Flammable Gas
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Rishabha Saraf ◽  
Anshul Gangele

Over the past two centuries, energy needs have risen dramatically, particularly due to the transportation and industry sectors. However, the main made fuels like (fossil fuels) are polluting and their reserves are limited. Governments & research organization work together for make the use of renewable resources a priority and reduce irresponsible use of natural supplies through increased conservation. The energy crisis is a broad is biggest problem in world. Most people don't realize to their reality unless the price of fuel at the pump goes up or there are lines at the fuel station. Plastics waste fuel is sustainable and futuristic solution of fossil fuel as well as biggest problem of waste management of plastic waste can solve by this fuel. In thesis we prepare the plastic waste fuel by application of paralysis process in this process use low, medium and high grade of plastic and heated with limited amount of oxygen melt the plastic. The result of paralysis finds of liquid fuel and flammable gas. This fuel can be used as a blend in diesel with a proportion of B0D100, B10D90 B20D80, & B30D70 where B tent to blend of plastic fuel and D tend to diesel as if B0D100 means blend 0% and diesel 100%. These blend run diesel engine. The blends are in 10%, 20% & 30% plastic paralysis oil with standard diesel fuel. For experiment simultaneous optimization used a method called “Taguchi” used in the engine such as injection pressure and load condition. Taguchi Method of Optimization is a simplest method of optimizing experimental parameters in less number of trials.

Q G Zheng ◽  
W Q Wu ◽  
M Song

The engine fuel piping in LNG-fuelled ships’ engine room presents potential gas explosion risks due to possible gas fuel leakage and dispersion. A 3D CFD model with chemical reaction was described, validated and then used to simulate the possible gas dispersion and the consequent explosions in an engine room with regulations commanded ventilations. The results show that, with the given minor leaking of a fuel pipe, no more than 1kg of methane would accumulate in the engine room. The flammable gas clouds only exit in limited region and could lead to explosions with an overpressure about 12 mbar, presenting no injury risk to personnel. With the given major leaking, large region in the engine room would be filled with flammable gas cloud within tens of seconds. The gas cloud might lead to an explosion pressure of about 1 bar or higher, which might result in serious casualties in the engine room.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2130 (1) ◽  
pp. 012022
G Írsel ◽  
B N Güzey

Abstract The laser beam, plasma arc, and oxygen cutting methods are widely used in metal cutting processes. These methods are quite different from each other in terms of initial setup cost and cutting success. A powered laser beam is used in laser beam cutting, plasma is used in plasma arc cutting, flammable gas - oxygen mixture is used in the oxygen cutting method. In this study, the cutting success of these methods was investigated on tensile specimens. Microstructure, hardness (HV 0.1), surface roughness, and strengths were investigated after the cutting process. The tensile test implemented with tensile samples cut from the same material by these three methods, it was observed that the strength values of the samples changed by about 8% in tensile strength depending on the cutting process. The hardness of the cut surfaces in plasma arc cutting increased from 150 HV to 230 HV for S235JR material. For this reason, it is difficult to perform machining operations after plasma cutting. The hardness value reached after laser beam cutting is 185 HV. Plasma arc cutting is more cost-effective than laser beam cutting. 1-3° vertical inclination (conicity) occurs on the cut surface in plasma arc cutting, while this inclination almost does not occur in laser cutting. In plasma cutting benches, cutting is done with oxygen, and in cutting with oxygen, the taper is seen in a small amount.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2107 (1) ◽  
pp. 012028
M A Abu Bakar ◽  
M R Manan ◽  
R M Kawi ◽  
L J Yunn

Abstract The presence of explosive or flammable gases in confined space may contribute towards accidents that threaten the workers safety and industrial progress. Conventionally, the existing instrument for gas detection in confined space is manually carried by humans whereby the workers or competence person itself were exposed directly to the gases. This project is aim to develop a prototype system to detect the presence of gases leak where the robotic system replaces humans to carry gas sensors. Users only need to maneuver the robot using a mobile phone to monitor the specific area that may have an explosive or flammable gas leak which includes Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and methane gases. The sensors will detect if a change in the gas concentration has exceeded a safety limit and will activate the alarm as an alert signal. The readings of gases as input signals were sent wirelessly to the Personal Computer (PC) as a user device for monitoring purposes. This prototype is successfully developed, tested and calibrated using the samples of LPG gas, methane, smoke and environment temperature. The result proved that the developed system is able to detect an air sample using selected gas sensors and display the data in graph form with live monitoring. This will contribute significantly to acquiring a new and alternative method using the system for detecting the presence of gases in confined space application.

Fuel ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 122138
Wentao Ji ◽  
Yang Wang ◽  
Jingjing Yang ◽  
Jia He ◽  
Xiaoping Wen ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Lifeng Li ◽  
Jinheng Luo ◽  
Gang Wu ◽  
Xinhong Li ◽  
Nan Ji ◽  

This study conducts an impact assessment of flammable gas dispersion and fire hazards from LNG tank leak. The release source model is used to estimate LNG release rate. A CFD (computational fluid dynamics) based 3D model is established to simulate dispersion behavior of flammable gas from the phase transformation of LNG. Subsequently, a FDS (fire dynamics) based model is built to simulate the pool fire due to LNG tank leak. The impact of gas dispersion and fire on personnel and assets is assessed based on simulation results, which can provide a theoretical basis and method support for major accident assessment of tank leakage in large LNG receiving station. The results show that the dispersion of flammable gas from LNG tank leak has an obvious stage characteristic. The flammable gas reached a steady state around 300 s, and the corresponding coverage area is about 16250 m2. The pool fire simulations indicate that the steady flame is formed at 20 s. The flames flow along the wind, and the maximum temperature of the fire reaches 670°C, and the maximum thermal radiation reaches 624 kW/m2. According to the fire damage criteria, the pool fire from LNG tank leak may pose a serious threat on the safety of adjacent assets and personnel.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 121-127
Seung-Ho Choi ◽  
Hyoung Gwon Choi

In this study, three-dimensional K - E turbulence numerical simulations were conducted to analyze the extent of hazardous area for the sonic jet leakage of flammable gas. Incompressible fluid flows were simulated based on an inlet boundary condition estimated using the theory of “equivalent leak diameter” to prevent the direct simulation of sonic flows near the leakage hole. Numerical simulations of 20 methane leakage scenarios providing the lower explosive limit contour showed shapes of the hazardous area with a maximum height of approximately 12-14 times larger than the maximum width, owing to convection. The extents of hazardous area determined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were approximately 5%-10% lower than the results obtained with 1 m over based on IEC 60079-10-1. For scenarios in which quantitative data were not calculated using IEC 60079-10-1 due to low release rates, CFD provided quantitative data for the extent of hazardous area, showing nonlinear relationships with the pressure and diameter of leak holes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Xiang Liu ◽  
Liang Yin ◽  
Dongsheng Ren ◽  
Li Wang ◽  
Yang Ren ◽  

AbstractGraphite, a robust host for reversible lithium storage, enabled the first commercially viable lithium-ion batteries. However, the thermal degradation pathway and the safety hazards of lithiated graphite remain elusive. Here, solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) decomposition, lithium leaching, and gas release of the lithiated graphite anode during heating were examined by in situ synchrotron X-ray techniques and in situ mass spectroscopy. The source of flammable gas such as H2 was identified and quantitively analyzed. Also, the existence of highly reactive residual lithium on the graphite surface was identified at high temperatures. Our results emphasized the critical role of the SEI in anode thermal stability and uncovered the potential safety hazards of the flammable gases and leached lithium. The anode thermal degradation mechanism revealed in the present work will stimulate more efforts in the rational design of anodes to enable safe energy storage.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (13) ◽  
pp. 3967
Ignas Daugela ◽  
Jurate Suziedelyte Visockiene ◽  
Jurate Kumpiene ◽  
Ivan Suzdalev

Global warming, as the result of the negative impact of humans on climate change, has been observed based on various data sources. Various measures have aimed to reduce anthropogenic factors, and also to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane CH4 emissions. One of the main contributors to anthropogenic factors is organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills. There are many landfills where cost-effective rapid technologies for the identification and quantification of CH4 emission sites are not applied. There is still a need for the development of accessible and cost-effective methods that react in a real-time manner for the rapid detection and monitoring of methane emissions. This paper’s main goal is to create a prototype sensor suitable for operational measurement of the gas value, suitable for integration into geodetic equipment or an unmanned aerial vehicle system. A sensor system (device) was developed, which consisted of three semiconductor sensors—MQ2, MQ4, and MQ135—which aimed to capture flammable gases (CO2, CH4, O2 purity) and to evaluate the averages of the measured values from the components mounted on the board—the semiconductor sensors. The sensors were calibrated in a laboratory and tested in a closed landfill. The measurement data consisted of the read resistances (analog signal) from the MQ2, MQ4, and MQ135 sensors, and the relative humidity and the temperature (digital signal) of the DHT2 sensor with a timestamp calculated by the RTC module. The use of the method was confirmed because the sensors reacted as expected when placed in the vicinity of the gas collection well. Furthermore, the sensor will be tested and improved for field work in landfill sites.

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