Muscle Disorders
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Valérie Biancalana ◽  
John Rendu ◽  
Annabelle Chaussenot ◽  
Helen Mecili ◽  
Eric Bieth ◽  

AbstractThe ryanodine receptor RyR1 is the main sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ channel in skeletal muscle and acts as a connecting link between electrical stimulation and Ca2+-dependent muscle contraction. Abnormal RyR1 activity compromises normal muscle function and results in various human disorders including malignant hyperthermia, central core disease, and centronuclear myopathy. However, RYR1 is one of the largest genes of the human genome and accumulates numerous missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS), precluding an efficient molecular diagnosis for many patients and families. Here we describe a recurrent RYR1 mutation previously classified as VUS, and we provide clinical, histological, and genetic data supporting its pathogenicity. The heterozygous c.12083C>T (p.Ser4028Leu) mutation was found in thirteen patients from nine unrelated congenital myopathy families with consistent clinical presentation, and either segregated with the disease in the dominant families or occurred de novo. The affected individuals essentially manifested neonatal or infancy-onset hypotonia, delayed motor milestones, and a benign disease course differing from classical RYR1-related muscle disorders. Muscle biopsies showed unspecific histological and ultrastructural findings, while RYR1-typical cores and internal nuclei were seen only in single patients. In conclusion, our data evidence the causality of the RYR1 c.12083C>T (p.Ser4028Leu) mutation in the development of an atypical congenital myopathy with gradually improving motor function over the first decades of life, and may direct molecular diagnosis for patients with comparable clinical presentation and unspecific histopathological features on the muscle biopsy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wataru Aoi ◽  
Yuko Tanimura

Skeletal muscles secrete various factors, such as proteins/peptides, nucleotides, and metabolites, which are referred to as myokines. Many of these factors are transported into extracellular bodily fluids in a free or protein-bound form. Furthermore, several secretory factors have been shown to be wrapped up by small vesicles, particularly exosomes, secreted into circulation, and subsequently regulate recipient cells. Thus, exosome contents can be recognized as myokines. In recipient cells, proteins, microRNAs, and metabolites in exosomes can regulate the expression and activity of target proteins associated with nutrient metabolism and immune function. The levels of circulating exosomes and their contents are altered in muscle disorders and metabolic-related states, such as metabolic dysfunction, sarcopenia, and physical fitness. Therefore, such circulating factors could mediate various interactions between skeletal muscle and other organs and may be useful as biomarkers reflecting physiological and pathological states associated with muscular function. Here, this review summarizes secretory regulation of muscle-derived exosomes. Their metabolic and immunological roles and the significance of their circulating levels are also discussed.

Eric Pozsgai ◽  
Danielle Griffin ◽  
Rachael Potter ◽  
Zarife Sahenk ◽  
Kelly Lehman ◽  

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) represent a major group of muscle disorders. Treatment is sorely needed and currently expanding based on safety and efficacy adopting principles of single-dosing gene therapy for monogenic autosomal recessive disorders. Gene therapy has made in-roads for LGMD and this review describes progress that has been achieved for these conditions. This review first provides a background on the definition and classification of LGMDs. The major effort focuses on progress in LGMD gene therapy, from experimental studies to clinical trials. The disorders discussed include the LGMDs where the most work has been done including calpainopathies (LGMD2A/R1), dysferlinopathies (LGMD2B/R2) and sarcoglycanopathies (LGMD2C/R5, LGMD2D/R3, LGMD2E/R4). Early success in clinical trials provides a template to move the field forward and potentially apply emerging technology like CRISPR/Cas9 that may enhance the scope and efficacy of gene therapy applied to patient care.

Gisela Sjogaard ◽  
Stephanie Mann ◽  
Jesper Stejnicher Drongstrup Jensen ◽  
Anne Skov Oestergaard ◽  
Tina Dalager

Rui Chen ◽  
Si Lei ◽  
Yanling She ◽  
Shanyao Zhou ◽  
Huacai Shi ◽  

In the present study, the roles of a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), lnc-GD2H, in promoting C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation and muscle regeneration were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, Cell Counting Kit-8, 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU), immunofluorescence staining, luciferase reporter, mass spectrometry, pulldown, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA immunoprecipitation assay, wound healing assays, and cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury assays. It was observed that lnc-GD2H promoted myoblast proliferation as evidenced by the enhancement of the proliferation markers c-Myc, CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6, percentage of EdU-positive cells, and rate of cell survival during C2C12 myoblast proliferation. Additional experiments confirmed that c-Myc bound to the lnc-GD2H promoter and regulated its transcription. lnc-GD2H promoted cell differentiation with enhanced MyHC immunostaining as well as increased expression of the myogenic marker genes myogenin (Myog), Mef2a, and Mef2c during myoblast differentiation. Additional assays indicated that lnc-GD2H interacted with NACA which plays a role of transcriptional regulation in myoblast differentiation, and the enrichment of NACA at the Myog promoter was impaired by lnc-GD2H. Furthermore, inhibition of lnc-GD2H impaired muscle regeneration after CTX-induced injury in mice. lnc-GD2H facilitated the expression of proliferating marker genes and formed a feedback loop with c-Myc during myoblast proliferation. In differentiating myoblasts, lnc-GD2H interacted with NACA to relieve the inhibitory effect of NACA on Myog, facilitating Myog expression to promote differentiation. The results provide evidence for the role of lncRNAs in muscle regeneration and are useful for developing novel therapeutic targets for muscle disorders.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (16) ◽  
pp. 4887
Takeshi Nikawa ◽  
Anayt Ulla ◽  
Iori Sakakibara

Skeletal muscle atrophy is the decrease in muscle mass and strength caused by reduced protein synthesis/accelerated protein degradation. Various conditions, such as denervation, disuse, aging, chronic diseases, heart disease, obstructive lung disease, diabetes, renal failure, AIDS, sepsis, cancer, and steroidal medications, can cause muscle atrophy. Mechanistically, inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are among the major contributors to muscle atrophy, by modulating signaling pathways that regulate muscle homeostasis. To prevent muscle catabolism and enhance muscle anabolism, several natural and synthetic compounds have been investigated. Recently, polyphenols (i.e., natural phytochemicals) have received extensive attention regarding their effect on muscle atrophy because of their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have reported polyphenols as strongly effective bioactive molecules that attenuate muscle atrophy and enhance muscle health. This review describes polyphenols as promising bioactive molecules that impede muscle atrophy induced by various proatrophic factors. The effects of each class/subclass of polyphenolic compounds regarding protection against the muscle disorders induced by various pathological/physiological factors are summarized in tabular form and discussed. Although considerable variations in antiatrophic potencies and mechanisms were observed among structurally diverse polyphenolic compounds, they are vital factors to be considered in muscle atrophy prevention strategies.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (15) ◽  
pp. 4533
Ali Mohammad Pourbagher-Shahri ◽  
Tahereh Farkhondeh ◽  
Marjan Talebi ◽  
Dalia M. Kopustinskiene ◽  
Saeed Samarghandian ◽  

Nitric Oxide (NO) is a potent signaling molecule involved in the regulation of various cellular mechanisms and pathways under normal and pathological conditions. NO production, its effects, and its efficacy, are extremely sensitive to aging-related changes in the cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms of NO signaling in the cardiovascular system, central nervous system (CNS), reproduction system, as well as its effects on skin, kidneys, thyroid, muscles, and on the immune system during aging. The aging-related decline in NO levels and bioavailability is also discussed in this review. The decreased NO production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was revealed in the aged cardiovascular system. In the CNS, the decline of the neuronal (n)NOS production of NO was related to the impairment of memory, sleep, and cognition. NO played an important role in the aging of oocytes and aged-induced erectile dysfunction. Aging downregulated NO signaling pathways in endothelial cells resulting in skin, kidney, thyroid, and muscle disorders. Putative therapeutic agents (natural/synthetic) affecting NO signaling mechanisms in the aging process are discussed in the present study. In summary, all of the studies reviewed demonstrate that NO plays a crucial role in the cellular aging processes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zoe White ◽  
Nadia Milad ◽  
Stephanie L. Sellers ◽  
Pascal Bernatchez

Dysferlinopathies are a group of muscle disorders caused by mutations to dysferlin, a transmembrane protein involved in membrane patching events following physical damage to skeletal myofibers. We documented dysferlin expression in vascular tissues including non-muscle endothelial cells, suggesting that blood vessels may have an endogenous repair system that helps promote vascular homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we generated dysferlin-null mice lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a common model of atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia and endothelial injury when stressed with a high fat, and cholesterol-rich diet. Despite high dysferlin expression in mouse and human atheromatous plaques, loss of dysferlin did not affect atherosclerotic burden as measured in the aortic root, arch, thoracic, and abdominal aortic regions. Interestingly, we observed that dysferlin-null mice exhibit lower plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than their WT controls at all measured stages of the disease process. Western blotting revealed abundant dysferlin expression in protein extracts from mouse livers, the main regulator of plasma lipoprotein levels. Despite abnormal lipoprotein levels, Dysf/ApoE double knockout mice responded to cholesterol absorption blockade with lower total cholesterol and blunted atherosclerosis. Our study suggests that dysferlin does not protect against atherosclerosis or participate in cholesterol absorption blockade but regulates basal plasma lipoprotein composition. Dysferlinopathic patients may be dyslipidemic without greater atherosclerotic burden while remaining responsive to cholesterol absorption blockade.

2021 ◽  
Vol 132 (8) ◽  
pp. e119
Seena Vengalil ◽  
Kiran Polavarapu ◽  
Saraswati Nashi ◽  
Veeramani Preethish-Kumar ◽  
Niranjan Prakash Mahajan ◽  

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