicate an imbalance in the muscle tone of the pelvic floor in patients after extensive reconstructive intervention on the pelvic organs and can potentiate urodynamic disorders in the study group of patients. The average amplitude (Rest Average) of the activity of biopotentials in the resting state of the pelvic floor muscles along channels A and B is higher by 42.4% and 47.6% (p≤0.05), in comparison with the control group, which indicates insufficient relaxation and rest of striated muscles and sphincter. Despite the change in bioelectric potentials from the rectal electrode in the study group of patients, there were no signs of functional insufficiency of the anal sphincter, in contrast to the severity of urinary incontinence, which correlated and corresponded to the results of bioelectrical changes obtained through channels A and B, up to oscillations and loss of complete control. The EMG analysis of the pelvic floor muscles revealed characteristic changes in the biopotentials of the pelvic sphincters and indicated their relationship with the clinical features of the rehabilitation of this group of patients and the prospect of including the biofeedback method. It is a derivative form of the electromyographic signal in the treatment of incontinence in patients with neobladder.
AbstractWe prove the existence and the uniqueness of a solution for a modified bidomain model, describing the electrical behaviour of the cardiac tissue in pathological situations. The leading idea is to reduce the problem to an abstract parabolic setting, which requires to introduce several auxiliary differential systems and a non-standard bilinear form. The main difficulties are due to the degeneracy of the bidomain system and to its non-standard coupling with a diffusion equation, accounting for the presence of the pathological zone in the heart tissue.