cns infection
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Trivedi Krunal ◽  
Patel Kinjal ◽  

Cryptococcus neoformans infections are more common among immunosuppressed individuals, causing the most widespread opportunistic CNS infection among HIV-positive patients [1]. Specifically, those with cellular immunosuppression, such as patients with HIV positive CD4 counts less than 100. When a patient presents with atypical symptoms, it can be difficult to diagnose due to its infrequent presentation in HIV negative patients. Due to the rarity of encounters in HIV-negative patients, when atypical symptoms are present, it poses a diagnostic challenge. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma that is known to be associated with cellular immunosuppression [2]. This demonstrates the need for early diagnosis and recognition of cryptococcal infections and as a physician should be vigilant to diagnose cryptococcal who is on Acalabrutinib with MCL [3]. CLL patients receiving ibrutinib should be evaluated for cryptococcal infection, which is potentially life threatening if overlooked [4]. Meningitis caused by Cryptococcus mainly presents with fever and altered mental status but in this case, our patient 78-year-old male with mantle cell lymphoma, undergoing a regimen of Rituximab-Bendamustine (BR) in combination with acalabrutinib (TKI), presented with hypotension to ED in June 2021. Cryptococcal infection in patient receiving ibrutinib were mostly reported in patients with Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, who have poor immune reconstitution. Here we are reporting case of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patient with MCL on acalabrutinib which is never reported before.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xuan Su ◽  
Peng Yue ◽  
Jing Kong ◽  
Xin Xu ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  

Brain organoids, or brainoids, have shown great promise in the study of central nervous system (CNS) infection. Modeling Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in brain organoids may help elucidate the relationship between ZIKV infection and microcephaly. Brain organoids have been used to study the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HSV-1, and other viral infections of the CNS. In this review, we summarize the advances in the development of viral infection models in brain organoids and their potential application for exploring mechanisms of viral infections of the CNS and in new drug development. The existing limitations are further discussed and the prospects for the development and application of brain organs are prospected.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. e000560
Kasra Molooghi ◽  
Fereshte Sheybani ◽  
Hamidreza Naderi ◽  
Zahra Mirfeizi ◽  
Negar Morovatdar ◽  

We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on central nervous system (CNS) infections in patients with SLE, in order to describe their clinical and microbiological characteristics, and outcomes. A systematic search of PubMed/Medline and Embase electronic databases was performed (March 2021) to identify all published studies on CNS infections and their characteristics in patients with SLE. A random-effects model was adopted and findings were reported with 95% CI. Overall, 6 studies involving 17 751 patients with SLE and 209 SLE cases with CNS infection were included in our meta-analysis. The frequency rate of CNS infections in patients with SLE was 0.012 (95% CI: 0.008 to 0.018). Meningitis was the most common clinical syndrome (93.5%, n=109/114, 95% CI: 82.6% to 97.8%) and Cryptococcus neoformans (35.9%, n=55, 95% CI: 27.2% to 45.7%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (27.1%, n=43, 95% CI: 14.6% to 44.8%) were the most common causative pathogens. Our patient-pool showed a mean SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score of 7.9 (95% CI: 6.1 to 9.6), while 92.4% (n=72/76, 95% CI: 83.0% to 96.8%) of cases were on oral systemic corticosteroids, with a prednisone equivalent mean daily dose of 30.9 mg/day (95% CI: 18.0 to 43.7). Our meta-analysis revealed a mortality rate of 29.0% (95% CI: 15.0% to 48.6%). Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for cryptococcal and tuberculosis (TB) meningitis in patients with SLE with suspected CNS infection, particularly in those with higher SLEDAI and on higher doses of systemic corticosteroids. In conclusion, initiation of empiric antituberculous treatment for patients with SLE who are highly suspected to have CNS TB is warranted while awaiting the results of diagnostic tests. Antifungals might also be potentially useful empirically in patients with SLE who are suspected to have fungal CNS infections. However, with respect to side effects such as toxicity and high cost of antifungals, decision regarding early antifungal therapy should be guided by early and less time-consuming fungal diagnostic tests.

Minoosh Moghimi ◽  
Samad Ghodrati ◽  
Zahra Abbaspourrad ◽  
Amirhossein Moghtader Mojdehi ◽  
Sattar Jafari ◽  

The novel coronavirus infection involves both the Central and Peripheral Nervous systems. Some of the presentations include acute cerebrovascular disease, impaired consciousness, transverse myelitis, encephalopathy, encephalitis, and epilepsy. Our patient was a 78-year-old man with dementia and diabetic nephropathy who was admitted two times for possibly COVID-19 infection. At the first hospitalization, the patient is treated with hydroxychloroquine and Kaletra based on clinical symptoms and initial laboratory findings due to suspicion of COVID-19. After the negative RT-PCR test of the nasopharyngeal sample for COVID-19 and evidence of aspiration pneumonia in CT scan, the patient was discharged with oral antibiotics. Five weeks later, he was rehospitalized with loss of consciousness, fever, and hypoxemia in the physical exam; he had neck stiffness in all directions, So the central nervous system (CNS) infection was suspected, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample was in favor of aseptic meningitis and second RT-PCR test of nasopharyngeal sample for COVID-19 was positive, but Brain MRI just showed small vessel disease without evidence of encephalitis. In the second hospitalization, he had acute renal failure, which was treated with supportive care, and also suffered from pulmonary embolism with cavitary lesions in his lungs. Meningitis with pulmonary embolism and acute renal failure have not yet been reported. Our patient is the first one, so we decided to share it. This case showed a different presentation of COVID-19 without typical lung involvement. So, we must pay attention to any signs and symptoms in a patient suspected of having a COVID-19.

2021 ◽  
Vol 104 (12) ◽  
pp. 1992-1999

Background: Cryptococcal infection, especially cryptococcal meningitis, is the most common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection with a high mortality rate in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The clinical features of cryptococcal meningitis may be non-specific, which may lead to miss or delay diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To collect the case series of SLE patients with cryptococcosis treated in Nongkhai Hospital between 2013 and 2021 and compared it with other studies. Materials and Methods: The medical records of SLE patients (ICD-10 M320-M329) with cryptococcal infection (ICD-10 B450-B459) treated in Nongkhai Hospital between 2013 and 2021 were reviewed and collected onto a medical record form. The following information were obtained, gender, occupation, age at SLE diagnosis, age of onset, duration of disease, comorbid or risks, previous infection, SLE disease activity, glucocorticoids, and immunosuppressors administered before or at infection diagnosis, cryptococcosis clinical manifestations, laboratory data, Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, antifungal agents used, and outcomes. Results: Six hundred thirty-six patients with SLE were identified and six patients developed cryptococcosis. Five patients had cryptococcal meningitis and one patient had cryptococcocemia. Fever and headache were the symptoms of all patients. CSF cryptococcal antigen was positive in five patients. Antifungal therapy was initiated as soon as the diagnosis was confirmed in all patients. Five patients (83.3%) recovered completely, and one patient was against the advice. Conclusion: The present study suggested that SLE patients presenting with fever and headache along with a history of moderate to high dose steroids and immunosuppressants administration should always be suspected of cryptococcal infection and cryptococcal meningitis. Meanwhile, CSF cryptococcal antigens are the effective screening tools to establish an early diagnosis. Accordingly, early appropriate treatment is crucial for a favorable outcome. Keywords: Cryptococcal infection; Cryptococcosis; Cryptococcal meningitis; SLE; Lupus

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Paola Mariela Saba Villarroel ◽  
María del Rosario Castro Soto ◽  
Oriana Melendres Flores ◽  
Alejandro Peralta Landívar ◽  
María E. Calderón ◽  

AbstractCentral nervous system (CNS) infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Bolivia, aetiologies, case fatality, and determinants of outcome are poorly characterised. We attempted to investigate such parameters to guide diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and health policy. From Nov-2017 to Oct-2018, we prospectively enrolled 257 inpatients (20.2% HIV-positive patients) of all ages from healthcare centers of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, Bolivia with a suspected CNS infection and a lumbar puncture performed. Biological diagnosis included classical microbiology, molecular, serological and immunohistochemical tests. An infectious aetiology was confirmed in 128/257 (49.8%) inpatients, including, notably among confirmed single and co-infections, Cryptococcus spp. (41.7%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (27.8%) in HIV-positive patients, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (26.1%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.5%) in HIV-negative patients. The total mortality rate was high (94/223, 42.1%), including six rabies cases. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, mortality was associated with thrombocytopenia (Odds ratio (OR) 5.40, 95%-CI 2.40–11.83) and hydrocephalus (OR 4.07, 95%-CI 1.35–12.23). The proportion of untreated HIV patients, late presentations of neurotuberculosis, the rate of pneumococcal cases, and rabies patients who did not benefit from a post-exposure prophylaxis, suggest that decreasing the burden of CNS infections requires reinforcing health policy regarding tuberculosis, rabies, S. pneumoniae vaccination, and HIV-infections.

2021 ◽  
Mirta Acuña ◽  
Dona Benadof ◽  
Karla Yohannessen ◽  
Yennybeth Leiva ◽  
Pascal Clement

Abstract Background: Central nervous system (CNS) infection has been an ongoing concern in paediatrics. The FilmArray® Meningoencephalitis (FAME) panel has greater sensitivity in identifying the aetiology of CNS infections. This study’s objective was to compare the aetiological identification and hospitalization costs among patients with suspected CNS infection before and after the use of FAME.Methods: An analytical observational study was carried out using a retrospective cohort for the pre-intervention (pre-FAME use) period and a prospective cohort for the post-intervention (post-FAME use) period in children with suspected CNS infection.Results: A total of 409 CSF samples were analysed, 297 pre-intervention and 112 post-intervention. In the pre-intervention period, a total of 85.5% of patients required hospitalization, and in the post-intervention period 92.7% required hospitalization (p<0.05). The P50 of ICU days was significantly lower in the post-intervention period than it was in the pre-intervention period. The overall positivity was 9.4% and 26.8%, respectively (p< 0.001). At ages 6 months and below, we found an increase in overall positivity from 2.6% to 28.1%, along with an increased detection of viral agents, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and N. meningitidis. The use of this diagnostic technology saved between $2,916 and $12,240 USD in the cost of ICU bed-days. FAME use provided the opportunity for more accurate aetiological diagnosis of the infections and thus the provision of adequate appropriate treatment.Conclusions: The cost/benefit ratio between FAME cost and ICU -bed-day cost savings is favourable. Implementation of FAME in Chilean public hospitals saves public resources and improves the accuracy of aetiological diagnosis.

Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013127
Olga Selioutski ◽  
Peggy Auinger ◽  
Omar K. Siddiqi ◽  
Benedict Daniel Michael ◽  
Clayton Buback ◽  

Background and Objectives:The utility of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in intubated patients is limited due to reliance on language function evaluation. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) Score was designed to circumvent this shortcoming, instead adding evaluations of brainstem reflexes (FOUR B) and specific respiratory patterns (FOUR R). We aimed to determine if the verbal component of the GCS (GCS V) among encephalopathic non-intubated patients significantly contributes to mortality prediction and to assess GCS vs. FOUR Score performance.Methods:All prospectively consented patients ≥18 years admitted to the Internal Medicine service at Zambia’s University Teaching Hospital from October 3rd, 2017 to May 21st, 2018 with a GCS of ≤10 have undergone simultaneous GCS and FOUR Score assessments. The patients were not eligible for mechanical ventilatory support per local standards. Patients’ demographics and clinical characteristics were presented as either percentage frequencies or numerical summaries of spread. The predictive power of the GSC without Verbal component vs. total GCS vs. FOUR Score on mortality were estimated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AU-ROC).Results:235 patients (50% women; mean age 47.5 years) were enrolled. All patients were Black. Presumed etiology was CNS infection (64; 27%), stroke (63; 27%), systemic infection (39; 16.6%), metabolic encephalopathy (3; 14.5 %), 14.9% unknown. In-hospital mortality was 83%. AU ROC for GCS Eye+Motor (0.662) vs. total GCS (0.641) vs. total FOUR Score (0.657) did not differ. Odds ratio mortality for GCS > 6 vs. < 6 was 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.72 (p 0.01); for FOUR Score >10 vs. <10 was 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.86 (p 0.02).Conclusion:Absence of a verbal component of GCS had no significant impact on total GCS’s performance and either GCS or FOUR Score are acceptable scoring tools for mortality prediction in the resource-limited setting. These findings need further validation in the countries with readily available mechanical ventilatory support.Classification of Evidence:This study provides Class I evidence that the verbal component of the GCS does not significantly contribute to a total GCS score in mortality prediction among encephalopathic patients who are not intubated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Asma Hassani ◽  
Narendran Reguraman ◽  
Safa Shehab ◽  
Gulfaraz Khan

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common herpesvirus associated with malignant and non-malignant conditions. An accumulating body of evidence supports a role for EBV in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the CNS. However, little is known about the details of the link between EBV and MS. One obstacle which has hindered research in this area has been the lack of a suitable animal model recapitulating natural infection in humans. We have recently shown that healthy rabbits are susceptible to EBV infection, and viral persistence in these animals mimics latent infection in humans. We used the rabbit model to investigate if peripheral EBV infection can lead to infection of the CNS and its potential consequences. We injected EBV intravenously in one group of animals, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in another, with and without immunosuppression. Histopathological changes and viral dynamics were examined in peripheral blood, spleen, brain, and spinal cord, using a range of molecular and histopathology techniques. Our investigations uncovered important findings that could not be previously addressed. We showed that primary peripheral EBV infection can lead to the virus traversing the CNS. Cell associated, but not free virus in the plasma, correlated with CNS infection. The infected cells within the brain were found to be B-lymphocytes. Most notably, animals injected with EBV, but not PBS, developed inflammatory cellular aggregates in the CNS. The incidence of these aggregates increased in the immunosuppressed animals. The cellular aggregates contained compact clusters of macrophages surrounded by reactive astrocytes and dispersed B and T lymphocytes, but not myelinated nerve fibers. Moreover, studying EBV infection over a span of 28 days, revealed that the peak point for viral load in the periphery and CNS coincides with increased occurrence of cellular aggregates in the brain. Finally, peripheral EBV infection triggered temporal changes in the expression of latent viral transcripts and cytokines in the brain. The present study provides the first direct in vivo evidence for the role of peripheral EBV infection in CNS pathology, and highlights a unique model to dissect viral mechanisms contributing to the development of MS.

2021 ◽  
Gema M Olivarria ◽  
Yuting Cheng ◽  
Collin Pachow ◽  
Lindsay A Hohsfield ◽  
Charlene Smith-Geater ◽  

Unlike SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, infection with SARS-CoV-2, the viral pathogen responsible for COVID-19, is often associated with neurologic symptoms that range from mild to severe, yet increasing evidence argues the virus does not exhibit extensive neuroinvasive properties. We demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can infect and replicate in human iPSC-derived neurons and that infection shows limited anti-viral and inflammatory responses but increased activation of EIF2 signaling following infection as determined by RNA sequencing. Intranasal infection of K18 human ACE2 transgenic mice (K18-hACE2) with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in lung pathology associated with viral replication and immune cell infiltration. In addition, ~50% of infected mice exhibited CNS infection characterized by wide-spread viral replication in neurons accompanied by increased expression of chemokine (Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Ccl2, Ccl5 and Ccl19) and cytokine (Ifn-λ and Tnf-α) transcripts associated with microgliosis and a neuroinflammatory response consisting primarily of monocytes/macrophages. Microglia depletion via administration of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor, PLX5622, in SARS-CoV-2 infected mice did not affect survival or viral replication but did result in dampened expression of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine transcripts and a reduction in monocyte/macrophage infiltration. These results argue that microglia are dispensable in terms of controlling SARS-CoV-2 replication in in the K18-hACE2 model but do contribute to an inflammatory response through expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Collectively, these findings contribute to previous work demonstrating the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect neurons as well as emphasizing the potential use of the K18-hACE2 model to study immunological and neuropathological aspects related to SARS-CoV-2-induced neurologic disease.

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