scholarly journals Influence of Different Cooking Methods on Fillet Steak Physicochemical Characteristics

Vinícius Lopes Borela ◽  
Ernandes Rodrigues de Alencar ◽  
Marcio Antônio Mendonça ◽  
Heesup Han ◽  
António Raposo ◽  

Meat is a source of protein widely consumed by the population in many countries due mainly to the nutritional aspects, sensory characteristics, and cultural aspects. The meat cooking preparation can promote significant changes in the meat’s chemical composition and physical characteristics. Such transformations can impact both the acceptance of the product and consumers’ health. Due to the different thermal processes altering the physical-chemical characteristics of meat, the present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of fillet steak submitted to different cooking methods: pan-frying with and without oil and air fryer. We performed the analysis to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics considering moisture, lipid, protein, ash, sodium, and potassium content, cooking loss index and colorimetry in three degrees of doneness of the meat, rare, medium, and well done. The fillet steak prepared by pan-frying with oil lost higher moisture and weight than the other samples. The air fryer method presented the highest moisture content. There was a significant difference in lipid content in which the pan-frying with oil fillet steak showed the highest amount of lipids. The pan-frying with oil steak fillet also presented more changes in the colorimetric parameters evaluated compared to the other samples. The pan-frying with oil cooking method promoted more pronounced changes in the steak fillet, and the cooking air fryer, the changes in meat quality are less pronounced. Therefore, the air fryer can be considered a good alternative for cooking meat.

Johnson Leung ◽  
BCIT School of Health Sciences, Environmental Health ◽  
Chris Andraza ◽  
Lorraine McIntyre ◽  
Helen Heacock

  Background & Purpose: The seasonal demand for shellfish such as oysters is on the rise. Shellfish are nutritious foods that may be enjoyed in a variety of ways, from slurping raw oysters to cooking oysters by means of boiling, steaming, pan frying and baking. Most consumers of oysters are aware of potential food safety issues with shellfish. Raw or undercooked shellfish can carry bacteria, viruses and toxins, potentially resulting in foodborne illness. Past outbreaks associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked oysters, prompted the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) to develop guidelines for those preparing, cooking and consuming shellfish. The recommended cooking temperature and time from the guideline was compared with the temperature and time of standard cooking methods from the Fanny Bay Oyster Market restaurant. The purpose of this project was to determine whether standard cooking methods from restaurants attain the guideline’s recommended 90oC for 90 seconds. Method: Four common cooking methods of Oysters were chosen based on recommendation from Chef Chris Andraza and BCCDC researcher Lorraine McIntyre. Oysters were pan fried, deep fried, baked and grilled. Internal temperatures of cooked oysters were then measured with a probe thermometer. Results for each method were analyzed and compared with the standard of 90oC using the one sample t-test from the statistical software package, NCSS11. Results: One sample t-tests showed statistically differences from the deep fried, baked and grilled methods when compared to the standard of 90oC (p = 0.000). The power for all three methods was 100%, therefore there is confidence that the findings reflect the truth. Experimental temperatures were consistently less than the standard. The pan fried method showed no statistically significant difference when compared to the standard of 90oC (p = 135). The power for pan fried method was 29.2%, therefore there is limited confidence that the findings reflect the truth. Therefore the deep fried, baked and grilled methods required additional cooking time to raise internal temperatures of the oysters. Whereas the pan fried method had achieved the standard but further experimentation is required to eliminate the chance of a type II error. Conclusion: It can be concluded that three out of the four cooking methods (deep fried, baked and grilled) can have significantly different mean temperatures. However, different thermal preparation methods prior to final thermal processing requires consideration to determine cooked oyster consumption safety. One out of the four cooking methods (pan fried) attained the standard temperature 90oC. Therefore, it is recommended for deep fried, baked and grilled cooking methods that the cooking time be extended to achieve an internal temperature of 90oC or higher.  

1976 ◽  
Vol 41 (4) ◽  
pp. 523-529 ◽  
Daniel R. Boone ◽  
Harold M. Friedman

Reading and writing performance was observed in 30 adult aphasic patients to determine whether there was a significant difference when stimuli and manual responses were varied in the written form: cursive versus manuscript. Patients were asked to read aloud 10 words written cursively and 10 words written in manuscript form. They were then asked to write on dictation 10 word responses using cursive writing and 10 words using manuscript writing. Number of words correctly read, number of words correctly written, and number of letters correctly written in the proper sequence were tallied for both cursive and manuscript writing tasks for each patient. Results indicated no significant difference in correct response between cursive and manuscript writing style for these aphasic patients as a group; however, it was noted that individual patients varied widely in their success using one writing form over the other. It appeared that since neither writing form showed better facilitation of performance, the writing style used should be determined according to the individual patient’s own preference and best performance.

1993 ◽  
Vol 69 (01) ◽  
pp. 035-040 ◽  
A M H P van den Besselaar ◽  
R M Bertina

SummaryFour thromboplastin reagents were tested by 18 laboratories in Europe, North-America, and Australasia, according to a detailed protocol. One thromboplastin was the International Reference Preparation for ox brain thromboplastin combined with adsorbed bovine plasma (coded OBT/79), and the second was a certified reference material for rabbit brain thromboplastin, plain (coded CRM 149R). The other two thromboplastin reagents were another rabbit plain brain thromboplastin (RP) with a lower ISI than CRM 149R and a rabbit brain thromboplastin combined with adsorbed bovine plasma (RC). Calibration of the latter two reagents was performed according to methods recommended by the World Health Organization (W. H. O.).The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: 1) Is the calibration of the RC reagent more precise against the bovine/combined (OBT/79) than against the rabbit/plain reagent (CRM 149R)? 2) Is the precision of calibration influenced by the magnitude of the International Sensitivity Index (ISI)?The lowest inter-laboratory variation of ISI was observed in the calibration of the rabbit/plain reagent (RP) against the other rabbit/plain reagent (CRM 149R) (CV 1.6%). The highest interlaboratory variation was obtained in the calibration of rabbit/plain (RP) against bovine/combined (OBT/79) (CV 5.1%). In the calibration of the rabbit/combined (RC) reagent, there was no difference in precision between OBT/79 (CV 4.3%) and CRM 149R (CV 4.2%). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the precision of the ISI of RC obtained with CRM 149R (ISI = 1.343) and the rabbit/plain (RP) reagent with ISI = 1.14. In conclusion, the calibration of RC could be performed with similar precision with either OBT/79 or CRM 149R, or RP.The mean ISI values calculated with OBT/79 and CRM 149R were practically identical, indicating that there is no bias in the ISI of these reference preparations and that these reference preparations have been stable since their original calibration studies in 1979 and 1987, respectively.International Normalized Ratio (INR) equivalents were calculated for a lyophilized control plasma derived from patients treated with oral anticoagulants. There were small but significant differences in the mean INR equivalents between the bovine and rabbit thromboplastins. There were no differences in the interlaboratory variation of the INR equivalents, when the four thromboplastins were compared.

1966 ◽  
Vol 53 (4) ◽  
pp. 673-680 ◽  
Torsten Deckert ◽  
Kai R. Jorgensen

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a difference could be demonstrated between crystalline insulin extracted from normal human pancreas, and crystalline insulin extracted from bovine and porcine pancreas. Using Hales & Randle's (1963) immunoassay no immunological differences could be demonstrated between human and pig insulin. On the other hand, a significant difference was found, between pig and ox insulin. An attempt was also made to determine whether an immunological difference could be demonstrated between crystalline pig insulin and crystalline human insulin from non diabetic subjects on the one hand and endogenous, circulating insulin from normal subjects, obese subjects and diabetic subjects on the other. No such difference was found. From these experiments it is concluded that endogenous insulin in normal, obese and diabetic human sera is immunologically identical with human, crystalline insulin from non diabetic subjects and crystalline pig insulin.

2020 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 172

<p><strong>Abstract</strong></p><p><strong>Background:</strong> Hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) as antiseptic has been used frequently to clean woundsin in hospitals and clinics. Hydrogen peroxide has the effectof strong oxidative that can kill pathogens. It can clean up debris and necrotic tissuesin wounds. Hydrogen peroxidealso has hemostatic effect that can help to stop bleeding. Besides antiseptic effects, hydrogen peroxide i s suspected of having negative effect in wound healing. Hydrogen peroxide presumably could cause delayed wound healing by exudate formation and delayed epithelial growth.</p><p><strong>Method</strong>: This study was conducted in the laboratory using 48 white mice that were divided into 2 groups. All the mice were purposely wounded. Afterwards in one group the wounds were clean up using hydrogen peroxide, while in the other group without hydrogen peroxide as control. The wounds of both groups were observed on day 1, day 3 and day 7. On day 1 and day 3, both groups did not show significant difference.</p><p><strong>R</strong><strong>esult</strong> : on day 7 showed that the wound healing in hydrogen peroxide group were delayed. Fifty percent of them had the formation of exudate and 62.5% of them showed delayed epithelial growth.</p><p><strong>Conclusion </strong>: This study could show hydrogen peroxide as wound antiseptic has delayed wound healing effect.</p><p><strong>Keyword</strong>: hydrogen peroxide, wound healing</p>

2017 ◽  
Vol 05 (02) ◽  
pp. 084-089
Alisha Dhingra ◽  
Ashu Gupta ◽  
Anshu Minocha ◽  
Nayantara Sen

Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the reversal of shear bond strength of composite to bleached enamel immediately after bleaching followed by application of various antioxidant solutions. Material and Methods: Seventy central incisors were divided into seven groups. Groups I and II served as unbleached and bleached controls respectively. Groups III, IV, V, VI and VII served as the experimental groups and were subjected to 37.5% hydrogen peroxide bleaching followed by 10 min application of 10% sodium ascorbate, 25% alpha-tocopherol, 6.5% grape seed extract, 5% lycopene and 5% green tea extract respectively. Following composite bonding, shear bond strength was determined and the results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Post Hoc Multiple Comparisons test. Results: The bond strength values for Group I (positive control) were maximum and significantly different than all the other groups except Grape seed extract group (Group V). When compared to Group II (bleached control), all the groups showed significantly higher bond strength. Significant difference in the bond strength values were seen between Group III (10% sodium ascorbate) and Group V. Also values for Group V were significantly different from Group VI (5% lycopene). All the other values showed insignificantly different results. Conclusion: All the antioxidant solutions improved the shear bond strength values after bleaching but only Grape seed extract application reversed the values to the non bleached levels. Lycopene was least effective. Other antioxidants showed comparable results.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 309
Deise Aline Knob ◽  
André Thaler Neto ◽  
Helen Schweizer ◽  
Anna C. Weigand ◽  
Roberto Kappes ◽  

Crossbreeding in dairy cattle has been used to improve functional traits, milk composition, and efficiency of Holstein herds. The objective of the study was to compare indicators of the metabolic energy balance, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, body condition score (BCS) back fat thickness (BFT), as well as milk yield and milk composition of Holstein and Simmental cows, and their crosses from the prepartum period until the 100th day of lactation at the Livestock Center of the Ludwig Maximilians University (Munich, Germany). In total, 164 cows formed five genetic groups according to their theoretic proportion of Holstein and Simmental genes as follows: Holstein (100% Holstein; n = 9), R1-Hol (51–99% Holstein; n = 30), first generation (F1) crossbreds (50% Holstein, 50% Simmental; n = 17), R1-Sim (1–49% Holstein; n = 81) and Simmental (100% Simmental; n = 27). The study took place between April 2018 and August 2019. BCS, BFT blood parameters, such as BHBA, glucose, and NEFA were recorded weekly. A mixed model analysis with fixed effects breed, week (relative to calving), the interaction of breed and week, parity, calving year, calving season, milking season, and the repeated measure effect of cow was used. BCS increased with the Simmental proportion. All genetic groups lost BCS and BFT after calving. Simmental cows showed lower NEFA values. BHBA and glucose did not differ among genetic groups, but they differed depending on the week relative to calving. Simmental and R1-Sim cows showed a smaller effect than the other genetic groups regarding changes in body weight, BCS, or back fat thickness after a period of a negative energy balance after calving. There was no significant difference for milk yield among genetic groups, although Simmental cows showed a lower milk yield after the third week after calving. Generally, Simmental and R1-Simmental cows seemed to deal better with a negative energy balance after calving than purebred Holstein and the other crossbred lines. Based on a positive heterosis effect of 10.06% for energy corrected milk (ECM), the F1, however, was the most efficient crossbred line.

2011 ◽  
Vol 142 ◽  
pp. 233-237
Han Wen Yuan ◽  
Fang Chen ◽  
Qiao Qing Xu ◽  
Shi Yuan Gong ◽  
Zhang Jie Chu ◽  

The effects of stocking density on various growth parameters and sex reversal in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus) were investigated by evaluating steroid hormone, the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sex ratio. Fish (mean initial weight of 9.88 ± 0.70 g) were stocked to densities of 4, 20, 36, 52, 68, 84 or 100 fish/m2 in cages (2 m × 1 m × 1.5 m) in a pond, with five replicate cages for each density. Fish were fed for 420 days on a formulated isocaloric diet containing 40.22% crude protein and 12.86 MJ/kg. Serum E2 and T concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassays. There were no significant differences in final bodyweight (FBW) and daily weight gain (DWG) for fish in the groups containing less than 52 fish/m2, while FBW and DWG were significant lower in groups at 68 fish/m2 or more. Specific growth rate (SGR) differed significantly between the 84 and 100 fish/m2 groups compared with the 4, 20 and 36 fish/m2 groups. There was no significant difference in SGR in groups containing less than 84 fish/m2. There were no significant difference between the 4 and 20 fish/m2 groups in net yield (NY), but these groups did differ significantly from the other groups. The final condition factors of fish stocked at 84 or 100 fish/m2 were significantly lower than fish stocked at the other densities. E2 and T hormone concentrations declined as stocking density increased, while GSI values increased initially but then reduced with increasing stocking density. Female ratio and survival decreased with increasing stocking density. The proportion of male fish was significantly greater in the three highest stocking density groups. Therefore, high stocking density may promote sex change from female to male in M. albus.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105984052110135
Shima Gadari ◽  
Jamile Farokhzadian ◽  
Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki

Girls between the ages of 9 and 10 begin to experience physical, physiological, and hormonal changes that may lead to internal stress. At this age, children are struggling for autonomy; on the other hand, they may experience emotional instability, and for these reasons, they may be vulnerable in many ways. This experimental study aimed to investigate the effect of resilience training on assertiveness in student girls aged 9–10. Data were collected before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention in the control ( n = 40) and intervention ( n = 37) groups. There was a significant difference between the assertiveness of the intervention immediately (26.80 ± 3.73) and 1 month after the intervention (27.05 ± 3.73), and assertiveness significantly increased in the intervention group ( p = .0001). Resilience training leads to improvements in assertiveness in student girls aged 9–10.

2020 ◽  
Vol 41 (Supplement_2) ◽  
H Ishikawa ◽  
Y Izumiya ◽  
A Shibata ◽  
T Yoshida ◽  
H Hayashi ◽  

Abstract Background Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been recognized to contribute inflammatory activity and atherosclerosis. On the other hand, it has been reported that the volume of EAT is lower in non-ischemic heart failure (HF) patients than healthy individuals. However, the difference in regional muscle-adipose distribution including EAT between HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has not been investigated. In addition, we investigated whether distribution of body composition contributed to exercise capacity. Methods The study included 105 non-ischemic HF patients diagnosed by cardiac catheterization between September 2017 and November 2019. Epicardial, abdominal and thigh muscle and adipose tissue volume were measured by computed tomography (CT), and exercise tolerance was evaluated by symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test. Results Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the left ventricular ejection fraction, ≥40% as HFpEF (n=28) or &lt;40% as HFrEF (n=77). There was no significant difference comorbidity, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and body mass index. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide level was significantly higher in HFrEF than HFpEF group (146.2 vs 393.2 pg/ml, p&lt;0.01), whereas, high-sensitive troponin T level was not different between two groups. Although there was no significant difference in BMI between two groups, the volume of EAT was significantly higher in HFpEF than HFrEF group (81.8 vs 136.4 ml, p=0.01). On the other hand, HFpEF had more thigh adipose tissue compared with HFrEF group (54.6 vs 42.1 ml, p=0.03). There were negative correlations between EAT volume and parameters of exercise capacity such as anaerobic threshold (r=−0.42, p&lt;0.01) and peak VO2 (r=−0.32, p&lt;0.01). Muscle volume itself does not corelate with these parameters. Conclusion In patient with nonischemic HF, the pattern of regional adipose distribution may have important role in pathologically. HFpEF and HFrEF has different pattern despite similar body mass index. These differences may be related to impaired exercise tolerance in these 2 different types of HF. Correlation between EAT and AT, peak VO2 Funding Acknowledgement Type of funding source: None

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