Protecting Privacy on Mobile Apps: A Principal–Agent Perspective

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-32
Zilong Liu ◽  
Xuequn Wang ◽  
Xiaohan Li ◽  
Jun Liu

Although individuals increasingly use mobile applications (apps) in their daily lives, uncertainty exists regarding how the apps will use the information they request, and it is necessary to protect users from privacy-invasive apps. Recent literature has begun to pay much attention to the privacy issue in the context of mobile apps. However, little attention has been given to designing the permission request interface to reduce individuals’ perceived uncertainty and to support their informed decisions. Drawing on the principal–agent perspective, our study aims to understand the effects of permission justification, certification, and permission relevance on users’ perceived uncertainty, which in turn influences their permission authorization. Two studies were conducted with vignettes. Our results show that certification and permission relevance indeed reduce users’ perceived uncertainty. Moreover, permission relevance moderates the relationship between permission justification and perceived uncertainty. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

1996 ◽  
Vol 59 (1) ◽  
pp. 2-6 ◽  
Greg Kelly

Recently, there has been renewed interest in the relationship between feminism and occupational therapy, but does occupational therapy continue to operate on the feminine principle which underlies the philosophical basis of the profession? There is a strong tendency by some occupational therapists to emulate the masculine principle which drives the medical model but this, in fact, places occupational therapy at a disadvantage in the prevailing male culture. Drawing on a wide range of recent literature related to education, professionalism, management, research, clinical reasoning and complementary therapies, this article argues that the feminine principle is very much alive in the theory and practice of occupational therapy today.

2017 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 213-235 ◽  
Christopher G. Reddick ◽  
Yueping Zheng

Purpose This paper aims to explore the determinants of citizens’ future use of mobile applications provided by government. Research on citizen-initiated contacts with government has focused on both non-technology and technology related contacts. Existing research, however, has not examined the impact of mobile applications or “apps” on citizen-initiated contacts with government. Furthermore, existing research has not examined satisfaction with mobile government and whether this impacts future use. Design/methodology/approach The authors examine future use of mobile apps through an empirical analysis of a public opinion survey of citizen users in four of the largest cities in China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen). Findings Using ordered logistic regression analysis, this study found that the strongest predictors of future use were demand and satisfaction with mobile apps. However, there was no wide-scale evidence of socioeconomic status and age impacting mobile apps future use. Practical implications The findings in this study contribute to both theory and practice of the determinants of mobile government adoption. Originality/value The results challenge the citizen-initiated contact theory, as socioeconomic status was not a major predictor of mobile apps future use in China. The results further indicate that satisfaction was a good predictor of mobile apps future use.

2020 ◽  
Vol 31 (3) ◽  
pp. 1007-1029
Manqi (Maggie) Li ◽  
Yan Huang ◽  
Amitabh Sinha

In this paper, we propose a two-step data-analytic approach to the promotion planning for mobile applications (apps). In the first step, we use historical sales data to estimate the app demand model and quantify the effect of price promotions on download volume. The estimation results reveal two interesting characteristics of the relationship between price promotion and download volume of mobile apps: (1) the magnitude of the direct immediate promotion effect is declining within a multiday promotion; and (2) due to the visibility effect (i.e., apps ranked high on the download chart are more visible to consumers), a price promotion also has an indirect effect on download volume by affecting app rank, and this effect can persist after the promotion ends. Based on the empirically estimated demand model, we propose a moving planning window heuristic to construct a promotion policy. Our heuristic promotion policy consists of shorter and more frequent promotions. We show that the proposed policy can increase the app lifetime revenue by around 10%.

2021 ◽  
Fernanda Sipriano Marcilio ◽  
Daniela Souza Moreira da Silva ◽  
Anita Maria da Rocha Fernandes

With the growing number of elderly people in our society and the search of this population for technologies, more specifically the use of smartphones, and considering the physical and mental difficulties that aging causes to these people, there is a need to apply concepts of usability in mobile apps. However, there are technical and cultural barriers for the application of usability to be effective in meeting the needs of the elderly. Developing systems with agility as the market demands is antagonistic to the time required for application and usability evaluation in the software. Besides, the lack of usability requirements due to knowledge absence and time are some difficulties that the development team encounters in their daily lives. Given this context, the objective of this work was to create a prototype to help the development team to integrate usability, with a focus on elderly audiences, during the construction of a mobile application. To achieve this goal, the list of requirements, metrics and usability assessment methods focusing on mobile and elderly applications were selected from related works. Then the relationship between requirements, metrics, and assessment methods was identified and tested and the prototype was developed. Finally, with the analysis of the test it was possible to verify that the prototype reaches its objectives, as 88.9% of the participants would use the prototype in their projects and all stated that the prototype can contribute to the development of mobile applications.

Miguel Antonio Wister ◽  
Pablo Pancardo ◽  
Pablo Payro

This article analyzes some available bike mobile applications as an alternative to bike computers, as known as cycle computers or speedometers or speed sensors. We have stored a lot of datasets recorded from different mountain bike routes; in this study, we analyzed two routes only. Most mobile cycling applications estimate fields such as speed, heading, slope, distance, VMG (Velocity Made Good) and pace (cadence). However, it is necessary to calculate the relationship between cadence and power in pedaling so that cyclists know the appropriate moment to apply force to their legs to improve the torque. We studied four cycling apps and one bike computer. The contribution of this paper lies in the fact that it reports and compares measurements of cycling workouts using four mobile applications for cycling, at the same time these measurements are compared against a speedometer; the differences in distance and speed between the mobile apps used in this study are slightly notorious. We also show comparative tables and graphs, and performance evaluation of biking routes in two different bike routes.

2010 ◽  
Vol 34 (4) ◽  
pp. 49
Misako Tajima

Autobiographic and narrative research has recently grown in stature in the field of social sciences. Inspired by Asian TESOL researchers’ critical analyses of self-stories, this paper attempts to reflect upon the author’s personal history in relation to English and discuss ways in which she can position herself as both an English learner and a non-native English speaker (NNES) teacher. The self-reflection and discussion is followed by an argument for performativity, a notion drawing on poststructuralism to understand language itself and the global spread of English. This paper, itself a performative act conducted by a secondary school teacher, exemplifies the concept. The non-academic schoolteacher’s very act of writing in an academic journal aims to contribute to questioning assumptions underlying the relationship between theory and practice and to reconstituting the academic fields of applied linguistics and TESOL. 近年、自伝的かつ語りを含む研究が社会科学の分野で活発になってきている。本稿では、TESOLを専門とする、あるアジア人研究者が彼女たち自身の物語を素材として実施した批判的分析に着想を得て、英語にまつわる自己の歴史を振り返り、英語学習者としての、またNNESの英語教師としてのポジショナリティをどこに位置づけるのかという問題について議論する。さらに、この批判的自己内省を経て、言語そのもの、あるいは英語という言語の地球規模的広がりを理解するために、ポスト構造主義の概念であるパフォーマティヴィティについて検証する。なお、本稿これ自体がある高校教師によるパフォーマティヴな実践であることに言及しておきたい。研究者ではなく、一高校教師が学術雑誌に投稿することを通じ、理論と実践の関係性の背後にある前提に疑問を投げかけ、その結果、応用言語学やTESOLという学問分野の再構築に貢献できることを希望している。

2020 ◽  
Nurul Asilah Ahmad ◽  
Shahrul Azman Mohd Noah ◽  
Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin ◽  
Suzana Shahar ◽  
Noorlaili Mohd Tohit

BACKGROUND Currently, the use of smartphones to deliver health-related content has experienced a rapid growth, with more than 165,000 mobile health (mHealth) applications currently available in the digital marketplace such as iOS store and Google Play. Among these, there are several mobile applications (mobile apps) that offer tools for disease prevention and management among older generations. These mobile apps could potentially promote health behaviors which will reduce or delay the onset of disease. However, no review to date that has focused on the app marketplace specific for older adults and little is known regarding its evidence-based quality towards the health of older adults. OBJECTIVE The aim of this review was to characterize and critically appraise the content and functionality of mobile apps that focuses on health management and/or healthy lifestyle among older adults. METHODS An electronic search was conducted between May 2019 to December 2019 of the official app store for two major smartphone operating systems: iPhone operating system (iTunes App Store) and Android (Google Play Store). Stores were searched separately using predetermined search terms. Two authors screened apps based on information provided in the app description. Metadata from all included apps were abstracted into a standard assessment criteria form. Evidenced based strategies and health care expert involvement of included apps was assessed. Evidenced based strategies included: self-monitoring, goal setting, physical activity support, healthy eating support, weight and/or health assessment, personalized feedback, motivational strategies, cognitive training and social support. Two authors verified the data with reference to the apps and downloaded app themselves. RESULTS A total of 16 apps met the inclusion criteria. Six out of 16 (37.5%) apps were designed exclusively for the iOS platform while ten out of 16 (62.5%) were designed for Android platform exclusively. Physical activity component was the most common feature offered in all the apps (9/16, 56.3%) and followed by cognitive training (8/16, 50.0%). Diet/nutrition (0/16, 0%) feature, however, was not offered on all reviewed mobile apps. Of reviewed apps, 56.3% (9/16) provide education, 37.5% (6/16) provide self-monitoring features, 18.8% (3/16) provide goal setting features, 18.5% (3/16) provide personalized feedback, 6.3% (1/16) provide social support and none of the reviewed apps offers heart rate monitoring and reminder features to the users. CONCLUSIONS All reviewed mobile apps for older adults in managing health did not focused on diet/nutrition component, lack of functional components and lack of health care professional involvement in their development process. There is also a need to carry out scientific testing prior to the development of the app to ensure cost effective and its health benefits to older adults. Collaborative efforts between developers, researchers, health professionals and patients are needed in developing evidence-based, high quality mobile apps in managing health prior they are made available in the app store.

2020 ◽  
Reham AlTamime ◽  
Vincent Marmion ◽  
Wendy Hall

BACKGROUND Mobile apps and IoT-enabled smartphones technologies facilitate collecting, sharing, and inferring from a vast amount of data about individuals’ location, health conditions, mobility status, and other factors. The use of such technology highlights the importance of understanding individuals’ privacy concerns to design applications that integrate their privacy expectations and requirements. OBJECTIVE This paper explores, assesses, and predicts individuals’ privacy concerns in relation to collecting and disclosing data on mobile health apps. METHODS We designed a questionnaire to identify participants’ privacy concerns pertaining to a set of 432 mobile apps’ data collection and sharing scenarios. Participants were presented with 27 scenarios that varied across three categorical factors: (1) type of data collected (e.g. health, demographic, behavioral, and location); (2) data sharing (e.g., whether it is shared, and for what purpose); and, (3) retention rate (e.g., forever, until the purpose is satisfied, unspecified, week, or year). RESULTS Our findings show that type of data, data sharing, and retention rate are all factors that affect individuals’ privacy concerns. However, specific factors such as collecting and disclosing health data to a third-party tracker play a larger role than other factors in triggering privacy concerns. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that it is possible to predict privacy concerns based on these three factors. We propose design approaches that can improve users’ awareness and control of their data on mobile applications

Margaret Morrison

After reviewing some of the recent literature on non-causal and mathematical explanation, this chapter develops an argument as to why renormalization group (RG) methods should be seen as providing non-causal, yet physical, information about certain kinds of systems/phenomena. The argument centres on the structural character of RG explanations and the relationship between RG and probability theory. These features are crucial for the claim that the non-causal status of RG explanations involves something different from simply ignoring or “averaging over” microphysical details—the kind of explanations common to statistical mechanics. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the role of RG in treating dynamical systems and how that role exemplifies the structural aspects of RG explanations which in turn exemplifies the non-causal features.

2017 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 12-17 ◽  
David J. Pauleen

Purpose Dave Snowden has been an important voice in knowledge management over the years. As the founder and chief scientific officer of Cognitive Edge, a company focused on the development of the theory and practice of social complexity, he offers informative views on the relationship between big data/analytics and KM. Design/methodology/approach A face-to-face interview was held with Dave Snowden in May 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. Findings According to Snowden, analytics in the form of algorithms are imperfect and can only to a small extent capture the reasoning and analytical capabilities of people. For this reason, while big data/analytics can be useful, they are limited and must be used in conjunction with human knowledge and reasoning. Practical implications Snowden offers his views on big data/analytics and how they can be used effectively in real world situations in combination with human reasoning and input, for example in fields from resource management to individual health care. Originality/value Snowden is an innovative thinker. He combines knowledge and experience from many fields and offers original views and understanding of big data/analytics, knowledge and management.

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