Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate Improves Heat Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass Through Alteration of Osmotic Adjustment, Antioxidant Defense, and Expression of Jasmonic Acid-Responsive Genes

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yanning Su ◽  
Yizhi Huang ◽  
Xintan Dong ◽  
Ruijia Wang ◽  
Mingyu Tang ◽  
...  

Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an important cool-season grass species that is widely cultivated in temperate regions worldwide but usually sensitive to heat stress. Jasmonates (JAs) may have a positive effect on plant tolerance under heat stress. In this study, results showed that exogenous methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) could significantly improve heat tolerance of perennial ryegrass through alteration of osmotic adjustment, antioxidant defense, and the expression of JA-responsive genes. MeJA-induced heat tolerance was involved in the maintenance of better relative water content (RWC), the decline of chlorophyll (Chl) loss for photosynthetic maintenance, as well as maintained lower electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content under heat condition, so as to avoid further damage to plants. Besides, results also indicated that exogenous MeJA treatment could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), thus enhancing the scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species, alleviating the oxidative damage caused by heat stress. Heat stress and exogenous MeJA upregulated transcript levels of related genes (LpLOX2, LpAOC, LpOPR3, and LpJMT) in JA biosynthetic pathway, which also could enhance the accumulation of JA and MeJA content. Furthermore, some NAC transcription factors and heat shock proteins may play a positive role in enhancing resistance of perennial ryegrass with heat stress.

2020 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Hui Li ◽  
Yiwei Jiang ◽  
Huibin Li ◽  
Zhipeng Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Identification of genetic diversity in heat tolerance and associated traits is of great importance for improving heat tolerance in cool-season grass species. The objectives of this study were to determine genetic variations in heat tolerance associated with phenotypic and physiological traits and to identify molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in a diverse collection of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Results Plants of 98 accessions were subjected to heat stress (35/30 °C, day/night) or optimal growth temperature (25/20 °C) for 24 d in growth chambers. Overall heat tolerance of those accessions was ranked by principal component analysis (PCA) based on eight phenotypic and physiological traits. Among these traits, electrolyte leakage (EL), chlorophyll content (Chl), relative water content (RWC) had high correlation coefficients (− 0.858, 0.769, and 0.764, respectively) with the PCA ranking of heat tolerance. We also found expression levels of four Chl catabolic genes (CCGs), including LpNYC1, LpNOL, LpSGR, and LpPPH, were significant higher in heat sensitive ryegrass accessions then heat tolerant ones under heat stress. Furthermore, 66 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to perform association analysis based on the PCA result. The population structure of ryegrass can be grouped into three clusters, and accessions in cluster C were relatively more heat tolerant than those in cluster A and B. SSR markers significantly associated with above-mentioned traits were identified (R2 > 0.05, p < 0.01)., including two pairs of markers located on chromosome 4 in association with Chl content and another four pairs of markers in association with EL. Conclusion The result not only identified useful physiological parameters, including EL, Chl content, and RWC, and their associated SSR markers for heat-tolerance breeding of perennial ryegrass, but also highlighted the involvement of Chl catabolism in ryegrass heat tolerance. Such knowledge is of significance for heat-tolerance breeding and heat tolerance mechanisms in perennial ryegrass as well as in other cool-season grass species.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bin Xu ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Hui Li ◽  
Yiwei Jiang ◽  
Huibin Li ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Identification of genetic diversity in heat tolerance and associated traits is of great importance for improving heat tolerance in cool-season grass species. The objectives of this study were to determine genetic variations in heat tolerance associated with phenotypic and physiological traits and to identify molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in a diverse collection of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Results: Plants of 98 accessions were subjected to heat stress (35/30 ℃, day/night) or optimal growth temperature (25/20 ℃) for 24 d in growth chambers. Overall heattolerance of those accessions was ranked by principal component analysis (PCA) based on eight phenotypic and physiological traits. Among these traits, electrolyte leakage (EL), chlorophyll content (Chl), relative water content (RWC) had high correlation coefficients (−0.858, 0.769, and 0.764, respectively) with the PCA ranking of heat tolerance. We also found expression levels of four Chl catabolic genes (CCGs), including LpNYC1, LpNOL, LpSGR, and LpPPH, were closely related to the heat tolerance of ryegrass accessions. Furthermore, 66 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to perform association analysis based on the PCA result. The population structure of ryegrass can be grouped into three clusters, and accessions in cluster C were relatively more heat tolerant than those in cluster A and B. SSR markers significantly associated with above-mentioned traits were identified (R2>0.05, p<0.01)., including two pairs of markers located on chromosome 4 in association with Chl content and another four pairs of markers in association with EL.Conclusion:The result not only identified useful physiological parameters, including EL, Chl content, and RWC, and their associated SSR markers for heat-tolerance breeding of perennial ryegrass, but also highlighted the involvement of Chl catabolism in ryegrass heat tolerance. Such knowledge is of significance for heat-tolerance breeding and heat tolerance mechanisms in perennial ryegrass as well as in other cool-season grass species.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Hui Li ◽  
Yiwei Jiang ◽  
Huibin Li ◽  
Zhipeng Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Identification of genetic diversity in heat tolerance and associated traits is of great importance for improving heat tolerance in cool-season grass species. The objectives of this study were to determine genetic variations in heat tolerance associated with phenotypic and physiological traits and to identify molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in a diverse collection of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).Results: Plants of 98 accessions were subjected to heat stress (35/30 ℃, day/night) or optimal growth temperature (25/20 ℃) for 24 d in growth chambers. Overall heat tolerance of those accessions was ranked by principal component analysis (PCA) based on eight phenotypic and physiological traits. Among these traits, electrolyte leakage (EL), chlorophyll content (Chl), relative water content (RWC) had high correlation coefficients (−0.858, 0.769, and 0.764, respectively) with the PCA ranking of heat tolerance. We also found expression levels of four Chl catabolic genes (CCGs), including LpNYC1, LpNOL, LpSGR, and LpPPH, were significant higher in heat sensitive ryegrass accessions then heat tolerant ones under heat stress. Furthermore, 66 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to perform association analysis based on the PCA result. The population structure of ryegrass can be grouped into three clusters, and accessions in cluster C were relatively more heat tolerant than those in cluster A and B. SSR markers significantly associated with above-mentioned traits were identified (R2>0.05, p <0.01)., including two pairs of markers located on chromosome 4 in association with Chl content and another four pairs of markers in association with EL.Conclusion: The result not only identified useful physiological parameters, including EL, Chl content, and RWC, and their associated SSR markers for heat-tolerance breeding of perennial ryegrass, but also highlighted the involvement of Chl catabolism in ryegrass heat tolerance. Such knowledge is of significance for heat-tolerance breeding and heat tolerance mechanisms in perennial ryegrass as well as in other cool-season grass species.


2009 ◽  
Vol 134 (5) ◽  
pp. 511-520 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kemin Su ◽  
Dale J. Bremer ◽  
Richard Jeannotte ◽  
Ruth Welti ◽  
Celeste Yang

Cool-season turfgrasses may experience heat stress during summer. Hybrid bluegrasses (HBGs), crosses between kentucky bluegrass [KBG (Poa pratensis L.)] and native texas bluegrass (Poa arachnifera Torr.), have improved heat tolerance but the mechanisms of heat tolerance are poorly understood. Our objectives were to quantitatively profile membrane lipid molecular species in three cool-season turfgrasses exposed to optimal (22/15 °C, 14/10 h light/dark) and supra-optimal temperatures (35/25 °C and 40/30 °C, 14/10 h light/dark). Grasses included a low heat-tolerant tall fescue [TF (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. ‘Dynasty’)], a mid-heat–tolerant KBG (‘Apollo’), and a heat-tolerant HBG (‘Thermal Blue’). At high temperature, glycolipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) in HBG was 12% and 16% greater than in KBG and TF, respectively, and the ratio DGDG to monogalactosyldiacylglycerol was 19% and 44% greater in HBG than in KBG and TF, respectively. Greater heat tolerance in HBG and KBG was associated with higher contents of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, and with reduced overall unsaturation compared with TF. Overall, 20 lipid molecular species were present in greater amounts and another 20 species in lesser amounts in HBG and KBG than in TF. Results suggest 40 membrane lipid molecules are potential biomarkers for heat tolerance and that compositional changes in membrane lipids in response to heat contribute to differences in heat tolerance among cool-season grasses.


HortScience ◽  
2001 ◽  
Vol 36 (4) ◽  
pp. 682-686 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yiwei Jiang ◽  
Bingru Huang

Heat and drought are two major factors limiting growth of cool-season grasses during summer. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of heat stress alone (H) or in combination with drought (H+D) on photosynthesis, water relations, and root growth of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) vs. perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Grasses were exposed to H (35 °C day/30 °C night) or H+D (induced by withholding irrigation) in growth chambers for 35 days. Soil water content declined under H+D for both grasses but to a greater extent for fescue than for ryegrass. Declines in canopy net photosynthetic rate (Pn), leaf photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and leaf relative water content (RWC) and the increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) were much more severe and occurred earlier for ryegrass than fescue subjected to both H and H+D and for both species than under H+D then H. Evapotranspiration (ET) rate increased to above the control level within 3 or 6 days of H and H+D for both species, but fescue had a higher ET rate than ryegrass at 3 and 6 days of H and 6 days of H+D. Root dry weight and viability in all soil layers decreased under H and H+D for both species. However, fescue had higher root dry weight and viability than ryegrass in the 20-40 cm layer under H and in both the 0-20 and 20-40 cm layers under H+D. The results indicated that maintenance of higher Pn, Fv/Fm, ET, RWC, and root growth and lower EL would help cool-season turfgrass survive summer stress, and that their characteristics could be used for selecting stress tolerant species or cultivars.


HortScience ◽  
2009 ◽  
Vol 44 (7) ◽  
pp. 2009-2014 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hua Shen ◽  
Hongmei Du ◽  
Zhaolong Wang ◽  
Bingru Huang

The objective of this study was to compare differential nutrient responses to heat stress in relation to heat tolerance for warm-season (C4) common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and cool-season (C3) kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Both species were exposed to two temperature regimes in growth chambers: optimal day/night temperature conditions (24/20 °C for kentucky bluegrass and 34/30 °C for bermudagrass) or heat stress (10 °C above the respective optimal temperature for each species). Heat injury in leaves was evaluated and the concentrations of several major macronutrients [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg)] in both grass species were measured at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. Heat stress reduced leaf photochemical efficiency and cellular membrane stability in both species, but bermudagrass leaves exhibited less damage in these parameters than kentucky bluegrass. Heat stress caused a significant decline in N, P, and K concentration, beginning at 7 days in kentucky bluegrass, but had no significant effects on N, P, and K concentration in bermudagrass during the 28-day treatment period. The concentration of Ca and Mg increased under heat stress in both kentucky bluegrass and bermudagrass, but there were no significant differences between the species under optimal or high-temperature conditions, suggesting they were not involved in heat responses in either species. The differential responses of N, P, and K to heat stress could at least partially account for the differences in heat tolerance between the two species and demonstrate the importance of sufficient N, P, and K in turfgrass adaptation to heat stress.


Plants ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (6) ◽  
pp. 692 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mei-Qi Tao ◽  
Mohammad Shah Jahan ◽  
Kun Hou ◽  
Sheng Shu ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
...  

High temperature is considered a critical abiotic stressor that is increasing continuously, which is severely affecting plant growth and development. The use of heat-resistant rootstock grafting is a viable technique that is practiced globally to improve plant resistance towards abiotic stresses. In this experiment, we explored the efficacy of bitter melon rootstock and how it regulates photosynthesis and the antioxidant defense system to alleviate heat stress (42 °C/32 °C) in cucumber. Our results revealed that bitter-melon-grafted seedlings significantly relieved heat-induced growth inhibition and photoinhibition, maintained better photosynthesis activity, and accumulated a greater biomass than self-grafted seedlings. We measured the endogenous polyamine and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents to determine the inherent mechanism responsible for these effects, and the results showed that heat stress induced a transient increase in polyamines and H2O2 in the inner courtyard of grafted seedlings. This increment was greater and more robust in bitter-melon-grafted seedlings. In addition, the use of polyamine synthesis inhibitors MGBG (methylglyoxal bis-guanylhydrazone) and D-Arg (D-arginine), further confirmed that the production of H2O2 under heat stress is mediated by the accumulation of endogenous polyamines. Moreover, compared with other treatments, the bitter-melon-grafted seedlings maintained high levels of antioxidant enzyme activity under high temperature conditions. However, these activities were significantly inhibited by polyamine synthesis inhibitors and H2O2 scavengers (dimethylthiourea, DMTU), indicating that bitter melon rootstock not only maintained better photosynthetic activity under conditions of high temperature stress but also mediated the production of H2O2 through the regulation of the high level of endogenous polyamines, thereby boosting the antioxidant defense system and comprehensively improving the heat tolerance of cucumber seedlings. Taken together, these results indicate that grafting with a resistant cultivar is a promising alternative tool for reducing stress-induced damage.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bin Xu ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Hui Li ◽  
Yiwei Jiang ◽  
Huibin Li ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Identification of genetic diversity in heat tolerance and associated traits is of great importance for improving heat tolerance in cool-season grass species. The objectives of this study were to determine genetic variations in heat tolerance associated with phenotypic and physiological traits and to identify molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in a diverse collection of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Results: Plants of 98 accessions were subjected to heat stress (35/30 ℃, day/night) or optimal growth temperature (25/20 ℃) for 24 d in growth chambers. Overall heat tolerance of those accessions was ranked by principal component analysis (PCA) based on eight phenotypic and physiological traits. Among these traits, electrolyte leakage (EL), chlorophyll content (Chl), relative water content (RWC) had high correlation coefficients (−0.858, 0.769, and 0.764, respectively) with the PCA ranking of heat tolerance. We also found expression levels of four Chl catabolic genes (CCGs), including LpNYC1, LpNOL, LpSGR, and LpPPH, were significant higher in heat sensitive ryegrass accessions then heat tolerant ones under heat stress. Furthermore, 66 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to perform association analysis based on the PCA result. The population structure of ryegrass can be grouped into three clusters, and accessions in cluster C were relatively more heat tolerant than those in cluster A and B. SSR markers significantly associated with above-mentioned traits were identified (R2>0.05, p <0.01)., including two pairs of markers located on chromosome 4 in association with Chl content and another four pairs of markers in association with EL. Conclusion: The result not only identified useful physiological parameters, including EL, Chl content, and RWC, and their associated SSR markers for heat-tolerance breeding of perennial ryegrass, but also highlighted the involvement of Chl catabolism in ryegrass heat tolerance. Such knowledge is of significance for heat-tolerance breeding and heat tolerance mechanisms in perennial ryegrass as well as in other cool-season grass species.


2018 ◽  
Vol 62 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-82 ◽  
Author(s):  
Thomas M. R. Maxwell ◽  
Roger D. McLenaghen ◽  
Grant R. Edwards ◽  
Hong J. Di ◽  
Keith C. Cameron

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