Clinical Science
Latest Publications





Published By Portland Press

1470-8736, 0143-5221

2022 ◽  
Vol 136 (1) ◽  
pp. 61-80
Manon Chauvin ◽  
Delphine Sauce

Abstract Massive CD4+ T-cell depletion as well as sustained immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 infection. In recent years, an emerging concept draws an intriguing parallel between HIV-1 infection and aging. Indeed, many of the alterations that affect innate and adaptive immune subsets in HIV-infected individuals are reminiscent of the process of immune aging, characteristic of old age. These changes, of which the presumed cause is the systemic immune activation established in patients, likely participate in the immuno-incompetence described with HIV progression. With the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-seropositive patients can now live for many years despite chronic viral infection. However, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related opportunistic infections have given way to chronic diseases as the leading cause of death since HIV infection. Therefore, the comparison between HIV-1 infected patients and uninfected elderly individuals goes beyond the sole onset of immunosenescence and extends to the deterioration of several physiological functions related to inflammation and systemic aging. In light of this observation, it is interesting to understand the precise link between immune activation and aging in HIV-1 infection to figure out how to best care for people living with HIV (PLWH).

2022 ◽  
Vol 136 (1) ◽  
pp. 163-166
Sarah-Eve Lemay ◽  
Sebastien Bonnet ◽  
François Potus

Abstract In this commentary, we discuss new observations stating that spliced X-box-binding protein 1 (Xbp1s)-DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (Ddit3) promotes monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (Jiang et al., Clinical Science (2021) 135(21), Xbp1s-Ddit3 is involved in the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress but is also associated with DNA damage repair machinery. Pathologic DNA damage repair mechanisms have emerged as critical determinants of pulmonary hypertension development. We discuss the potential relationship among Xbp1s-Ddit3, DNA damage, and pulmonary hypertension. Although Xbp1s-Ddit3 contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis and the development of vascular lesions, whether Xbp1s is a friend or foe remains controversial.

2021 ◽  
Vol 136 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-14
Inês Vasconcelos ◽  
Rui Adão ◽  
Miriam T. Rademaker ◽  
Adelino F. Leite-Moreira ◽  
Ana Patrícia Fontes-Sousa ◽  

Abstract The urocortins (Ucns) belong to the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and have multiple effects within the central nervous and the cardiovascular systems. With growing evidence indicating significant cardioprotective properties and cardiovascular actions of these peptides, the question arises as to whether the plasma profiles of the Ucns are altered in pathologic settings. While reports have shown conflicting results and findings have not been corroborated in multiple independent cohorts, it seems likely that plasma Ucn concentrations are elevated in multiple cardiovascular conditions. The degree of increase and accurate determination of circulating values of the Ucns requires further validation.

2021 ◽  
Yong Wu ◽  
Huan Yang ◽  
Sujuan Xu ◽  
Ming Cheng ◽  
Jie Gu ◽  

Inflammatory response and renal fibrosis are the hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the specific mechanism of aldosterone-induced renal injury in the progress of CKD requires elucidation. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-mediated inflammasome activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) play a pivotal role in the renal fibrosis. Here, we investigated whether overexpression or deficiency of AIM2 affects ERS and fibrosis in aldosterone-infused renal injury. Interestingly, we found that AIM2 was markedly expressed in the diseased proximal tubules from human and experimental chronic kidney disease. Mechanically, overactivation of AIM2 aggravated aldosterone-induced ERS and fibrotic changes in vitro while knockdown of AIM2 blunted these effects in vivo and vitro. By contrast, AIM2 deficiency ameliorated renal structure and function deterioration, decreased proteinuria levels and lower systolic blood pressure in vivo; silencing of AIM2 blocked inflammasome-mediated signaling pathway, relieved ERS and fibrotic changes in vivo. Furthermore, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone and ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) had nephroprotective effects on the basis of AIM2 overactivation in vitro while they failed to produce a more remarkable reno-protective effect on the treatment of AIM2 silence in vitro. Notably, the combination of TUDCA with AIM2 knockdown significantly reduced proteinuria levels in vivo. Additionally, immunofluorescence assay identified that apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) recruitment and Gasdermin-D (GSDMD) cleavage respectively occurred in the glomeruli and tubules in vivo. These findings establish a crucial role for AIM2 inflammasome in aldosterone-induced renal injury, which may provide a novel therapeutic target for the pathogenesis of CKD.

2021 ◽  
Xiaohong Xiang ◽  
Guie Dong ◽  
Jiefu Zhu ◽  
Gang Zhang ◽  
Zheng Dong

Cold storage/rewarming is an inevitable process for kidney transplantation from deceased donors, which correlates closely with renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and the occurrence of delayed graft function. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are important epigenetic regulators but their involvement in cold storage/rewarming injury in kidney transplantation is unclear. In the present study, we showed a dynamic change of HDAC3 in a mouse model of kidney cold storage followed by transplantation. We then demonstrated that the selective HDAC3 inhibitor RGFP966 could reduce acute tubular injury and cell death after prolonged cold storage with transplantation. RGFP966 also improved renal function, kidney repair and tubular integrity when the transplanted kidney became the sole life-supporting graft in the recipient mouse. In vitro, cold storage of proximal tubular cells followed by rewarming induced remarkable cell death, which was suppressed by RGFP966 or knockdown of HDAC3 with shRNA. Inhibition of HDAC3 decreased the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential. Collectively, HDAC3 plays a pathogenic role in cold storage/rewarming injury in kidney transplantation and its inhibition may be a therapeutic option.

2021 ◽  
Geoffrey Culshaw ◽  
David Binnie ◽  
Neeraj Dhaun ◽  
Patrick Hadoke ◽  
Matthew Bailey ◽  

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.  In a significant minority of people, it develops when salt intake is increased (salt-sensitivity).  It is not clear whether this represents impaired vascular function or disruption to the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and renal salt-handling (pressure natriuresis, PN).  Endothelin-1 (ET-1) regulates BP via ETA and ETB receptor subtypes.  Blockade of ETA receptors reduces BP, but promotes sodium retention by an unknown mechanism.  ETB blockade increases both BP and sodium retention.  We hypothesised that ETA blockade promotes sodium and water retention by suppressing PN.  We also investigated whether suppression of PN might reflect off-target ETB blockade.  Acute PN was induced by sequential arterial ligation in male Sprague Dawley rats.  Intravenous atrasentan (ETA antagonist, 5mg/kg) halved the normal increase in medullary perfusion and reduced sodium and water excretion by >60%.  This was not due to off-target ETB blockade because intravenous A-192621 (ETB antagonist, 10mg/kg) increased natriuresis by 50% without modifying medullary perfusion.  In a separate experiment in salt-loaded rats monitored by radiotelemetry, oral atrasentan reduced systolic and diastolic BP by ~10mmHg, but additional oral A-192621 reversed these effects.  Endogenous ETA stimulation has natriuretic effects mediated by renal vascular dilation while endogenous ETB stimulation in the kidney has antinatriuretic effects via renal tubular mechanisms.  Pharmacological manipulation of vascular function with ET antagonists modifies the BP set-point, but even highly selective ETA antagonists attenuate PN, which may be associated with salt and water retention.

2021 ◽  
Bárbara Fernandes Pinto ◽  
Lorena Natasha Brito Ribeiro ◽  
Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira da Silva ◽  
Camila Simões Freitas ◽  
Lucas Kraemer ◽  

Rationale: The FDA approved Dimethyl Fumarate (DMF) as an oral drug for Multiple Sclerosis treatment based on its immunomodulatory activities. However, it also caused severe adverse effects mainly related to the gastrointestinal system. Objective: Investigated the potential effects of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing DMF, administered by inhalation on the clinical signs, central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory response, and lung function changes in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Materials and Methods: EAE was induced using MOG35-55 peptide in female C57BL/6J mice and were treated via inhalation with DMF-encapsulated SLN (CTRL/SLN/DMF and EAE/SLN/DMF), empty SLN (CTRL/SLN and EAE/SLN), or saline solution (CTRL/saline and EAE/saline), every 72 hours during 21 days. Results: After 21 days post-induction, EAE mice treated with DMF-loaded SLN, when compared to EAE/saline and EAE/SLN, showed decreased clinical score and weight loss, reduction in brain and spinal cord injury and inflammation, also related to the increased influx of Foxp3+ cells into the spinal cord and lung tissues. Moreover, our data revealed that EAE mice showed signs of respiratory disease, marked by increased vascular permeability, leukocyte influx, production of TNF-α and IL-17, perivascular and peribronchial inflammation, with pulmonary mechanical dysfunction associated with loss of respiratory volumes and elasticity, which DMF-encapsulated reverted in SLN nebulization. Conclusion: Our study suggests that inhalation of DMF-encapsulated SLN is an effective therapeutic protocol that reduces not only the CNS inflammatory process and disability progression, characteristic of EAE disease, but also protects mice from lung inflammation and pulmonary dysfunction.

2021 ◽  
Bo Wang ◽  
Chenguang Ding ◽  
Xiaoming Ding ◽  
Greg H Tesch ◽  
Jin Zheng ◽  

Inflammation is a pathological feature of kidney injury and its progression correlates with the development of kidney fibrosis which can lead to kidney function impairment. This project investigated the regulatory function of WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1) in kidney inflammation. Administration of recombinant WISP1 protein to healthy mice induced kidney inflammation (macrophage accrual and production of TNFα, CCL2 and IL-6), which could be prevented by inhibition of NF-κB. Furthermore, inhibition of WISP1, by gene knockdown or neutralising antibody, could inhibit cultured macrophages producing inflammatory cytokines following stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and kidney fibroblasts proliferating in response to TNFα, which both involved NF-κB signalling.  Kidney expression of WISP1 was found to be increased in mouse models of progressive kidney inflammation- unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Treatment of UUO mice with WISP1 antibody reduced the kidney inflammation in these mice. Therefore, pharmacological blockade of WISP1 exhibits potential as a novel therapy for inhibiting inflammation in kidney disease.

2021 ◽  
Zuzana Pokorna ◽  
Petra Kollárová-Brázdová ◽  
Olga Lenčová-Popelová ◽  
Eduard Jirkovský ◽  
Jan Kubeš ◽  

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) have been used to treat anthracycline-induced cardiac dysfunction, and they appear beneficial for secondary prevention in high-risk patients. However, it remains unclear whether they truly prevent anthracycline-induced cardiac damage and provide long-lasting cardioprotection. This study aimed to examine the cardioprotective effects of perindopril on chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity in a rabbit model previously validated with the cardioprotective agent dexrazoxane with focus on post-treatment follow-up (FU). Chronic cardiotoxicity was induced by daunorubicin (3 mg/kg/week for 10 weeks). Perindopril (0.05 mg/kg/day) was administered before and throughout chronic daunorubicin treatment. After the completion of treatment, significant benefits were observed in perindopril co-treated animals, particularly full prevention of daunorubicin-induced mortality and prevention or significant reductions in cardiac dysfunction, plasma cardiac troponin T levels, morphological damage, and most of the myocardial molecular alterations. However, these benefits significantly waned during 3 weeks of drug-free FU, which was not salvageable by administering a higher perindopril dose. In the longer (10-week) FU period, further worsening of left ventricular function and morphological damage occurred together with heart failure-related mortality. Continued perindopril treatment in the FU period did not reverse this trend but prevented heart failure-related mortality and reduced the severity of the progression of cardiac damage. These findings contrasted with the robust long-lasting protection observed previously for dexrazoxane in the same model. Hence, in this study, perindopril provided only temporary control of anthracycline cardiotoxicity development, which may be associated with the lack of effects on anthracycline-induced and topoisomerase II beta-dependent DNA damage responses in the heart.

2021 ◽  
Martin Sebastian Winkler ◽  
Ralf A Claus ◽  
Mareike Schilder ◽  
Stefan Pöhlmann ◽  
Sina Coldewey ◽  

Low plasma levels of the signaling lipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are associated with disrupted endothelial cell barriers, lymphopenia and reduced responsivity to hypoxia. Total S1P levels were also reduced in 23 critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the two main S1P carrier serum albumin (SA) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were dramatically low. Surprisingly, we observed a carrier changing shift from SA to HDL, which probably prevented an even further drop of S1P levels. Furthermore, intracellular S1P levels in red blood cells (RBC) were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls due to upregulation of S1P producing sphingosine kinase 1 and downregulation of S1P degrading lyase expression. Cell culture experiments supported increased sphingosine kinase activity and unchanged S1P release from RBC stores of COVID-19 patients. These observations suggest adaptive mechanisms for maintenance of the vasculature and immunity as well as prevention of tissue hypoxia in COVID-19 patients.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document