tempering treatment
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 336
Marawan Abdelwahed ◽  
Riccardo Casati ◽  
Anna Larsson ◽  
Stefano Petrella ◽  
Sven Bengtsson ◽  

The microstructure and mechanical properties of a 4130-grade steel processed by L-PBF using a feedstock of low-cost water atomized powder have been investigated considering the effects of powder recycling. Chemical analysis of the recycled powder showed a constant amount of alloying elements with a slight reduction in oxygen content. The as-built microstructure was mainly composed of a martensitic structure separated by a high fraction of low-angle grain boundaries, suggesting the application of a direct tempering treatment starting from the as-built condition as a cost-effective post-process thermal treatment rather than the conventional quench and tempering treatment. Moreover, the degree of anisotropy generated by L-PBF in as-built specimens could be reduced after performing either the direct tempering or the quench and tempering treatments. The possible degradation of powder properties on the steel performance was also investigated. After various powder recycling events, no significant deterioration in tensile properties was measured, indicating that the water atomized powder could be a sustainable feedstock candidate for L-PBF.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 259
Juntai Hu ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  
Ge Wang ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Jianyang Wen ◽  

In this paper, the microstructure and mechanical properties of heavy-wall seamless bend pipe after quenching at different tempering temperatures, including 550 °C, 600 °C, 650 °C, and 700 °C, were studied. Microstructure and dislocations observations were characterized by means of an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope, a transmission electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction. As the tempering temperature increases, the dislocation density in the test steel gradually decreases, and the precipitation behavior of (Nb, V)(C, N) increases. The sample tempered at 650 °C exhibits a granular bainite structure with a dislocation cell structure and a large number of smaller precipitates. The yield platforms of tempered samples at 650 °C and 700 °C are attributed to the pinning effect of the Cottrell atmosphere on dislocations. The sample tempered at 650 °C not only presents the highest strength, but also the highest uniform elongation, which is attributed to the higher strain-hardening rate and instantaneous work-hardening index. This is closely related to the multiplication of dislocations, the interaction between dislocations and dislocations, and the interaction between dislocations and precipitates during plastic deformation of the 650 °C-tempered samples with low dislocation density, which delays the occurrence of necking.

2021 ◽  
Vol 924 (1) ◽  
pp. 012026
N L Wahyuni ◽  
S S Yuwono ◽  
T Mahatmanto ◽  
V Fathuroya ◽  
W B Sunarharum

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of geographical origin on the chemical characteristics of cocoa beans and to determine the effect of tempering treatment on the glossiness of dark chocolate. In this study, three roasted single-origin cocoa nibs, i.e., single-origin Kulon Progo, Aceh, and Gunung Kidul, were analysed to determine their moisture content, ash, crude protein, total fat, and pH value, as well as their sensory properties. Kulon Progo cocoa nibs were mostly preferred and further processed into dark chocolate using three tempering variations and analysed to determine their glossiness, texture, and colour. The glossiness level of dark chocolates under different tempering treatments was ranked using RedJade Sensory Software. Data were analysed using Minitab 17.0 Statistical Software. The results show that single-origin cocoa beans from Kulon Progo had the lowest moisture content (1.33 ± 0.015 %) and the highest fat content (54.01 ± 0.434 %). Dark chocolate tempered at 50:32:27:32°C had the most preferred glossy appearance (2.59 out of 3.00).

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 101
Sunardi Sunardi ◽  
Randu Randu ◽  
Erny Listijorini ◽  
Iman Saefuloh ◽  
Hamdan Akbar Notonegoro ◽  

Stress concentrations cause many machine element failures. Failure will occur more rapidly if the machine elements obtain repeated and fluctuating loading. For this reason, the material for machine elements must have better fatigue life. There are various attempts made to increase material life and other mechanical properties. In this study, the research sample used is AISI 4140 steel. The samples obtain hardening followed by cooling and tempering. The hardening temperature is 8500C with a holding time of 17 minutes. The cooling media in this research are dry sand, semi-wet sand, and wet sand. Wet measurements based on volumetric ratios. Semi-wet sand with a ratio of sand and water 4: 1, sandy sand 4: 2. The final process is tempering treatment, with a temperature of 2500C. The material fatigue test refers to the JIS Z 2274 Standard. From this study, the heat treatment given can reduce the fatigue life of the material, even though the hardness increases. The higher the cooling rate, the hardness of the material increases, but the fatigue life is low.

Alexander Klumpp ◽  
Alexander Kauffmann ◽  
Sascha Seils ◽  
Stefan Dietrich ◽  
Volker Schulze

AbstractIn this study, the influence of cold rotary swaging on microstructure and mechanical properties of the precipitation-strengthened nickel-based superalloy 718 (Alloy 718) was investigated. The initial stages of work-hardening were characterized by means of microhardness, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Furthermore, attention was devoted to the mechanical behavior at ambient and elevated temperature (550 °C) in uniaxial tension and compression. Rotary swaging to different true strains of maximum $$\varphi = 0.91$$ φ = 0.91 caused a moderate increase of microhardness and enhanced markedly the load-bearing capacity in tension, giving rise to yield strength beyond 2000 MPa. The mechanical strength $$R_{p0.2}$$ R p 0.2 in tension subsequent to rotary swaging perfectly correlates with increasing dislocation density $$\rho $$ ρ estimated from XRD in the form of a Taylor-like relationship $$R_{p0.2} \propto \sqrt{\rho }$$ R p 0.2 ∝ ρ . In compression, transient stress–strain evolution without the occurrence of a clear elastic range and distinct yield phenomenon was observed. Restoration of the elastic range, accompanied by a pronounced increase of microhardness, was obtained by a post-swaging tempering treatment at 600 °C.

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