adenylate cyclase
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 760
Grazia Maugeri ◽  
Agata Grazia D’Amico ◽  
Velia D’Agata

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with widespread distribution throughout the central and peripheral nervous system as well as in many other peripheral organs. It plays cytoprotective effects mediated mainly through the activation of specific receptors. PACAP is known to play pleiotropic effects on the eye, including the cornea, protecting it against different types of insult. This review firstly provides an overview of the anatomy of the cornea and summarizes data present in literature about PACAP’s role in the eye and, in particular, in the cornea, either in physiological or pathological conditions.

Brian Maunze ◽  
Katherine Wood Bruckner ◽  
Nikhil Nilesh Desai ◽  
Christopher Chen ◽  
Fanghong Chen ◽  

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) exerts pleiotropic effects on ventromedial nuclei (VMN) of the hypothalamus and its control of feeding and energy expenditure through the Type I PAC1 receptor. However, the endogenous role of PAC1R's in the VMN and the downstream signaling responsible for PACAP's effects on energy balance are unknown. Numerous studies have revealed that PAC1Rs are coupled to both Gas/ adenylate cyclase/protein kinase A (Gas/AC/PKA) and Gaq/phospholipase C/protein kinase C (Gaq/PLC/PKC), while also undergoing trafficking following stimulation. To determine the endogenous role PAC1R's and downstream signaling that may explain PACAP's pleiotropic effects, we used RNA interference to knockdown VMN PAC1Rs and pharmacologically inhibited PKA, PKC and PAC1R trafficking. Knocking down PAC1Rs increased meal sizes, reduced total number of meals, and induced body weight gain. Inhibition of either PKA or PKC alone in awake male Sprague Dawley rats, attenuated PACAP's hypophagic and anorectic effects during the dark phase. However, PKA or PKC inhibition potentiated PACAP's thermogenic effects during the light phase. Analysis of locomotor activity revealed that PKA inhibition augmented PACAP's locomotor effects, however, PKC inhibition had no effect. Finally, PACAP infusion in the VMN induces surface PAC1R trafficking into the cytosol which was blocked by endocytosis inhibitors. Subsequently, inhibition of PAC1R trafficking into the cytosol attenuated PACAP-induced hypophagia. These results revealed that endogenous PAC1Rs uniquely engage PKA, PKC and receptor trafficking to mediate PACAP's pleiotropic effects in VMN control of feeding and metabolism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 664
Takahiro Hirabayashi ◽  
Junko Shibato ◽  
Ai Kimura ◽  
Michio Yamashita ◽  
Fumiko Takenoya ◽  

Dry eye disease (DED) is caused by a reduction in the volume or quality of tears. The prevalence of DED is estimated to be 100 million in the developed world. As aging is a risk factor for DED, the prevalence of DED is expected to grow at a rapid pace in aging populations, thus creating an increased need for new therapies. This review summarizes DED medications currently in clinical use. Most current medications for DED focus on stimulating tear secretion, mucin secretion, or suppressing inflammation, rather than simply replenishing the ocular surface with moisture to improve symptoms. We recently reported that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) induces tear secretion and suppresses corneal injury caused by a reduction in tears. Moreover, it has been reported that a PACAP in water and a 0.9% saline solution at +4 °C showed high stability and achieved 80–90% effectiveness after 2 weeks of treatment. These results reveal PACAP as a candidate DED medication. Further research on the clinical applications of PACAP in DED is necessary.

Kathleen Boyne ◽  
Deborah A. Corey ◽  
Pan Zhao ◽  
Binyu Lu ◽  
Walter F Boron ◽  

Several aspects of the cell biology of cystic fibrosis (CF) epithelial cells are altered including impaired lipid regulation, disrupted intracellular transport, and impaired microtubule regulation. It is unclear how the loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function leads to these differences. It is hypothesized that the loss of CFTR function leads to altered regulation of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity resulting in cellular phenotypic changes. In this study, it is demonstrated that CA2 protein expression is reduced in CF model cells, primary mouse nasal epithelial (MNE) cells, excised MNE tissue, and primary human nasal epithelial cells (p<0.05). This corresponds to a decrease in CA2 RNA expression measured by qPCR as well as an overall reduction in CA activity in primary CF MNEs. The addition of CFTR-inhibitor-172 to WT MNE cells for ≥24 h mimics the significantly lower protein expression of CA2 in CF cells. Treatment of CF cells with L-Phenylalanine (L-Phe), an activator of CA activity, restores endosomal transport through an effect on microtubule regulation in a manner dependent on soluble adenylate cyclase (sAC). This effect can be blocked with the CA2-selective inhibitor dorzolamide. These data suggest the loss of CFTR function leads to the decreased expression of CA2 resulting in the downstream cell signaling alterations observed in CF.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mansoureh Togha ◽  
Zeinab Ghorbani ◽  
Samira Ramazi ◽  
Fahime Zavvari ◽  
Fariba Karimzadeh

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the role of serum levels of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), vasoacive intestinal peptide (VIP), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the development and also the transformation of migraine in patients suffering from migraine.Methods: Eighty-nine participants with a mean age of 39 years were divided into 23 episodic migraine (EM), 36 chronic migraine (CM), and 30 healthy control groups. Demographic, anthropometric, and headache characteristic information, and also blood samples, was collected. Serum levels of TRPV1, VIP, and PACAP were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique.Results: Based on our findings, the serum level of TRPV1 was significantly higher in CM compared to the control group (p &lt; 0.05), whereas serum levels of VIP (p &lt; 0.01) and PACAP (p &lt; 0.05) in the EM group were significantly more than the control group. There was no significant difference between EM and CM groups.Conclusions: An elevation in the serum levels of TRVP1 among chronic migraineurs and increments in the levels of VIP and PACAP were observed among EM patients compared to healthy subjects. However, our data failed to demonstrate the probable role of these biomarkers in migraine progression, and more studies are needed to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in migraine progression.

2021 ◽  
Jone Amuategi ◽  
Rocio Alonso ◽  
Helena Ostolaza

Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT or CyaA) is an important virulence factor secreted by Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium causative of whooping cough, playing an essential role in the establishment of infection in the respiratory tract. ACT is a pore-forming cytolysin belonging to the RTX (Repeats in ToXin) family of leukotoxins, capable of permeabilizing several cell types and pure lipid vesicles. Besides, the toxin delivers its N-terminal adenylate cyclase domain into the target cytosol, where catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cAMP, which affects cell signalling. In this study we have made two major observations. First, we show that ACT binds free cholesterol, and identify in its sequence 38 potential cholesterol-recognition motifs. Second, we reveal that four of those motifs are real, functional cholesterol-binding sites. Mutations of the central phenylalanine residues in said motifs have an important impact on the ACT lytic and translocation activities, suggesting their direct intervention in cholesterol recognition and toxin functionality. From our data a likely transmembrane topology can be inferred for the ACT helices constituting the translocation and the hydrophobic regions. From this topology a simple and plausible mechanism emerges by which ACT could translocate its AC domain into target cells, challenging previous views in the field. Blocking the ACT-cholesterol interactions might thus be an effective approach for inhibiting ACT toxicity on cells, and this could help in mitigating the severity of pertussis disease in humans.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
pp. S186
Y. Ramananda ◽  
K. Arora ◽  
K. Mun ◽  
P. Liyanage ◽  
K. Wikenheiser-Brokamp ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. 9-12
Sandhya Menon ◽  
Jessy Pius ◽  
Sachin Palekar ◽  
Nandini G.

Epinephrine, a hormone known to produce ‘fight or flight’ response in higher animals, stimulates the hepatic cells to release stored glucose. The receptor for epinephrine is known to be a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). Baker’s yeast, also known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is reported to have a Gprotein coupled receptor (GPCR). The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) has a role in sensing glucose activation of adenylate cyclase during the switch from respirative/gluconeogenic metabolism to fermentation. Epinephrine, having varying roles in the animal system, has been reported in certain plant species. In the present study, Epinephrine quantified from extracts of G. globosa and P. oleracea was evaluated for its effect on the yeast cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (9) ◽  
pp. e1009920
Jory A. Goldsmith ◽  
Andrea M. DiVenere ◽  
Jennifer A. Maynard ◽  
Jason S. McLellan

RTX leukotoxins are a diverse family of prokaryotic virulence factors that are secreted by the type 1 secretion system (T1SS) and target leukocytes to subvert host defenses. T1SS substrates all contain a C-terminal RTX domain that mediates recruitment to the T1SS and drives secretion via a Brownian ratchet mechanism. Neutralizing antibodies against the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin, an RTX leukotoxin essential for B. pertussis colonization, have been shown to target the RTX domain and prevent binding to the αMβ2 integrin receptor. Knowledge of the mechanisms by which antibodies bind and neutralize RTX leukotoxins is required to inform structure-based design of bacterial vaccines, however, no structural data are available for antibody binding to any T1SS substrate. Here, we determine the crystal structure of an engineered RTX domain fragment containing the αMβ2-binding site bound to two neutralizing antibodies. Notably, the receptor-blocking antibodies bind to the linker regions of RTX blocks I–III, suggesting they are key neutralization-sensitive sites within the RTX domain and are likely involved in binding the αMβ2 receptor. As the engineered RTX fragment contained these key epitopes, we assessed its immunogenicity in mice and showed that it elicits similar neutralizing antibody titers to the full RTX domain. The results from these studies will support the development of bacterial vaccines targeting RTX leukotoxins, as well as next-generation B. pertussis vaccines.

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