scholarly journals Dietary Alaska Pollock Protein Attenuates the Experimental Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium via Regulation of Gut Microbiota and Its Metabolites in Mice

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 44
Genki Tanaka ◽  
Nozomi Hagihara ◽  
Ryota Hosomi ◽  
Takaki Shimono ◽  
Seiji Kanda ◽  

Protein derived from fish has not only nutritional properties but also health-promoting properties. Few studies have examined the effect of dietary Alaska pollock protein (APP) on the anticolitis effect reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study investigated the effect of APP intake on colitis symptoms, gut microbiota, and its metabolites in the experimental colitis mouse model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: (1) DSS-untreated mice fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) 93G diet (protein source is casein), (2) DSS-treated mice fed an AIN93G diet, and (3) DSS-treated mice fed an APP diet. After the mice were fed the diets for 21 days, experimental colitis was induced by three cycles of 2% DSS administration for 5 days followed by washouts over the course of 5 days. APP-reduced body weight loss increased the disease activity index, and elevated spleen weight and alleviated colon length shortening and colonic tissue damage. Furthermore, APP altered the structure and composition of the microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in feces. Since APP intake alleviates experimental colitis induced by DSS administration through alterations in the gut microbiota and its metabolites, we deduced that APP would inhibit MetS progression via colitis suppression.

2018 ◽  
Vol 2018 ◽  
pp. 1-10 ◽  
Bing Wei ◽  
Ran Zhang ◽  
Jingbo Zhai ◽  
Junfeng Zhu ◽  
Fangli Yang ◽  

Background. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Dysregulated immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic potential of GLP to alleviate DSS-induced colitis. Methods. The mice were administered with GLP by intragastric gavage daily for two weeks prior to the DSS treatment. Mice were orally administered with 2.5% DSS dissolved in drinking water with GLP or water treatment for 6 days. The mice were killed on day 7 after induction of colitis. Survival rates, body weight loss, colon lengths, histological changes, and disease activity index scores (DAI) were evaluated. Results. GLP significantly improved survival rates, colon length shortening, body weight loss, histopathological score, and DAI scores in mice with DSS-induced colitis. GLP markedly suppressed the secretions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-4 and significantly affected populations of Th17 cells, B cells, NK cells, and NKT cells in the lamina propria lymphocytes. Conclusions. GLP prevented inflammation, maintained intestinal homeostasis, and regulated the intestinal immunological barrier functions in mice with DSS-induced colitis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 2093
Nana Wang ◽  
Song Wang ◽  
Baofeng Xu ◽  
Fei Liu ◽  
Guicheng Huo ◽  

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-related disease, which can occur through the dysfunction of the immune system caused by the imbalance of gut microbiota. Previous studies have reported the beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium on colitis, while the related mechanisms behind these effects have not been fully elucidated. The aim of our study is to investigate the alleviation effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis XLTG11 (B. lactis) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and its potential mechanism. The results showed that B. lactis XLTG11 significantly decreased weight loss, disease activity index score, colon shortening, myeloperoxide activity, spleen weight, and colon tissue damage. Additionally, B. lactis XLTG11 significantly decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine. Meanwhile, high doses of B. lactis XLTG11 significantly up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins and inhibited activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Furthermore, B. lactis XLTG11 increased the gut microbiota diversity and modulated gut microbiota composition caused by DSS. Moreover, Spearman’s correlation analysis also found that several specific gut microbiota were significantly correlated with colitis-related indicators. These results demonstrated that B. lactis XLTG11 can alleviate DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting the activation of the TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, regulating inflammatory cytokines, improving intestinal barrier function, and modulating the gut microbiota.

2019 ◽  
Wenxue Sun ◽  
Hongwei Han ◽  
Zhaoyue Wang ◽  
Zhongling Wen ◽  
Minkai Yang ◽  

AbstractThe purpose of this study was to explore the effects of natural shikonin and its derivatives on mice experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms in vivo. Our results suggested that, intragastric administration of single compound like shikonin and its derivatives contributed to attenuating symptoms of malignant induced by DSS. Meanwhile, shikonin or its derivatives could also remarkably reduce the disease activity index and histopathological scores, suppress the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α), while increase that of inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in serum. Additionally, both shikonin and alkanin were found to restrain the levels of COX-2, MPO and iNOS in serum and colonic tissues. Moreover, western blotting results demonstrated that shikonin and its derivatives could inhibit the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the NF-κB signaling pathway, relieve the DSS-induced disruption of colonic epithelial tight junction (TJ) in colonic tissues. Further, docking simulation had been performed to prove that shikonin and its derivatives could bind to the active sites of NLRP3 inflammasome and the NF-κB to generate an effective inflammatory effect. Taken together, our experimental data can provide some evidence for the potential use of shikonin and its derivatives to treat the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Guosheng Lin ◽  
Minyao Li ◽  
Nan Xu ◽  
Xiaoli Wu ◽  
Jingjing Liu ◽  

Aim of the Study. This study is aimed at exploring the effects and pharmacological mechanisms of the extracts from the Heritiera littoralis fruit (EFH) on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Materials and Methods. The chemical compositions of EFH were identified using LC-ESI-MS. The mice with 3% DSS-induced UC were administered EFH (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg), sulfasalazine (SASP, 200 mg/kg), and azathioprine (AZA, 13 mg/kg) for 10 days via daily gavage. The colonic inflammation was evaluated by the disease activity index (DAI), colonic length, histological scores, and levels of inflammatory mediators. The gut microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. Results. LC-ESI-MS analysis showed that EFH was rich in alkaloids and flavones. The results indicated that EFH significantly improved the DAI score, relieved colon shortening, and repaired pathological colonic variations in colitis. In addition, proteins in the NF-κB pathway were significantly inhibited by EFH. Furthermore, EFH recovered the diversity and balance of the gut microbiota. Conclusions. EFH has protective effects against DSS-induced colitis by keeping the balance of the gut microbiota and suppressing the NF-κB pathway.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Kai Kang ◽  
Yue Sun ◽  
Dan Pan ◽  
Bing Chang ◽  
Li-Xuan Sang

Vitamin B (nicotinamide (NAM)), one of the most important nutritional components for humans, exerts anti-inflammatory activity. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of NAM on the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in mice with chronic colitis. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 male mice by administration of 1.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), and the mice were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline (NS) or NAM. NAM treatment ameliorated weight loss and changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) score, and histologic scores. Moreover, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of LPL cells revealed that the level of interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-12p70, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interferon- (IFN-) γ, IL-21, and IL-17A was increased, while IL-10 was reduced, in the chronic colitis group compared to the control group, but the levels of all these factors were restored after NAM treatment. Then, 16S rRNA sequencing of the large intestinal content was performed, and analysis of alpha diversity and beta diversity showed that the richness of the gut microbiota was decreased in the DSS group compared to the control group and restored after NAM treatment. In addition, NAM modulated specific bacteria, including Odoribacter, Flexispira, and Bifidobacterium, in the NAM+chronic colitis group. Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that NAM treatment restored disruptions in the functions of the gut microbiota (replication and repair, cell motility) in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Furthermore, NAM also restored the reduction in valeric acid in mice with DSS-induced chronic colitis. Our results suggest that NAM treatment could alleviate DSS-induced chronic colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammation and regulating the composition and function of gut microbiota.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Yunjuan Zhang ◽  
Lei Peng ◽  
Wenyun Li ◽  
Tianyi Dai ◽  
Long Nie ◽  

Moringa oleifera Lam. is an essential herb used for the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other diseases. In this study, phenolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves were obtained and analyzed. The results showed that the main identifiable phenols were astragalin, chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, kaempferitrin, luteolin, quercetin, and rutin. The effects of M. oleifera polyphenol extract (MOPE) on experimental colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) were investigated. The results showed that oral administration of MOPE significantly alleviated the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis. MOPE significantly reduced weight loss, the disease activity index, colon shortening, and mucosal damage. In addition, MOPE attenuated the infiltration of CD3+ T cells, CD177+ neutrophils, and F4/80+ macrophages and significantly inhibited the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α. After the MOPE administration, the expression of proteins associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway changed. Specifically, compared with that of the DSS group, the protein expression of NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα was downregulated, and the expression of IκBα was upregulated. This study revealed the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of MOPE in the colon, indicating its potential use in preventing inflammation-driven diseases.

Planta Medica ◽  
2021 ◽  
Jiaqi Wu ◽  
Yuzheng Wu ◽  
Yue Chen ◽  
Mengyang Liu ◽  
Haiyang Yu ◽  

AbstractUlcerative colitis has been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease predominantly disturbing the colon and rectum. Clinically, the aminosalicylates, steroids, immunosuppressants, and biological drugs are generally used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis at different stages of disease progression. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs does not satisfy the patients due to the frequent drug resistance. Herein, we reported the anti-ulcerative colitis activity of desmethylbellidifolin, a xanthone isolated from Gentianella acuta, in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. C57BL/6 mice were treated with 2% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water to induce acute colitis. Desmethylbellidifolin or balsalazide sodium was orally administrated once a day. Biological samples were collected for immunohistological analysis, intestinal barrier function evaluation, cytokine measurement, and gut microbiota analysis. The results revealed that desmethylbellidifolin alleviated colon shortening and body weight loss in dextran sulfate sodium-induced mice. The disease activity index was also lowered by desmethylbellidifolin after 9 days of treatment. Furthermore, desmethylbellidifolin remarkably ameliorated colonic inflammation through suppressing the expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. The intestinal epithelial barrier was strengthened by desmethylbellidifolin through increasing levels of occludin, ZO-1, and claudins. In addition, desmethylbellidifolin modulated the gut dysbiosis induced by dextran sulfate sodium. These findings suggested that desmethylbellidifolin effectively improved experimental ulcerative colitis, at least partly, through maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines, and modulating dysregulated gut microbiota.

2019 ◽  
Vol 10 (5) ◽  
pp. 543-553 ◽  
Y. Li ◽  
M. Liu ◽  
J. Zhou ◽  
B. Hou ◽  
X. Su ◽  

Human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and experimental colitis models in mice are associated with shifts in gut microbiota composition, and several probiotics are widely used to improve gastrointestinal health. Here, we investigated whether the probiotic Bacillus licheniformis Zhengchangsheng® (BL) ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis through alteration of the gut microbiota. Experimental colitis was induced in BALB/C mice by dissolving 3% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days, which were gavaged with 0.2 ml phosphate-buffered saline or BL (3×107 cfu/ml) once a day. Administration of BL attenuated several effects of DSS-induced colitis, including weight loss, increased disease activity index, and disrupted intestinal barrier integrity. In addition, BL mitigated the reduction in faecal microbiota richness in DSS treated mice. Interestingly, BL was found to reduce the elevated circulating endotoxin level in mice with colitis by modulating the microbial composition of the microbiota, and this was highly associated with a proportional decrease in gut Bacteroidetes. Our results demonstrate that BL can attenuate DSS-induced colitis and provide valuable insight into microbiota interactions during IBD.

2012 ◽  
Vol 2012 ◽  
pp. 1-9 ◽  
De-Kui Zhang ◽  
Jian-Jie Yu ◽  
Yu-Min Li ◽  
Li-Na Wei ◽  
Yi Yu ◽  

Background. Free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Picroliv, aPicrorhiza kurroaderivative, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of picroliv on experimental model of UC in mice.Materials and Methods. Picroliv was administrated orally by gavage to mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and histology score were observed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and SOD, MDA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while the expression of cytokine mRNAs was studied by real-time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and also ELISA. The expression of NF-κB p65 was observed by immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting.Results. A significant improvement was observed in DAI and histological score in mice treated with picroliv, and incerased MPO activity, MDA concentrations, and the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB p65 in mice with DSS-induced colitis were significantly reduced while decreased SOD level increased following administration of picroliv.Conclusion. The administration of picroliv leads to an amelioration of DSS-induced colitis, suggesting administration of picroliv may provide a therapeutic approach for UC.

2012 ◽  
Vol 2012 ◽  
pp. 1-11 ◽  
Yuichi Nishiyama ◽  
Takahiro Kataoka ◽  
Keiko Yamato ◽  
Takehito Taguchi ◽  
Kiyonori Yamaoka

The enhanced release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils plays important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in various organs of mice. In this study, we examined the protective effects of radon inhalation on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS) induced colitis in mice which were subjected to DSS for 7 days. Mice were continuously treated with air only (sham) or radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3from a day before DSS administration to the end of colitis induction. In the results, radon inhalation suppressed the elevation of the disease activity index score and histological damage score induced by DSS. Based on the changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon, it was shown that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colonic inflammation. Moreover, radon inhalation suppressed lipid peroxidation of the colon induced by DSS. The antioxidant level (superoxide dismutase and total glutathione) in the colon after DSS administration was significantly higher in mice treated with radon than with the sham. These results suggested that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colitis through the enhancement of antioxidative functions in the colon.

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