oil extract
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-007
Chigozie John Ekenze ◽  
Samuel Monday Utin ◽  
Timothy Olugbenga Ogundeko ◽  
Oyinyechi Lilian Umunnakwe ◽  
Lilian Chioma Owunna ◽  

More exploration on medicinal plants and other natural products in the present era of increase in poverty level and multi-drug resistance has become crucial. The aim of this study is to explore the inhibitory activities of Vitellaria paradoxa seed oil extract on isolated staphylococcal conjunctivitis. Cultured sample of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a patient’s eye discharge in the Teaching Hospital Laboratory of the Imo State University, Nigeria having been diagnosed with bacterial conjunctivitis at the eye Clinic. After the incubation period, the diameter of zones of inhibition both horizontal and vertical were measured. Concentrations (100, 50 and 25mg/ml) of the ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa were assayed for the antibacterial activity - Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using the agar well diffusion method. Ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa at concentration of 100mg /ml exhibited the highest zone of inhibition at 37.4mm for 24hrs followed by 50mg /ml and lowest using 25mg/ml (5.0mm) indicating a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on Staphylococcal conjunctivitis. S. aureus isolated from conjunctivitis swab was susceptible to ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa at 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml concentrations, suggesting ethanolic extract of V. paradoxa oil as possessing antimicrobial property. Further exploration for its use as an ocular anti-bacterial agent is recommended.

V. I. Zholnerkevich ◽  
E. I. Grushova

Solvent extraction is a method for purifying oil extracts, which are used as oil-plasticisers for industrial rubber goods, from cancerogenic hydrocarbons. The efficiency of this method is mainly determined by the selectivity and solvent properties of a separating agent. However, when carrying out a comparative analysis of promising extraction methods, it is necessary to use real-time methods for studying the composition of the resulting products. The purification efficiency of oil extracts from polycyclic aromatic components, including carcinogenic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, etc.), was evaluated depending upon the nature of selective solvents. The structure-group composition of the purified oil extracts and those at the second-stage of purification was determined by FTIR spectroscopy. It was found that the extraction efficiency of the studied solvents towards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil extracts increases in the following order: dimethyl sulfoxide < N-methylpyrrolidone + 10 wt% ethylene glycol <N-methylpyrrolidone +50 wt% triethylene glycol. When using a solvent comprising N-methylpyrrolidone + 50 wt% triethylene glycol, the proportion of polyalkyl-substituted and condensed aromatic structures in the purified oil extract decreases by 16.8%; the oil extract yield increases by over 25 wt% in contrast to extraction with N-methylpyrrolidone + ethylene glycol mixture, which meets the requirements of the European Union for oil extract purification (Directive No. 2005/69/EC). Therefore, we recommend the solvent comprising N-methylpyrrolidone + 50 wt% triethylene glycol for purifying oil extracts from components having a technogenic impact on the environment and human health and IR spectroscopy for efficiency assessment of solvent extraction of oil extracts.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 125-129
Zekeria Yusuf ◽  
Abdi Mustefa ◽  
Mulugeta Desta ◽  
Jemal Teneshu ◽  
Sultan Seyida ◽  

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Commonly known as fennel has been used in traditional medicinal plant belonging to Apiaceae. The aim of this study was to examine quality and biological activities of fennel seed and leaf oils. The oil extraction was done in Soxhlet apparatus using hexane as a solvent.  The result for physicochemical properties presented significantly higher oil yield (4.39%) and peroxide value (3.90) was observed for seed oil. Significantly higher antioxidant activities with respect to DPPH (24.45±3.74) and hydrogen peroxide (62.70±0.28) free radical scavenging activities for leaf oil. However, ascorbic acid was found to be significantly higher for seed oil (82.44±4.63). The strongest antibacterial activity with maximum zone of inhibition (14.25mm), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 0.25µl/ml) and corresponding minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 0.50 µl/ml) was recorded for leaf oil extract against Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, the strongest antifungal activity with maximum zone of inhibition (13.50mm), MIC (0.38µl/ml, the least value) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC, 0.75µl/ml) was recorded for leaf oil against Aspergillus Niger. It can be observed from the result in this study that leaf oil extract has demonstrated more effective biological activities including both antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials.

Konan N’dri Séraphin ◽  
Yéo Sounta ◽  
Angbeé Kassé Jean-Hugues ◽  
Kouamé Bosson Antoine ◽  
MamyrBékova-Békro Janat Akhanovna ◽  

Aims: The objective of this work is to contribute to the valorization of medicinal and aromatic plants of the Ivorian flora. We propose to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the antioxidant activity by spectrophotometry of the essential oil of Cardiospermum. grandiflorum Sw Study Design: Valorization of aromatic and medicinal plants. Methodology: The technical of steam distillation using a four-compartment stainless steel device was used to extract the essential oil from the plant matrix. The analysis of the essential oils was carried out on a GC chromatograph (7890A, Agilent Technologies) coupled to a mass spectrometer (5975C, Agilent Technologies). The identification of the compounds was carried out by comparison of the retention indices and mass spectra obtained with those from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database and from the literature The antioxidant potential of the extracts was evaluated using the Blois method. Results: The essential oil obtained by steaming, with an aromatic odor and pale yellow color has a yield of (0.0045 ± 0.0002)%. Analysis of the chromatogram and mass spectra obtained by GC-MS identified 24 phytocompounds representing 99.45% of the total chemical composition. The chemical composition of EO consists mainly of hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (97.72%).The major compound is γ-muurolene (46.06%) (A) followed by β-Caryophyllene (24.35%) (B) and γ-elemene (7.07 %). The essential oil extract of C. grandiflorum exhibits low antioxidant activity compared to vitamin C. The IC 50 value of vitamin C is 0.31 µg / mL while that of EO extract of C grandiflorum is 15.1 µg / mL Conclusion: In the present study, we are interested in the valuation of Cardiospermum grandiflorum an aromatic plant used in traditional Ivorian medicine. The yields of essential oil is low.  (24) phytocompounds were identified there. The essential oil has less antioxidant activity than that of vitamin C,

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Mustafa W Abdul Kareem ◽  
Zainab A Al Dhaher

Background: The interest in herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents has increased over the past few years in endodontic therapy. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) is a promising plant with great medicinal values. This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of watercress oil in combination with calcium hydroxide against Candida albicans as intracanal medicament. Materials and Methods: Candida albicans was isolated from patients with necrotic root canal or failed root canal treatment. The sensitivity of Candida albicans to different concentrations of watercress oil extract was determined by using the agar well diffusion method in comparison with calcium hydroxide paste. The agar plate method was used to determine the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the tested oil against the fungus. The combination of the oil extract of Nasturtium officinale with calcium hydroxide was evaluated and compared to calcium hydroxide paste with iodoform by using the agar well diffusion method. Results: The oil extract exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, this activity was found to be increased as the concentration of extract increased. The tested combination of watercress oil extract with calcium hydroxide revealed larger inhibition zones than the ones formed by each tested agent individually. Conclusion: The oil extract of Nasturtium officinale is active against Candida albicans suggesting its potential to be used as an intracanal medicament alone or in combination with calcium hydroxide.

Separations ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 240
Krishnamachari Janani ◽  
Kavalipurapu Venkata Teja ◽  
Mohammad Khursheed Alam ◽  
Deepti Shrivastava ◽  
Azhar Iqbal ◽  

Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterias are predominate in periapical infections. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) initiates the process of inflammation and periapical bone resorption. Usage of various medicaments retards or inactivates the bacterial endotoxin (LPS). However, the results are not highly effective. In recent years, owing to antimicrobial resistance, the shift from conventional agents to herbal agents has been increased tremendously in research. Keeping this in mind, the present study was formulated to evaluate the efficacy of oregano essential oil in inhibiting bacterial LPS- induced osteoclastogenesis. Four different concentrations (0 ng/mL, 25 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, and 100 ng/mL) of oregano essential oil extract were added into 96-well culture plate. Under light microscope, quantification of osteoclast cells was performed. One-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test was carried out on SPSS v21. A significant reduction (p < 0.001) in the osteoclast was observed in the experimental groups compared to no oregano essential oil extract (control). A dose-dependent significant reduction (p < 0.001) in osteoclast formation was observed among the experimental groups, with lesser osteoclast seen in group IV with 100 ng/mL of oregano essential oil extract. Thus, it can be concluded that oregano essential oil extract can be utilized as a therapeutic agent that can target bacterial LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, randomized controlled studies should be conducted to assess the potential use of this extract in the periapical bone resorption of endodontic origin.

2021 ◽  
Adarsha Gupta ◽  
Max Worthington ◽  
Munish Puri ◽  
Justin Chalker

There is growing interest in the bio-based production of lipids from algae. These lipids have a range of uses including nutritional supplements and precursors to biodiesel. Single-cell thraustochytrids are especially attractive in this regard in that they can produce over 50% of their weight as triglycerides. Furthermore, the distribution of saturated and unsaturated triglycerides can be modulated by changes in strain variation and modulation of fermentation conditions. Nonetheless, there remains a need for versatile downstream processing to enrich these so-called “single cell oils” into classes based on degree of unsaturation. In this study, we report a novel strategy for enriching saturated triglycerides produced in thraustochytrids. The method features direct reaction of elemental sulfur with the algae oil extract. The sulfur copolymerizes with >90% of the unsaturated triglycerides, providing a new route to a class of materials previously used in environmental remediation, Li-S battery cathodes, slow-release fertilisers, and insulation. The unreacted oil is enriched in saturated triglycerides, which can be isolated by extraction for potential use in biodiesel production. In this way, a single batch of sustainably produced algae oil can be converted into multiple useful products in a single step.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-60
John Decker ◽  
Philip Teas ◽  
Daniel Orange ◽  
Bernie B. Bernard

From 2015 to 2018, TGS conducted a comprehensive multiclient oil and gas seep hunting survey in the Gulf of Mexico. The basis for identifying seeps on the sea bottom was a high-resolution Multi-Beam Echo Sounder survey, mapping approximately 880,000 km2 of the sea bottom deeper than 750 m water depth, at a bathymetric resolution of 15 m and a backscatter resolution of 5 m. We have identified more than 5000 potential oil and/or gas seeps, and of those, we cored approximately 1500 for hydrocarbon geochemical analysis. The sea bottom features best related to hydrocarbon seepage in the GoM are high backscatter circular features with or without bathymetric expression, high backscatter features with “flow” appearance, mud volcanoes, pock marks, brine pools, “popcorn” texture, faults, and anticlinal crests. We also tracked gas plumes in the water column back to the sea bottom to provide an additional criterion for hydrocarbon seepage. Cores from sea bottom targets recovered liquid oil, tar, and gas hydrates. Oil extract and gas analyses of samples from most target types produced values substantially higher than background in oil and gas.

2021 ◽  
pp. 0958305X2110613
Gediz Uguz

The effects of thyme oil extract as an antioxidant on crystallization properties of waste cooking oil biodiesel were investigated. The inhibitory effect was determined for ASTM D7545 standard method for biodiesel added with 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm of additives by using oxifast device and compared with the chemical antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Inhibition time data were determined by converting the oxidation stability analysis results. The crystallization temperatures (Tcr) of the samples were determined by using a Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) technique. Tcr values of samples with antioxidants were decreased compared to the non-antioxidant biodiesel sample (B100). The order of antioxidant power was B100<B100T1<B100T2 = B100BHT1<B100BHT2<B100T3<B100BHT3. The solid fat content (SFC %) values were determined with different antioxidant concentrations versus different times. The minimum SFC % was determined in B100T3 and B100BHT3 in 3000 ppm antioxidant concentrations in 720 min. DSC results show that the crystallization onset temperatures for B100, B100T3, and B100BHT3 were −51.83 °C, −53.59 °C, and −54.15 °C, respectively. The kinetics of crystallization was determined and k and n values were calculated. The addition of thyme oil extract as a natural antioxidant has a positive effect on biodiesel oxidative stability for all concentrations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (01) ◽  
pp. 09-14
Annum Basit ◽  
Attya Shahid ◽  
Shagufta Nasreen

Objective: to reveal the effects of sea buckthorn seed oil on acetaminophen induced variations (Diameter of hepatocytes and vacuolization) in liver of rats. Methods: it was experimental study, conducted at Post Graduate Medical Institute. This study was performed on 24 adult rats, which were then randomly separated into 4 groups A,B,C and D. the experiment lasted for 13 days. Group A was control received normal saline and distilled water. Group B, received acetaminophen750mg/kg as single dose on day 10. Group C and D received acetaminophen at dose of 750mg/kg along with sea buckthorn seed oil extract 2.6mg/kg and 5.2mg/kg. Liver was removed and fixed in 10% formalin. To observe the effect of acetaminophen and sea buckthorn seed oil , slides were prepared for histological examination. The diameter of hepatocytes and vacuolization was observed. The evaluation of results was done by using SPSS 21. Results: In Group B, vacuolization was seen in all animals and significant increase in mean diameter (11.9± 1.5 μm) of hepatocytes was seen. However in Group C, vacuolization was absent in all animals and mean hepatocyte diameter was (6 ± 0.6 μm). In Group D, no vacuolization was seen in all animals and mean hepatocyte diameter decreased to (5.2± 1.5 μm) after administration of SBT seed oil. Conclusion: Administration of SBT( 2.6mg/kg and 5.2mg/kg) exerts a protective effect against damaging effects of ACM ( 750 mg/kg) on hepatocytes in albino rats. This hepatoprotective role becomes greater with increasing dose of SBT.

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