51 article(s) in Baltic Journal of Political Science

Memories Of Discipline In Soviet Lithuania: Stories In Oral History

totalitarian regimes attempt to restrict and control virtually every aspect of human life. interestingly, conscious reflection on disciplinary practises takes up only a small part of the life-stories of interviewed lithuanians, as far as the memory of the post-stalin era is concerned. the interviews that form the foundation for this paper were conducted during the summer of 2017 in three different districts in lithuania. the article aims to answer the following two research questions:1) which mechanisms of discipline did people recognize and reflect upon?2) how were disciplinary actions remembered and described?according to interviews, tangible individuals filled the role of disciplinarians in schools and workplaces. in addition, the responsibility for discipline and control lies within the imperceptible disciplinarian, supplemented by the invisible discipline of the collective. this led to overwhelming uncertainty in the society, where people invoked intuition and interpretations of who is trustworthy to adapt to uncertain situations. the greatest impact of the totalitarian discipline was that people effectively internalized it and consequently became their own most significant disciplinarians Show More ... ... Show Less

  • And Control
  • Life Stories
  • Human Life
  • Research Questions
The Long Road From Neoliberalism To Neopopulism In ECE: The Social Paradox Of Neopopulism And Decline Of The Left

[full article and abstract in english] we live in a “post-neoliberal world”, as it has been discussed in the mainstream literature, but the vital link between neoliberalism and neopopulism has been rarely discussed. nowadays in international political science it is very fashionable to criticise the long neoliberal period of the last decades, still its effect on the rise of neopopulism has not yet been properly elaborated. to dig deeper into social background of neopopulism, this paper describes the system of neoliberalism in its three major social subsystems, in the socio-economic, legal-political and cultural-civilizational fields. the historical context situates the dominant period of neoliberalism between the 1970s in the old world order (owo) and in the 2010s in the new world order (nwo). in general, neoliberalism’s cumulative effects of increasing inequality has produced the current global wave of neopopulism that will be analysed in this paper in its ece regional version. the neopopulist social paradox is that not only the privileged strata, but also the poorest part of ece’s societies supports the hard populist elites. due to the general desecuritization in ece, the poor have become state dependent for social security, yet paradoxically they vote for their oppressors, widening the social base of this competitive authoritarianism. thus, the twins of neoliberalism and neopopulism, in their close connections—the main topic of this paper—have produced a “cultural backlash” in ece along with identity politics, which is high on the political agenda Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Social
  • Full Article
  • New World Order
  • The Poor
Mars And Venus In Action? The US And EU’S Foreign Relations Strategies In Academic Discourse

[full article and abstract in english] this article reviews the existing academic literature that compares and explains the differences between the us and the eu’s external actions. an analytical matrix is devised to group publications by level of analysis (micro-, mid-, and macro) and by theme of comparison criteria. the key findings are that in the macro level of analysis, authors tend to compare the role actors have in international relations before claiming either that the eu is a different kind of power due to its peculiar historical experience, or that the eu is weak due to its complicated structure and lack of military capacities. furthermore, authors conducting their analyses at the micro level tend to find more similarities between the eu and the us’s external actions than those working at the macro level. the article concludes by making a point in favour of further comparisons as an essential tool to better understand the eu and other actors in international relations Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Eu
  • International Relations
  • Macro Level
  • The Us
  • Level Of Analysis
Memories Of Discipline In Soviet Lithuania: Stories In Oral History

totalitarian regimes attempt to restrict and control virtually every aspect of human life. interestingly, conscious reflection on disciplinary practises takes up only a small part of the life-stories of interviewed lithuanians, as far as the memory of the post-stalin era is concerned. the interviews that form the foundation for this paper were conducted during the summer of 2017 in three different districts in lithuania. the article aims to answer the following two research questions:1) which mechanisms of discipline did people recognize and reflect upon?2) how were disciplinary actions remembered and described?according to interviews, tangible individuals filled the role of disciplinarians in schools and workplaces. in addition, the responsibility for discipline and control lies within the imperceptible disciplinarian, supplemented by the invisible discipline of the collective. this led to overwhelming uncertainty in the society, where people invoked intuition and interpretations of who is trustworthy to adapt to uncertain situations. the greatest impact of the totalitarian discipline was that people effectively internalized it and consequently became their own most significant disciplinarians Show More ... ... Show Less

  • And Control
  • Life Stories
  • Human Life
  • Research Questions
Time And History In The Memories Of Soviet Generations

this article aims to reconsider how and where the boundaries within soviet generations as differentiable memory communities could be established. on the basis of mannheimian theory of generational units and the theory of narration, as based on the conceptual metaphors of container, a method to identify the boundaries between generations was devised. the method was applied to biographical narratives, collected during the summer of 2017, and revealed the existence of different history-related calendars to structure time in the biographical past Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Conceptual Metaphors
REVIEW OF JEAN LOPEZ & LASHA OTKHMEZURI, JOUKOV: L`HOMME QUI A VAINCU HITLER

most of the history of the baltic states in the 20th century is completely dominated by their relation to the eastern giant, the soviet union. what the soviet union represented was not only an authoritarian, and at times, totalitarian rulership but also a constant fear of the unpredictable. two french military historians, connected with the journal guerre et histoire, have recently managed to go through newly opened archives in russia to unveil the unpredictable career of the most distinguished commander of the red army, gregory zhukov. their book entirely confirms the impression among baltic people that the soviet union was fundamentally instable in the sense that anything could happen: state arbitrariness Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Soviet Union
  • 20Th Century
  • Baltic States
  • The Baltic
WHEN STATES LOSE TERRITORY: GEORGIA‘S POST-2008 ADJUSTMENT

in this article i analyse how georgia, as a political entity, coped with the de facto loss of two of its territories: abkhazia and south ossetia. the process by which georgia lost these territories started in early 1990 and reached its final phase in 2008 after the georgian-russian war. this article explores how georgia adjusted to these losses without ever acknowledging its loss of the two territories, demonstrating a perfect example on how the normative territorial structure of an international system works. the analysis focuses on the crucial role of time in the process of the de facto territorial changes and examines how georgia, in adapting to territorial losses and through its own actions, actually strengthened its separation from abkhazia and south ossetia Show More ... ... Show Less

  • South Ossetia
  • Crucial Role
  • International System
  • Final Phase
INSIGHTS INTO INTRA-PARTY DECISION-MAKING IN LATVIA’S POLITICAL PARTIES

this article examines the decision–making processes within political parties in latvia. two important variables have been chosen for analysis: 1) policy formulation (which actors are involved in the elaboration of election programs), and 2) candidate selection (how parties create their electoral lists). a survey of saeima (latvia’s parliamentary body) deputies indicates that party board members have the most say in deciding which individuals to include on electoral lists and which policies to pursue; financial supporters seem to have almost no impact on parties’ internal decision-making processes Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Political Parties
  • Decision Making Processes
  • Policy Formulation
  • Board Members
PARTY POSITIONS ON THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE BALTIC STATES: DO THEY COMPETE? DO THEY MIRROR VOTERS’ POSITIONS

this paper aims to determine lithuania’s, latvia’s, and estonia’s parties’ positions on the european union (eu) and to ascertain whether these party positions mirror their voters’ positions on the eu. analysis suggests that parties in this region have rather varied positions on the eu, with the exception of hard-eurosceptic views, which are absent in baltic states’ party systems. this paper also indicates that parties in the baltic states tend to mirror, with some exceptions, their voters positions on the eu. this suggests that there may be additional factors determining parties’ positions regarding the eu in the baltics Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Baltic States
  • The European Union
  • Party Positions
THE QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORMS IN POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

in this article we describe the adoption and execution of public administration reforms in central and eastern europe between 2008 and 2013, as well as examine whether post-communist countries differ from other groups of european countries in terms of the substance of reforms and their implementation process. instead of following popular western administrative theoretical frames, we adopt the policy process approach. we focus on the role of policy actors during reform policymaking and implementation at the level of policy subsystems. more specifically, we employ the rational-comprehensive and garbage can perspectives to understand the reform processes in the post-communist region. our research is based on the statistical analysis of survey data and two case studies of reforms initiated by the 2008-2012 lithuanian government. the article concludes that countries in central and eastern europe share some common characteristics: they focused on the issues of civil service and public or administrative services, their reform policy was often formulated on a top-down basis, and its execution often lacked adequate capacities. despite a rational reform façade in these countries, the implementation of governance change appears to be quite erratic, as anticipated in the garbage can perspective. this can have negative consequences on the effectiveness of public policy, continuing to generate public distrust in post-communist state institutions Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Public Administration
  • Central And Eastern Europe
  • Communist Countries
DECLINING SYSTEMIC TRUST IN THE POLITICAL ELITE IN THE EU’S NEW MEMBER STATES: THE DIVERGENCE BETWEEN EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE AND THE BALTIC STATES

in the last decade there has been a process of rolling-back europeanization efforts in the eu’s new member states (nms), a process intensified by the global crisis. this de-europeanization and de-democratization process in the nms has become a significant part of a more general polycrisis in the eu. the backslide of democracy in the nms as a topical issue has usually been analysed in terms of macro-politics, formal-legal state institutions, party systems, and macroeconomics. the most significant decline of democratization, however, is evident in the public’s decreasing participation in politics and in the eroding trust. this decline in systemic trust in political elites in the nms has been largely neglected by analysts. therefore, this paper concentrates on this relatively overlooked dimension of declining trust and social capital in the nms. this analysis employs the concepts of governance, trust, and social capital to balance the usual formalistic top-down approach with a bottom-up approach that better illustrates the divergence between east-central europe and the baltic states’ sub-regional development Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Social Capital
  • Central Europe
  • Baltic States
  • East Central
  • New Member States
THE QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORMS IN POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

in this article we describe the adoption and execution of public administration reforms in central and eastern europe between 2008 and 2013, as well as examine whether post-communist countries differ from other groups of european countries in terms of the substance of reforms and their implementation process. instead of following popular western administrative theoretical frames, we adopt the policy process approach. we focus on the role of policy actors during reform policymaking and implementation at the level of policy subsystems. more specifically, we employ the rational-comprehensive and garbage can perspectives to understand the reform processes in the post-communist region. our research is based on the statistical analysis of survey data and two case studies of reforms initiated by the 2008-2012 lithuanian government. the article concludes that countries in central and eastern europe share some common characteristics: they focused on the issues of civil service and public or administrative services, their reform policy was often formulated on a top-down basis, and its execution often lacked adequate capacities. despite a rational reform façade in these countries, the implementation of governance change appears to be quite erratic, as anticipated in the garbage can perspective. this can have negative consequences on the effectiveness of public policy, continuing to generate public distrust in post-communist state institutions Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Public Administration
  • Central And Eastern Europe
  • Communist Countries
KLAUDIJUS MANIOKAS, ED., LITHUANIA's FIRST DECADE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: TRANSFORMATION OR IMITATION

for those who want to better grasp the political and socio-economic trajectory of lithuania since its accession to the eu, this edited volume provides a wealth of information and insights. it touches upon a variety of themes ranging from the politicization of lgbt rights to lithuania’s bumpy road to the eurozone. while this constitutes an interesting and informative read, the book sometimes struggles to maintain theoretical and conceptual cohesion throughout all chapters Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Political
  • The European Union
  • Lgbt Rights
CYBERSECURITY IN CENTRAL EASTERN EUROPE: FROM IDENTIFYING RISKS TO COUNTERING THREATS

today, ensuring security in cyberspace is a top priority of national security policy for most states. states’ approaches to cybersecurity can be divided into two categories: those that regard cybersecurity as a civilian task; and those that involve their militaries in creating or implementing cybersecurity policies. those states that have incorporated cyberwarfare into their military planning and organization perceive cyberattacks as a threat to their national security, while states that charge their civilian agencies with domestic cybersecurity missions classify cyber intrusions as security risks for only particular sectors. adopting the framework of securitization theory, this article theorizes both civil and military approaches to cybersecurity and threat perceptions and their sources. the theoretical framework is then applied to a study of the cybersecurity policies of central european countries and the baltic states Show More ... ... Show Less

  • National Security
  • Eastern Europe
  • Baltic States
  • Central European
  • Central Eastern
ANTIDIPLOMACY IN RUSSIA’S POLICIES REGARDING RUSSIAN-SPEAKERS IN THE BALTIC STATES

though russia is a classic realist power, russia, as its recent actions in ukraine reveal, frequently prefers hard power to powers of attraction. in addition to traditional economic pressure and military policy, russia also employs antidiplomatic tools to influence the baltic states. though russia officially proclaims itself a democratic state, it has been developing a broad spectrum of antidiplomatic methods to legitimise russia’s interests in post-soviet spaces inhabited by large numbers of russian-speakers. the clearest example of these methods appears in russia’s use of international and regional organizations’ conferences to express and articulate its interests in protecting russian diasporas—a phenomenon that first appeared in the vladimir putin’s foreign policy as part of his efforts to construct a negative image of the baltic states, affect the baltic states’ domestic policies, and subtly discredit their governments. russia is positioning itself as the protector of a russian diaspora wounded by the baltic states’ anti-russian policies Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Baltic States
  • The Baltic
  • Russian Speakers
  • Military Policy
  • Regional Organizations
POPULIST DISCOURSE ON POLITICAL REPRESENTATION: A CASE STUDY OF ANTI-ESTABLISHMENT ORGANIZATIONS IN LITHUANIA

today’s party democracy crisis coincides with an increasing influence of populist political actors. this article— prompted by notions of populist understandings of politics as expressions of the people’s will and of the populist idea of an antagonism between the people and the elite—explores whether populism and party democracies are compatible. assertions, that populism contradicts party democracies, should rest on research of populist understandings of political representation. this case study, of the populist discourse of lithuania’s anti-establishment organizations, fills this research gap in the literature on populism’s compatibility with party democracies. the qualitative analysis of this case study focuses on how political representation is perceived and presented. the study provides new insights for theoretical debate on the compatibility of populism and party democracy and also presents a nuanced picture of populist perceptions of political representation Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Political Representation
  • Case Study
  • Qualitative Analysis
  • The People
  • Research Gap
OLOF PETERSSON. THE ORDINARIUS: HERBERT TINGSTEN AND JÖRGEN WESTERSTÅHL

swedish political scientist olof petersson has recently published two remarkable biographies, of herbert tingsten and jörgen westerståhl, two professors who dominated political science in sweden during the twentieth century Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Twentieth Century
  • Political Science
  • Political Scientist
RACE TO THE EUROZONE: WHY LATVIA JOINED BEFORE LITHUANIA

 why did latvia join the eurozone in 2014, while lithuania only acceded a year later? the two countries’ diverging experiences are surprising. latvia suffered a more pronounced economic crisis from 2008 to 2010, which created greater euro adoption challenges in terms of meeting fiscal criteria. this article argues that, while the willingness to adopt the euro increased in both countries during and after the crisis, the will to seek euro adoption was stronger, clearer and more consistent in latvia than in lithuania. in examining this divergence, we argue that relying on aggregate economic costs and benefits, identity considerations, geopolitical considerations, societal support, and interest group preferences does not produce a satisfactory explanation of fluctuations in these countries’ willingness to adopt the euro. instead, we propose that changes in this willingness can be traced to domestic political processes, such as the timing and results of elections and the magnitude of the economic crisis’s impact Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Euro Adoption
  • Willingness To Adopt
  • Economic Crisis
  • Political Processes
  • Group Preferences
CONTEMPORARY POPULISM AND THE ECONOMIC CRISIS IN WESTERN EUROPE

given a threatening new wave of populism crossing europe, this article examines the link between populism and crisis as a gordian knot and explores the relationship between contemporary populism and the great recession in western europe by underscoring how the principal feature of this relationship is the perception of the european union as a common enemy Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Western Europe
  • Economic Crisis
  • Great Recession
  • The European Union
INCREASING EUPOPULISM AS A MEGATREND IN EAST CENTRAL EUROPE: FROM FACADE DEMOCRACIES TO VELVET DICTATORSHIPS

brexit and donald trump’s victory in the 2016 us presidential election has launched a wave of discussions in the international media and political science literature on “authoritarian populism” and a “populist explosion.” although this paper also reflects on this new wave of populism in the west, it concentrates on the connections between democracy’s decline and the so-called populist explosion in eastern central europe (ece) and closely investigates the hungarian case within the context of ece. this paper describes populism in ece as a product of the transition from fading facade democracies to emerging velvet dictatorships. these velvet dictatorships rely on the soft power of media and communication rather on the hard power of state violence. paradoxically, the ruling anti-elite populist parties have developed a system of populism from above, managed by the new politico-business elite. populism (social and national) and euroscepticism are the two most basic, and twin, terms used to describe these new (semi)authoritarian regimes. populism and euroscepticism are convertible; they are two sides of the same coin as they express the same divergence from the eu mainstream. therefore, this paper introduces the term: eupopulism Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Central Europe
  • Political Science
  • Us Presidential Election
  • The Eu
CORRIGENDA

in the previous issue of the baltic journal of political science (no. 4, 2015), kamil ławniczak, co-author of the article poland’s international relations scholarly community and its distinguishing features according to the 2014 trip survey of international relations scholars, was misidentified as a “phd student” in a footnote of page 94. kamil ławniczak possesses a phd degree. we apologise to the author for this regrettable error Show More ... ... Show Less

  • International Relations
  • Political Science
  • Previous Issue
  • Scholarly Community
  • Distinguishing Features