AbstractDetrusor underactivity (DU) could be resulted from many different etiologies. Patients with DU might have reduced bladder sensation, low detrusor contractility, and large post-void residual volume. This study analyzed therapeutic outcome of active management for male DU patients, based on clinical and urodynamic characteristics. Male DU patients aged > 18 years old were retrospectively reviewed from the videourodynamic study (VUDS) records in recent 10 years. The patients’ demographics, VUDS results, treatment modalities, and treatment outcome were analyzed. The treatment outcomes were compared among patients with different DU subgroups, clinical diagnosis and treatment modalities. Patients with voiding efficiency of > 66.7% were considered having a successful treatment outcome. For comparison, 30 men with normal VUDS finding served as the control arm. Most of the DU patients had reduced bladder sensation. The reduced bladder sensation is closely associated with low detrusor contractility. After active treatment, a successful outcome was achieved in 68.4% of patients after bladder outlet surgery, 59.1% after urethral botulinum toxin A injection, and 57.6% after medical treatment, but only 18.2% after conservative treatment. A successful treatment outcome was achieved in patients with an intact detrusor contractility, either low (69.2%) or normal voiding pressure (81.8%), and in patients with a normal or increased bladder sensation (78.1%). However, patients with detrusor acontractile (41.3%) or absent bladder sensation (17.9%) had less favorable treatment outcome after any kind of urological management. This study revealed that active management can effectively improve voiding efficiency in patients with DU. The normal bladder sensation, presence of adequate detrusor contractility, and bladder outlet narrowing during VUDS provide effective treatment strategy for DU patients. Among all management, BOO surgery provides the best treatment outcome.
Skin diseases represent a major health concern worldwide and negatively impact patients’ quality of life. Despite the availability of various efficacious drugs, their therapeutic outcome is often limited due to shortcomings related to the formidable skin barrier and unfavorable physicochemical properties of drugs. Flexible nano-vesicles have shown tremendous potential to overcome these hurdles and improve the local therapeutic effect of these drugs.
This review article is aimed to shed light on flexible nano-vesicular carriers as a means to combat skin diseases.
The literature was reviewed using PubMed database using various keywords such as liposomes, flexible (deformable liposomes) (transferosomes), ethosomes, transethosomes, niosomes, and spanlastics.
Liposomes and niosomes were found effective for the loading and release of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. However, their limited skin penetration led to drug delivery to the outermost layers of skin only. This necessitates the search for innovative vesicular carriers, including liposomes, flexible (deformable liposomes), ethosomes, transethosomes, and spanlastics. These flexible nano-vesicular carriers showed enhanced drug delivery and deposition across various skin layers, which was better than their corresponding conventional vesicles. This resulted in superior drug efficacy against various skin diseases such as skin cancer, inflammatory skin diseases, superficial fungal infections, etc.
Flexible nano-vesicular carriers have proven themselves as efficient drug delivery systems that are able to deliver their cargo into the deep skin layers and thus, improve the therapeutic outcome of various skin diseases. However, there remain some challenges that need to be addressed before these nanocarriers can be translated from the lab to clinics.
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is defined as a chronic bladder disorder with suprapubic pain (pelvic pain) and pressure and/or discomfort related to bladder filling accompanied by lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary frequency and urgency without urinary tract infection (UTI) lasting for at least 6 weeks. IC/BPS presents significant bladder pain and frequency urgency symptoms with unknown etiology, and it is without a widely accepted standard in diagnosis. Patients’ pathological features through cystoscopy and histologic features of bladder biopsy determine the presence or absence of Hunner lesions. IC/PBS is categorized into Hunner (ulcerative) type IC/BPS (HIC/BPS) or non-Hunner (nonulcerative) type IC/BPS (NHIC/BPS). The pathophysiology of IC/BPS is composed of multiple possible factors, such as chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders, neurogenic hyperactivity, urothelial defects, abnormal angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and exogenous urine substances, which play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of IC/BPS. Abnormal expressions of several urine and serum specimens, including growth factor, methylhistamine, glycoprotein, chemokine and cytokines, might be useful as biomarkers for IC/BPS diagnosis. Further studies to identify the key molecules in IC/BPS will help to improve the efficacy of treatment and identify biomarkers of the disease. In this review, we discuss the potential medical therapy and assessment of therapeutic outcome with urinary biomarkers for IC/BPS.
Carotid body paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor presenting with low-grade histological and clinical features. However, the tumor has the potential to produce distant metastasis, and due to its rarity, little information is available regarding chemotherapy for such metastatic lesions. Here, we report a case of carotid body paraganglioma with development of pulmonary and bone metastases 10 years after radical surgery for the primary lesion in the neck. The lesions showed a good response to cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy. A beneficial therapeutic outcome by chemotherapy is extremely rare in patients with metastatic carotid body paraganglioma.
AimsTo evaluate the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcome of patients with recurrent scleritis of unknown demonstrable aetiology and positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT).MethodsRetrospective chart review of the demographic, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic outcome data of 15 patients. Clinical characteristics as well as remission rate after standard antituberculous therapy (ATT) were assessed.ResultsThere were 9 men and 6 women with a mean age of 48.9 years (range, 32–73). Scleritis was diffuse in 10 patients (66.6%) and nodular in 5 patients (33.3%), 1 of them with concomitant posterior scleritis. It was bilateral in 7 patients (46.6%) and recurrent in all of them. Scleritis appeared after prior uveitis (10 patients, 66.6%) and/or with concomitant uveitis (5 patients, 33.3%) or peripheral keratitis (5 patients, 33.3%). Previous ocular surgery was found in 7 patients (46.6%). Previous extraocular tuberculosis (TB) infection or previous TB contact was detected in 11 patients (73.3%). No radiologic findings of active extraocular TB were detected. ATT was used in 15 patients, sometimes with the addition of systemic corticosteroids (5 patients) and methotrexate (1 patient); 14 patients achieved complete remission (93.3%).ConclusionPresumed TB-related scleritis may appear in recurrent scleritis of unknown origin and positive QFT. It may occur after prior uveitis and/or concomitantly with uveitis or peripheral keratitis, and it may be triggered by previous ocular surgery. No patients had evidence of concurrent active extraocular infection, although many had previous TB infection or TB contact. ATT was effective, sometimes with the addition of systemic corticosteroids and methotrexate.
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are specialized glia cells of the olfactory system that support the continual regeneration of olfactory neurons throughout adulthood. Owing to their pro-regenerative properties, OECs have been transplanted in animal models of spinal cord injuries (SCI) and trialed in clinical studies on SCI patients. Although these studies have provided convincing evidence to support the continued development of OEC transplantation as a treatment option for the repair of SCI, discrepancies in the reported outcome has shown that OEC transplantation requires further improvement. Much of the variability in the reparative potential of OEC transplants is due to the variations in the cell composition of transplants between studies. As a result, the optimal cell preparation is currently a subject of debate. Here we review, the characterization as well as the effect of the cell composition of olfactory cell transplantation on therapeutic outcome in SCI. Firstly, we summarize and review the cell composition of olfactory cell preparations across the different species studied prior to transplantation. Since the purity of cells in olfactory transplants might affect the study outcome we also examine the effect of the proportions of OECs and the different cell types identified in the transplant on neuroregeneration. Finally, we consider the effect of the yield of cells on neuroregeneration by assessing the cell dose of transplants on therapeutic outcome.
IntroductionGlutathione S-transferase (GST) gene deletion or polymorphic sequence variations lead to decreased enzyme activity that influences susceptibility and response to chemotherapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This case–control study investigated the association of GST gene polymorphisms with the etiology and therapeutic outcome of B-ALL among Kashmiri population.MethodsA total of 300 individuals including 150 newly diagnosed B-ALL patients and an equal number of age and gender matched controls were genotyped for five GST gene polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR-RFLP) and multiplex PCR techniques.ResultsHigher frequency of GSTT1null, GSTO2-AG, and GSTO2-GG genotypes was observed in ALL cases compared to controls that associated significantly with ALL risk (GSTT1null: OR = 2.93, p = 0.0001; GSTO2-AG: OR = 2.58, p = 0.01; GSTO2-GG: OR = 3.13, p = 0.01). GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTO1 SNPs showed no significant association (p > 0.05). Combined genotype analysis revealed significant association of GSTT1null/GSTM1null (OR = 4.11, p = 0.011) and GSTT1null/GSTP1-AG (OR = 4.93, p = 0.0003) with B-ALL susceptibility. Haplotype analysis of rs4925 and rs156697 revealed that carriers of CG haplotype had increased risk of B-ALL (p = 0.04). Kaplan–Meier plots revealed significantly inferior 3-year disease-free survival for GSTO2-GG carriers (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis confirmed GSTO2-GG as an independent poor prognostic factor for DFS (HR = 4.5, p = 0.034). Among combined genotypes, only GSTT1null/GSTP1-AG associated significantly with poorer DFS rates (p = 0.032).ConclusionThis study demonstrated that GSTT1null individually or in combination with GSTM1null and GSTP1-AG genotypes associated with increased B-ALL risk. Also, rs156697 variant genotypes (AG and GG) associated with B-ALL, whereas the GG genotype of rs156697 influenced the treatment outcome.
Introduction: Diabetic mellitus is a chronic disorder which is rapidly raising, major public health problem. Having DM are more prone to multifarious complication like diabetic foot ulcer, which is highly susceptible to infection. Prevalence of bacterial flora in foot ulcer of this study population indicate current medical scenario of increased multidrug resistant diabetic foot infection, appropriate selection of antibiotic plays important role in DFU management increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance is a major factor for morbidity or mortality in DFU.
The main objective of this study was to asses microbial sensitive resistance to antibiotic and also to know the drug utilisation of antibiotics in DFU.
Method: A prospective observational study was carried out in 123 inpatients, after taking written informed consent from those met the study criteria. The study was done from October 2017 to march 2018 in surgery department. Patient case sheet were reviewed and assessed on daily basis. Culture report form and all other relevant data were collected to assess the utilisation of antibiotic, it’s sensitivity and resistant interaction, drug interactions and ADR were assessed by using Micromedex and other resources available in the department
Result: In this study population, about 87(70.3%) patients were male and 36(29.27%) female. Mainly patients of age range 41-50 is 47(38.21%)followed by 51-60 is 33(26.83%)then 61-70 is 23(18.70%).Hospital
Conclusion: Diabetic foot infections are real public health problem and early diagnosis along with appropriate treatments are essential. Different bacterial profiles and antibiotic sensitivity were found in different DFU. Clinician should try to stay updated in antibiotic sensitivity and resistant pattern of common pathogen in their area for better therapeutic outcome and to minimize medication errors.
Keywords: Diabetic foot ulcer, sensitivity, resistant, utilization of antibiotics, therapeutic outcome.