political conflicts
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А.Э. Титков

Статья посвящена т. н. «русскому фактору» в период после окончания Первой мировой войны и до 1920г. Революционные события в России радикально изменили внешнеполитическую ситуацию на европейском театре и одновременно стали оказывать серьезное влияние на внутреннюю повестку стран участниц конфликта, благодаря активной политике Советской России по продвижению революционных идей и поддержке революционных движений в Европе. Подобная практика была вызвана не столько искренним желанием раздуть революционный пожар и безусловной верой в его возможность, сколько необходимостью физического выживания молодого «пролетарского государства» во враждебном капиталистическом окружении. В статье подробно рассматривается идеологическая подоплека внешней политики Советской России в это период и деятельность на этом поприще ее вождя В.И. Ленина, его попытки повлиять на общественно-политические процессы в Германии, Венгрии и Польше, а также анализируются изменения в идеологической повестке большевиков после провала советской политики по созданию плацдармов для продвижения революции в центральную Европу. Также в статье обращается внимание на то, что за внешней ширмой буржуазной революции в России явно проступают признаки целенаправленной политики по удалению с карты Европы и Азии империй — Османской, Германской, Австро-Венгерской и Российской, чему предшествовала активная компания по девальвации самих монархических институтов. Большевистская же политика по полному демонтажу прежней системы, несмотря на внешнюю враждебность идеологических установок, оказалась вполне приемлемой для тех, кто стремился не допустить пересборки Центральных держав. The article deals with the influence of the so-called Russian factor in the events following the end of the First World War up until 1920. The revolution in Russia radically changed the situation in Europe, having a major impact on the domestic and foreign policies of the belligerent nations, caused by active Soviet support for revolutionary movements in Europe. This practice stemmed not from a sincere desire to fan the revolutionary flames but rather from the survival instinct of the newly-established proletarian state, surrounded by hostile capitalistic countries. The article examines the ideological motivations behind Soviet Russia's foreign policy during this period and the activities of its leader, Vladimir Lenin, as well as his attempts to influence social and political processes in Germany, Hungary, and Poland. The study also analyzes the changes in the ideological agenda of the Bolsheviks after the failure of Soviet policy to create springboards for the advancement of the revolution into Central Europe. Moreover, the paper points out that the smokescreen of the revolution in Russia reveals clear signs of a concerted effort to wipe the Ottoman Empire, the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Russian Empire from the map of Europe and Asia, preceded by an active campaign aimed at undermining the monarchic institutions themselves. Meanwhile, the Bolshevik policy that sought to completely dismantle the old regime, despite the hostility of its ideology, eventually proved perfectly acceptable for those who aimed to prevent the Central Powers from rising up again.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Sulaiman Sulaiman ◽  
Ali Imran ◽  
Bachtari Alam Hidayat ◽  
Saepudin Mashuri ◽  
Reslawati Reslawati ◽  

The government is mainstreaming the strengthening of religious moderation (MB), which is one of the national priority programs. Religious moderation is a perspective, attitude, and practice of religion in common life, by embodying the essence of religious teachings that protect human dignity and build the common good, based on the principles of fairness, balance, and obeying the constitution as a national agreement. People need to know that religious moderation is a way together, religious people, to protect Indonesia. Of course, they do not want to suffer the fate of their brothers and sisters in a country where people's lives are chaotic, and even their country is threatened with disbandment, due to socio-political conflicts with different religious interpretations. Therefore, multicultural society must learn from existing experiences. The purpose of this study is to describe moderation in religion in the era of society 5.0 and multicultural society: studies based on legal, religious, and social reviews. This research is a qualitative research with descriptive method. The approach used is a phenomenal approach, while the data collection technique uses observation, interviews, and distribution of questionnaires. Data is collected by collection and selection. The processed data is interpreted based on socio-multicultural techniques.

2022 ◽  
Tak Huen Chau ◽  
Junyan Jiang

What drives ordinary citizens to participate in costly pro-democracy endeavors? Conventional theories of democratization emphasize the economic or political conflicts between citizens and elites. This article suggests a different mechanism of mobilization based on inter-group relations. We argue that as a pro-majoritarian institution, democracy may be sought after by members of a disenfranchised majority as a way to protect their interests and identity against perceived economic or political threats posed by certain minority outgroups. We evaluate this argument by drawing evidence from Hong Kong, a city that has recently witnessed major waves of pro-democracy uprisings. Two experimental studies on local university students reveal that subjects' attitudes toward the mainland Chinese visitors and immigrants are causally related to their support for democratization. Observational evidence from surveys and elections further shows that pro-democracy attitudes are stronger in areas that recently experienced a large influx of mainland Chinese. These findings underscore the powerful role of group-based sentiments in episodes of democratization.

Jiacheng He

AbstractThe patterns of democracy are related to the success or failure of national governance; hence, they are a key topic in the theoretical research of political science. It is difficult to comprehend the worldwide political conflicts caused by the promotion of liberal democracy in the study of democratic models that have liberal democracy as their core. The emphasis of historical political science on the genes of civilization provides an opportunity to reinterpret the patterns of democracy. Relying on specific civilization genes, the patterns of democracy can be divided into the “value pattern”, which is shaped by historical civilization genes, and the “practice pattern”, which is based on the “value pattern”. Based on Christian concepts, Western civilization produced liberal democracy as the value pattern, and the value is inherited through the practice pattern of party democracy. Chinese civilization has continued the tradition of people-orientation and consultative practice, establishing socialist democracy in value and consultative democracy in practice. Theoretically, the analytical framework of the value pattern and the practice pattern of democracy illustrates the source of the diverse patterns of democracy, which helps demonstrate the limitations of liberal democracy and points out the possibility of developing a non-liberal democracy pattern.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Ekaterina Yuryevna Aleshina

The article considers the problem of political discourse transformation as exemplified by European (British&Russian) political rhetoric of the 20th century. Considered is the complex nature of political discourse comprising both its variable and invariable aspects reflecting discursive constancy and change which are regarded as manifestations of the sliding mode usually applicable to exact sciences phenomena. The major factors of transformation depend on social change caused by dramatic events in history, namely political conflicts. The invariable part of political discourse is concentrated around the text structure with dicteme as the main information and structure unit of the text and discourse. The variable part is determined by factors of speech regulation including target content of the utterance, status of the speaker and the listener, pre-supposition and post-supposition. Genre and register specificity of political discourse as its constant characteristics reflect the change. Conclusions offer some generalizations Virtual Learning offer for Biologic Informatics aspects

2021 ◽  
Vol 40 (40) ◽  
pp. 162-174
Antoni Olak ◽  
Bożena Konecka-Szydełko

The beginning of the 21st century is characterized by a deep crisis of the national and international security system. For many factors caused by the intensification of military-political conflicts of a new type, the term “hybrid war” is now used. A feature of these conflicts is, in the first place, the use by the opponents of a wide scale of non-military means of influence: economic, informational, environmental, social, political and others. It is important here to justify the importance of the transformation of the state system of civil protection, which is being developed under the influence of contemporary military and political conflicts. The problem of military-political rivalry, by defining the content of the term “military-political conflict”, leads to a confrontation of political entities both within the state and at the state level, as well as between states, aimed at achieving their own political interests using various means and ways of influencing the political, military, economic, social and information spheres. The purpose of this speech is to present the mechanisms of solving all existing problems related to the functioning of society and to present the forms and features of contemporary hybrid conflicts.

2021 ◽  
pp. 185-190
Darío Páez

The book is part of the Psychology in Latin America series of the American Psychological Association (APA) edited by Judith Gibbons and Patricio Cumsille. The book presents a series of chapters written by Latin American researchers from Argentina, Colombia, Chile, El Salvador and Peru on different topics relevant to political psychology in Latin America. The problem of human rights violations and how to confront them, socio-political conflicts and the building of a culture of democracy and peace are transversal axes of the chapters of this book.

Inna Kostyrya ◽  
Marina Shevchenko ◽  
Natalia Yanchenko

The purpose of the article is to study the specifics, place, and role of cultural policy both at the level of the European Union and its member states. The research methodology is based on the integrated use of general scientific and special-applied methods, namely: analysis and synthesis, historical and cultural analysis, analogy, and comparison. The scientific novelty lies in the analysis of the legal framework that determines the direction and mechanism of cultural policy implementation within the EU. The article studies some European countries’ experience in the implementation of their cultural policy, clarifies their strengths and weaknesses. Conclusions. On the basis of the conducted analysis, there are defined preconditions that will promote strengthening of the cultural policy’s strategic role in the economic, political, and social development of Ukraine. Ukraine has all the necessary conditions for the development of the cultural sphere and the implementation of effective cultural policy, but at the same time the lack of understanding of the importance and role that culture can play in increasing the kindness of citizens, or resolving political conflicts, slows down these processes. Key words: cultural policy, social and political processes, European integration, law, institutions, multiculturalism, subsidiarity.

В.В. Калачова ◽  
Оваід Сальман Рашід ◽  
О.М. Місюра ◽  
В.Ф. Третяк ◽  
Л.В. Сафошкіна ◽  

The global informatization of modern society, development of telecommunication, communicular and information technologies - on the one hand and the powerful challenges to all humanity in the form of epidemics (coronavirus infection COVID-19, bird flu, various forms of pneumatic and hepatitis), natural and man-made disasters, military and political conflicts, wars - from the second, determine significant changes in priority forms of educational process, and distance learning (DL), in these conditions, becomes the only possible option for providing quality educational services with minimal financial expenses for its organization.

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