legal remedies
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Andreas Samartzis

Main justifications for regarding common nationality as a necessary condition for holding equal political rights – Critique of collective self-determination, equal stakes, nature of political activity, and stability justifications – Rejection of the incommensurability of legitimacy and justice – Socioeconomic interdependence and liberal democratic values as the normative grounds for equal stakes – Risk of entrenchment of hostility among national groups as a consequence of a competitive conception of political activity – Instrumental value of stability – Stability through democratic inclusion – Possibility of sustainable pluralism through deliberative democracy – Modified version of the equal stakes argument – Equal political rights on the basis of long-term residence – Association of citizenship with nationality in contemporary European states – Redefinition of citizenship as top-down redefinition of nationality – Need to reconceptualise equal political rights independently of citizenship – Legal argument for interpreting references to popular sovereignty in national constitutions in accordance with long-term residence, rather than nationality – Available legal remedies

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 161-166
Muhammad Jarnawansyah ◽  
Reza Muhammad Rizqi

There is a law called Law Number 8 of 1999 that deals with consumer protection. It says that disputes between consumers and business people can be settled through both litigation and non-litigation channels and that both types of channels can be used to do this. Using the courts to settle consumer disputes is a way to do this. This type of dispute resolution refers to the rules for general courts. So that consumers need to get help from the law to get their rights as consumers. Consumer protection is becoming more and more important as science and technology move faster and faster. This is because the speed of science and technology is what drives the productivity and efficiency of producers for the goods or services they make in order to reach their business goals. As a result of this, either directly or indirectly, the Consumers are the ones who feel the effects of these two things the most. In this case, the consumer protection law says that businesses must give legal protection to their customers, so this shows that businesses must do this. And legal remedies for resolving disputes between customers and business people in the event of a dispute can be used both in court and out of court. In order for a dispute to be resolved through litigation, one party has filed a lawsuit against the other party. However, non-litigation dispute resolution can be done in a number of ways, such as through negotiation, consolidation, mediation, arbitration, and so on. Keywords: Legal Protection, Consumers, Consumer Disputes, Litigation, Laws.

Xhemile Saliu

When it comes to Dutch law, the initiation of civil litigation, there are just a few cases in the Netherlands. This is due to the harmonized Dutch culture. Therefore, compared to other European countries, the number of lawyers and judges per capita in the Netherlands is small. In this scientific paper, we will make an overview of the civil judicial organization, the types of civil proceedings, the obligation to represent the civil cases in the court through a lawyer, legal aid and also in more detail we will focus on the main stages of the civil trial as well as the conditions that must be met before initiating civil proceedings. We will analyze in detail the fact that in the Dutch Law, the defendant may deny the right to judicial reconciliation with the plaintiff, before initiating the proceedings and that it is also preferable in Dutch Law, that the opposing party is summoned to fulfill its obligations within a certain period. If without respecting this method, the court procedure is initiated, the court costs may be attributed to the initiator of the procedure, i.e the plaintiff. Except for proceedings before judges from subordinate regions in Dutch law, the general rule is that the proceedings must be presided over by the plaintiff's attorney (procurator litis) and by a lawyer selected from the list of attorneys registered with the Association. In this scientific paper, we will also pay special attention to the temporary legal protection and special procedures and we will also focus on the judgments and legal remedies in Dutch law.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (4) ◽  
pp. 485-507
Evelien Brouwer

Abstract To create an area in which persons can move freely, the Schengen states committed to control their external borders to prevent irregular immigration and the entry of third-country nationals (TCN s) who are considered to be ‘a public order and security risk’. The exclusion of ‘unwanted aliens’ can be based on the mutual enforcement of national decisions, such as entry bans reported in the Schengen Information System, or objections against the issuing of a Schengen visa, based on the consultation procedure in the Visa Code. This contribution focuses on the right of TCN s to have access to effective remedies, both with regard to existing and newer mechanisms of exclusion. It argues that when dealing with the use of large-scale databases and risk assessment as basis for excluding admission, existing rules and case-law by the CJEU should be taken into account to ensure access to effective judicial protection for TCN s.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 72-76
Ni Putu Yunika Sulistyawati ◽  
Sang Ayu Made Ary Kusumawardhani

The purpose of this research is to find out the Prevention and Countermeasure of Wild levies on behalf of indigenous village. The type of research used in this research is empirical research. Empirical research is research that examines and analyzes the legal workers in society (law in action) the main data used is data sourced from the Prevention and Countermeasure of wild levies on behalf of indigenous village.                 The results indicate that the prevention and countermeasures of Wild levies on behalf of Indigenous Villages. The goals of community welfare and community protection, prevention and countermeasures of crime must be carried out with integral of the means of reasoning penal and non-penal. Viewed from the political point of the most strategic policy law through preventive, preventive and countermeasures of crime by means of reasoning and non-precision whose functionalization or operationalization through several stages, namely, the legislative policy stage, the judicial policy stage and the executive policy stage. Repressive efforts are a last resort in overcoming illegal levies efforts made to suppress the magnitude of the number of Hungarian criminal acts in order to have a deterrent effect and fear for perpetrators or communities who are later in wanting to commit criminal offenses will undo the intentions of the repressive legal remedies.

Alice Guerra ◽  
Francesco Parisi ◽  
Daniel Pi

Abstract In robot torts, robots carry out activities that are partially controlled by a human operator. Several legal and economic scholars across the world have argued for the need to rethink legal remedies as we apply them to robot torts. Yet, to date, there exists no general formulation of liability in case of robot accidents, and the proposed solutions differ across jurisdictions. We proceed in our research with a set of two companion papers. In this paper, we present the novel problems posed by robot accidents, and assess the legal challenges and institutional prospects that policymakers face in the regulation of robot torts. In the companion paper, we build on the present analysis and use an economic model to propose a new liability regime which blends negligence-based rules and strict manufacturer liability rules to create optimal incentives for robot torts.

Educoretax ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 59-81
Heru Saputro ◽  
Benny Setiawan

Abstract The Decree on the Reduction or Elimination of Administrative Sanctions issued due to the taxpayer's ignorance is a decision related to the implementation of tax decisions that have the potentially to cause disputes. This is because there are no clear boundaries regarding the criteria for error. As a result, there are opportunities for interested parties to interpret subjectively (Huda, 2015). If the taxpayer feels that The Decree on the Reduction or Elimination of Administrative Sanctions issued by the DGT is not appropriate, then the taxpayer can file a legal action in the form of a lawsuit to the Tax Court. What is interesting in the lawsuit process is how the panel of judges decides on tax dispute cases that arise due to unclear criteria in a rule, in this case related to taxpayer ignorance. In addition, the decision issued by the Tax Court must be able to provide a sense of justice to taxpayers considering the purpose of establishing the Tax Court is to create justice and legal certainty in the settlement of tax disputes. Keywords: Tax, Decree on the Reduction or Elimination of Administrative Sanctions, Tax legal remedies, Tax Court Abstrak Surat Keputusan Pengurangan atau Penghapusan Sanksi Administrasi yang diterbitkan akibat adanya kekhilafan wajib pajak merupakan keputusan berkaitan dengan pelaksanaan keputusan perpajakan yang berpotensi terjadi sengketa. Hal itu disebabkan karena tidak adanya batasan-batasan yang jelas mengenai kriteria kekhilafan yang diatur di dalam sebuah aturan. Akibatnya terbuka peluang bagi pihak-pihak yang berkepentingan yaitu wajib pajak dan petugas pajak untuk menafsirkan secara subjektif (Huda, 2015). Jika wajib pajak merasa bahwa surat keputusan pengurangan atau penghapusan sanksi administrasi yang diterbitkan DJP tidak tepat, maka wajib pajak dapat mengajukan upaya hukum berupa gugatan ke Pengadilan Pajak. Yang menarik dalam proses gugatan tersebut adalah mengenai bagaimana majelis hakim memutuskan perkara sengketa pajak yang timbul karena ketidakjelasan kriteria di dalam sebuah aturan, dalam kasus ini yaitu terkait kekhilafan wajib pajak. Selain itu, putusan yang diterbitkan oleh Pengadilan Pajak harus dapat memberikan rasa keadilan kepada wajib pajak mengingat tujuan pembentukan Pengadilan Pajak adalah untuk menciptakan keadilan dan kepastian hukum dalam penyelesaian sengketa pajak. Kata Kunci: Pajak, Surat Keputusan Pengurangan atau Penghapusan Sanksi Administrasi, Upaya hukum perpajakan, Pengadilan Pajak

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 265-278
Agisa Tri Handias ◽  
Nabitatus Sa'adah

Imbalances and difficulties when workers experience industrial disputes bring out possibility of defeat in the trial. So the Government has an obligation to fight for justice by providing the budget for legal aid derived from the state budget and allocated to the budget of the Ministry of Law and Human rights. The research method used is normative, which is research that sees the effectiveness of prevailing laws. The results showed that the provision of legal aid budgets hasn’t been able to run optimally because government hasn’t provided a forum for applying legal aid budgets to legal remedies of cassation in Industrial disputes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 130-139
Nova Liani Munthe

Consumer protection is a matter of human interest, therefore it is a hope for nations in the world to be realized. Thus the importance of the issue of Consumer Protection in Indonesia, then issued a statutory regulation, namely Law no. 8 of 1999 concerning the Consumer Protection Act (known as UUPK). Especially Consumer Protection in the Health Sector which is something that is really needed by consumers in obtaining drug products circulating in the community, where the circulating drug products have been supervised by an agency that can be responsible for drug control. The Food and Drug Supervisory Agency (BPOM) is an agency appointed by the government in conducting drug control, The problems that will be discussed are first, how is the function of BPOM in Consumer Legal Protection. Second, how is consumer protection against the use of hard drugs. Third, what legal remedies can be taken by consumers as a result of losses in the use of strong drugs. The author obtains data and materials regarding the problems discussed, the author conducts Library Research, namely obtaining materials through reading sources or written materials as data of a scientific theoretical nature or secondary data. The author also conducts empirical research, namely obtaining data directly and conducting studies based on facts that occur in the field. Finally, conclusions were obtained, among others, first, the function of the Supervisory Board Drug and Food (BPOM) is to carry out control and supervision in the field of medicine and food. BPOM became aNon-Departmental Institution (LPND). Second, the role of the government is very necessary, namely by making a policy regarding food (food) which is carried out in an effort to control, supervise, develop and educate consumers and business actors. And invites consumers to think smart in consuming and using drugs, so that they are in accordance with the dose recommended by the doctor so they don't buy in any place. Third, legal remedies that can be taken by consumers are litigation or non-litigation, where non-litigation methods can be through the Dispute Resolution Agency (BPSK).

Eko Wiyono ◽  
I Nyoman Nurjaya ◽  
Prija Djatmika ◽  
Bambang Sugiri

Arrangements regarding legal remedies that can be submitted by investigators against the judge's decision regarding investigative actions in the form of terminating the investigation with the issuance of an Investigation Termination Order (SP3) in pretrial cases. Law No. 8/1981 on the Criminal Procedure Code was not expressly enforced. This article aims to identify legal remedies against pretrial decisions regarding the invalidity of the Termination of Investigation Order (SP3) in the future. This paper is normative legal research, namely the process of finding legal rules, legal principles, and legal doctrines to address legal issues at hand. The result of this study is the arrangements regarding extraordinary legal remedies in the form of a judicial review of criminal decisions that have permanent legal force and are not acquitted or released from all previous legal claims before the entry into force of the Criminal Procedure Code that have been regulated can also be submitted by interested parties. Necessary to reconstruct the regulation of legal remedies against pretrial decisions, especially extraordinary legal remedies in the form of reconsideration, especially by investigators as parties who are very interested in the action.

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