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2021 ◽  
pp. e20210004
Nina Micanovic ◽  
Amanda D. Timmers ◽  
Meredith L. Chivers

Marked differences have been found in men’s and women’s sexual response patterns, contingent upon their sexual orientation; androphilic (attracted to men) and gynephilic (attracted to women) men demonstrate greatest genital and self-reported arousal to their preferred stimulus type (a “gender-specific” response), whereas androphilic women do not, and findings for gynephilic women have been mixed. While there have been many investigations into gynephilic men’s and androphilic women’s (i.e., heterosexual men/women) sexual response, there has been less investigation into the specificity of sexual response of androphilic men and gynephilic women. Given the complex nature of sexual stimuli that are used in sexual response research, it is often unclear to what extent contextual cues (e.g., cues other than the sexual actor’s primary and secondary sex characteristics, such as physical attractiveness, sexual activity, etc.) influence participants’ sexual response patterns. As such, the current study examined genital, discrete self-reported, and continuous self-reported responses of androphilic men ( n = 22) and gynephilic women ( n = 10) to prepotent sexual features (stimuli thought to elicit automatic sexual arousal: erect penises and exposed vulvas), non-prepotent sexual features (flaccid penises and pubic triangles) and neutral stimuli (clothed men and women). Both samples exhibited a gender-specific pattern of genital, self-reported, and continuous self-reported sexual arousal. Similarly, all measures of sexual arousal were generally found to be greatest to “prepotent” sexual cues. Implications for understanding gender specificity of sexual response are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (19) ◽  
pp. 8806
Pier Psofakis ◽  
Alexandra Meziti ◽  
Panagiotis Berillis ◽  
Eleni Mente ◽  
Konstantinos A. Kormas ◽  

The effects on liver and intestinal histomorphology and on intestinal microbiota in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fed diets that contained poultry by-product meal (PBM) and hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM) as fishmeal replacements were studied. Fish fed on a series of isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, where fishmeal protein of the control diet (FM diet) was replaced by either PBM or by HFM at 25%, 50% and 100% without amino acid supplementation (PBM25, PBM50, PBM100, HFM25, HFM50 and HFM100 diets) or supplemented with lysine and methionine (PBM25+, PBM50+, HFM25+ and HFM50+ diets). The use of PBM and HFM at 25% fishmeal replacement generated a similar hepatic histomorphology to FM-fed fish, indicating that both land animal proteins are highly digestible at low FM replacement levels. However, 50% and 100% FM replacement levels by either PBM or HFM resulted in pronounced hepatic alterations in fish with the latter causing more severe degradation of the liver. Dietary amino acid supplementation delivered an improved tissue histology signifying their importance at high FM replacement levels. Intestinal microbiota was dominated by Proteobacteria (58.8%) and Actinobacteria (32.4%) in all dietary groups, but no specific pattern was observed among them at any taxonomic level. This finding was probably driven by the high inter-individual variability observed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Ayumi Kotani ◽  
Nagai Shin ◽  
Shunsuke Tei ◽  
Andrey Makarov ◽  
Tuyara Gavrilyeva

The phenology of berry-producing plants, particularly their harvest season, is of human interest and also reflects the ecosystem’s response to the changing environment. We investigated the seasonal dynamics of human interest in berries growing in boreal, subarctic and Arctic ecosystems, mainly in Russia, based on internet search data via Google Trends. There is a typical and culture-specific pattern of seasonal variations in search volume concerning berries across Russia, Finland, and Canada. Generally, the seasonal peak of search corresponds to the common berry harvest season across these countries. We discussed the potential and limitation for detecting ecological factors from the internet search data, in which physical phenomena and socio-cultural aspects are fundamentally superimposed, and its applicability to phenological studies.

2021 ◽  
Jeyeon Lee ◽  
Brian Burkett ◽  
Hoon-Ki Min ◽  
Matthew Senjem ◽  
Emily Lundt ◽  

Abstract Normal brain aging is accompanied by patterns of functional and structural change. Alzheimer's disease (AD), a representative neurodegenerative disease, has been linked to accelerated brain aging at respective age ranges. Here, we developed a deep learning-based brain age prediction model using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and structural MRI and tested how the brain age gap relates to degenerative cognitive syndromes including mild cognitive impairment, AD, frontotemporal dementia, and Lewy body dementia. Occlusion analysis, performed to facilitate interpretation of the model, revealed that the model learns an age- and modality-specific pattern of brain aging. The elevated brain age gap in dementia cohorts was highly correlated with the cognitive impairment and AD biomarker. However, regions generating brain age gaps were different for each diagnosis group of which the AD continuum showed similar patterns to normal aging in the CU.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (16) ◽  
pp. 5643
Wenqiang Zu ◽  
Hongyu Yang ◽  
Renyu Liu ◽  
Yulong Ji

Guiding an aircraft to 4D waypoints at a certain heading is a multi-dimensional goal aircraft guidance problem. [d=Zu]In order to improve the performance and solve this problem, this paper proposes a multi-layer RL approach.To enhance the performance, in the present study, a multi-layer RL approach to solve the multi-dimensional goal aircraft guidance problem is proposed. The approach [d=Zu]enablesassists the autopilot in an ATC simulator to guide an aircraft to 4D waypoints at certain latitude, longitude, altitude, heading, and arrival time, respectively. To be specific, a multi-layer RL [d=Zu]approach is proposedmethod to simplify the neural network structure and reduce the state dimensions. A shaped reward function that involves the potential function and Dubins path method is applied. [d=Zu]Experimental and simulation results show that the proposed approachExperiments are conducted and the simulation results reveal that the proposed method can significantly improve the convergence efficiency and trajectory performance. [d=Zu]FurthermoreFurther, the results indicate possible application prospects in team aircraft guidance tasks, since the aircraft can directly approach a goal without waiting in a specific pattern, thereby overcoming the problem of current ATC simulators.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 831
Mingqing Zhang ◽  
Yongming Lv ◽  
Shaobin Hou ◽  
Yanfei Liu ◽  
Yijia Wang ◽  

Emerging evidences link gut microbiota to colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and development. However, the CRC stage- and spatial-specific bacterial taxa were less investigated, especially in a Chinese cohort, leading to our incomplete understanding of the functional roles of gut microbiota in promoting CRC progression and recurrence. Here, we report the composition and structure of gut microbiota across CRC stages I, II and III, by analyzing the gut mucosal microbiomes of 75 triplet-paired samples collected from on-tumor, adjacent-tumor and off-tumor sites and 26 healthy controls. We observed tumor-specific pattern of mucosal microbiome profiles as CRC progressed and identified ten bacterial taxa with high abundances (>1%) as potential biomarkers for tumor initiation and development. Peptostreptococcus and Parvimonas can serve as biomarkers for CRC stage I. Fusobacterium, Streptococcus, Parvimonas, Burkholderiales, Caulobacteraceae, Delftia and Oxalobacteraceae can serve as biomarkers for CRC stage II, while Fusobacterium, Burkholderiales, Caulobacteraceae, Oxalobacteraceae, Faecalibacterium and Sutterella can serve as biomarkers for CRC stage III. These biomarkers classified CRC stages I, II and III distinguished from each other with an area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) > 0.5. Moreover, co-occurrence and co-excluding network analysis of these genera showed strong correlations in CRC stage I, which were subsequently reduced in CRC stages II and III. Our findings provide a reference index for stage-specific CRC diagnosis and suggest stage-specific roles of Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, Streptococcus and Parvimonas in driving CRC progression.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Aliyah Glover ◽  
Lakshmi Pillai ◽  
Rohit Dhall ◽  
Tuhin Virmani

Background: Olfactory dysfunction often occurs before motor onset in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can be detected with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Based on the Braak hypothesis, the olfactory bulb is one of two sites where disease pathology may start and spread to deeper brain structures.Objective: To evaluate whether a specific pattern of odorant identification on the UPSIT discriminated Parkinson's disease patients with and without freezing of gait.Methods: One hundred and twenty four consecutive participants (33 controls, 31 non-freezers, and 60 freezers) were administered the UPSIT. Using the chi-square test, each odorant on the UPSIT was ranked based on the differential ability of freezers and non-freezers to identify them correctly. Using predictive statistics and confusion matrices, the best combination of odorants and a cut-off score was determined.Results: Freezers had a shift toward a more severe hyposmia classification based on age and sex based normative values. The correct identification of nine odors (bubblegum, chocolate, smoke, wintergreen, paint thinner, orange, strawberry, grass, and peanut) was significantly worse in freezers compared to non-freezers. Correctly identifying ≤ 2 out of 3-odorants (bubblegum, chocolate, and smoke) had a 77% sensitivity and 61% specificity for categorizing freezers. The 3-odorant score was not correlated with disease duration, motor or total UPDRS scores, MoCA scores or age at testing. The predictive statistics were similar when sexes were separately categorized.Conclusions: A 3-odorant score helped categorize freezers and non-freezers with similar sensitivity and specificity to short odorant Parkinson's disease identification batteries.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1168
Ekaterina F. Kolesanova ◽  
Aleksandra I. Boyko ◽  
Anastasiya A. Chashnikova ◽  
Sergei N. Gnedoy ◽  
Thilo Kaehne ◽  

The glutarylation of lysine residues in proteins attracts attention as a possible mechanism of metabolic regulation, perturbed in pathologies. The visualization of protein glutarylation by antibodies specific to ε-glutaryl-lysine residues may be particularly useful to reveal pathogenic mutations in the relevant enzymes. We purified such antibodies from the rabbit antiserum, obtained after sequential immunization with two artificially glutarylated proteins, using affinity chromatography on ε-glutaryl-lysine-containing sorbents. Employing these anti(ε-glutaryl-lysine)-antibodies for the immunoblotting analysis of rat tissues and mitochondria has demonstrated the sample-specific patterns of protein glutarylation. The study of the protein glutarylation in rat tissue homogenates revealed a time-dependent fragmentation of glutarylated proteins in these preparations. The process may complicate the investigation of potential changes in the acylation level of specific protein bands when studying time-dependent effects of the acylation regulators. In the rat brain, the protein glutarylation, succinylation and acetylation patterns obtained upon the immunoblotting of the same sample with the corresponding antibodies are shown to differ. Specific combinations of molecular masses of major protein bands in the different acylation patterns confirm the selectivity of the anti(ε-glutaryl-lysine)-antibodies obtained in this work. Hence, our affinity-purified anti(ε-glutaryllysine)-antibodies provide an effective tool to characterize protein glutarylation, revealing its specific pattern, compared to acetylation and succinylation, in complex protein mixtures.

2021 ◽  
William H. Grover

AbstractCounterfeit or substandard medicines adversely affect the health of millions of people and cost an estimated $200 billion USD annually. Their burden is greatest in developing countries, where the World Health Organization estimates that one in ten medical products are fake. In this work, I describe a simple addition to the existing drug manufacturing process that imparts an edible universally unique physical identifier to each pill, tablet, capsule, caplet, etc. This technique uses nonpareils (also called sprinkles and “hundreds and thousands”), tiny inexpensive multicolor candy spheres that are normally added to other candies or desserts as decorations. If nonpareils are applied at random to a pill immediately after manufacture, the specific pattern they form is unlikely to ever be repeated by random chance; this means that the pattern (or “CandyCode”) can be used to uniquely identify the pill and distinguish it from all other pills. By taking a photograph of each CandyCoded pill after manufacture and recording the location and color of each nonpareil, a manufacturer can construct a database containing the CandyCodes of all known-authentic pills they produce. A consumer can then simply use a cellphone to photograph a pill and transfer its image to the manufacturer’s server, which determines whether the pill’s CandyCode matches a known-good CandyCode in their database (meaning that the pill is authentic) or does not have a match in the database (in which case the consumer is warned that the pill may be counterfeit and should not be consumed). To demonstrate the feasibility of using random particles as universal identifiers, I performed a series of experiments using both real CandyCodes (on commercially produced chocolate candies) and simulated CandyCodes (generated by software). I also developed a simple method for converting a CandyCode photo to a set of strings for convenient storage and retrieval in a database. Even after subjecting CandyCodes to rough handling to simulate shipping conditions, the CandyCodes were still easily verifiable using a cellphone camera. A manufacturer could produce at least 1017 CandyCoded pills—41 million for each person on Earth—and still be able to uniquely identify each CandyCode. By providing universally-unique IDs that are easy to manufacture but hard to counterfeit, require no alteration of the existing drug formation and minimal alteration of the manufacturing process, and need only a cameraphone for verification, CandyCodes could play an important role in the fight against fraud in pharmaceuticals and many other products.

2021 ◽  
Jakob Peder Pettersen ◽  
Madeleine Stenshorne Gundersen ◽  
Eivind Almaas

Selection for bacteria which are K-strategists instead of r-strategists has been shown to improve fish health and survival in aquaculture. We considered an experiment where microcosms were inoculated with natural seawater and the selection regime was switched from K-selection (by continuous feeding) to r-selection (by pulse feeding) and vice versa. We found the networks of significant co-occurrences to contain clusters of taxonomically related bacteria having positive associations. Comparing this with the time dynamics, we found that the clusters most likely were results of similar niche preferences of the involved bacteria. In particular, the distinction between r- or K-strategists was evident. Each selection regime seemed to give rise to a specific pattern, to which the community converges regardless of its prehistory. Furthermore, the results proved robust to parameter choices in the analysis, such as the filtering threshold, level of random noise, replacing absolute abundances with relative abundances, and the choice of similarity measure. Even though our data and approaches cannot directly predict ecological interactions, our approach provides insights on how the selection regime affects the composition and workings of the microbial community, providing a basis for aquaculture experiments targeted at eliminating opportunistic fish pathogens.

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