Dietary Alaska Pollock Protein Attenuates the Experimental Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium via Regulation of Gut Microbiota and Its Metabolites in Mice
Protein derived from fish has not only nutritional properties but also health-promoting properties. Few studies have examined the effect of dietary Alaska pollock protein (APP) on the anticolitis effect reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study investigated the effect of APP intake on colitis symptoms, gut microbiota, and its metabolites in the experimental colitis mouse model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: (1) DSS-untreated mice fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) 93G diet (protein source is casein), (2) DSS-treated mice fed an AIN93G diet, and (3) DSS-treated mice fed an APP diet. After the mice were fed the diets for 21 days, experimental colitis was induced by three cycles of 2% DSS administration for 5 days followed by washouts over the course of 5 days. APP-reduced body weight loss increased the disease activity index, and elevated spleen weight and alleviated colon length shortening and colonic tissue damage. Furthermore, APP altered the structure and composition of the microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in feces. Since APP intake alleviates experimental colitis induced by DSS administration through alterations in the gut microbiota and its metabolites, we deduced that APP would inhibit MetS progression via colitis suppression.