Social Background
Recently Published Documents





2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (S1) ◽  
pp. 1
Fuyong Tong

For the sake of rural revitalization, on the basis of making efforts to the construction of rural teaching staff, innovative training mode of rural teachers, and the system of teacher workshops, 123 teacher workshops have been established in batches in Hangzhou in 2017. The essence of the workshop is the community of teacher professional development and the practice forms of a good community of rural-urban education, which effectively promoted the balance of rural-urban education. The establishment of the workshop follows the contemporary social background; hence it is not only the innovation of local policy and the practical experience but also the heritage and implementation of “system of training teaches as their friends” (Xingzhi Tao’s teacher education theory) in the new era. The workshops in Hangzhou formed the relatively complete construction mechanism through five aspects, including the system construction, activity form, training method, development guarantee, and the evaluation of the efforts. Three years since the establishment, lots of core teachers have been cultivated by the workshop, continue to expand the radiation effects of top teachers from point to area, so as to driving the education integrative development, constructing school cultural features, and promoting the rural revitalization.

2021 ◽  
Vikram P. Narayan ◽  
Alastair J. Wilson ◽  
Stephen F. Chenoweth

AbstractSex differences in lifespan remain an intriguing puzzle for evolutionary biologists. A possible explanation for lower lifespan in males is the unconditional expression of recessive deleterious alleles in heterogametic X chromosomes in males (the unguarded X hypothesis). Empirical evidence, however, has yielded controversial results that can be attributed to differences in both genetic and social background. Here, we test the unguarded X hypothesis in Drosophila serrata using a factorial design to quantify the effects of genotype, sex, social environment, and their interactions on phenotypic variation for lifespan. Using an experimental approach, we manipulated two inbred laboratory genotypes and their reciprocal F1s, while controlling for different levels of density and mating status to account for any potential social effects. Our results also show subtle but significant genotype dependent effects for both density and mating, but ultimately find the unguarded X hypothesis insufficient to fully explain sexual dimorphism in D. serrata lifespan.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. WLS64-WLS76
Paulina Korzeniewska-Nowakowska

This paper examines the image of American poverty, rejection and social engagement in a recent sports biopic inspired by the story of American skater Tonya Harding, Craig Gillespie’s I, Tonya (2017). It draws on data presented in recent poverty studies to determine the extent of deprivation and attend to its representation in American cinema. In the light of the above, I closely analyze the biopic, focusing on its depiction of professional figure skating, expectations of female athletes, and most importantly, the figure of Tonya Harding. I argue that the protagonist’s social background dominates her portrayal, which also challenges the common conception of a sports biopic; Harding’s narrative is defined by her mismatch with ice skating’s normative expectations and, most importantly, by her social standing.

2021 ◽  
Vikki Boliver ◽  
Pallavi Banerjee ◽  
Stephen Gorard ◽  
Mandy Powell

AbstractThe higher education regulator for England has set challenging new widening access targets requiring universities to rethink how merit is judged in admissions. Universities are being encouraged to move away from the traditional meritocratic equality of opportunity model of fair access, which holds that university places should go to the most highly qualified candidates irrespective of social background, in accordance with the principles of procedural fairness. Instead, they are being asked to move towards what we term the meritocratic equity of opportunity model, which holds that prospective students’ qualifications should be judged in light of the socioeconomic circumstances in which these were obtained to enhance distributive fairness, a practice known in the UK as contextualised admissions. In this paper, we critically discuss the theoretical underpinnings of these two competing perspectives on fair access and review the existing empirical evidence base, drawing together for the first time insights from our ESRC and Nuffield Foundation funded studies of fair access to highly academically selective universities in England. We argue that reconceptualising fair access in terms of distributive fairness rather than procedural fairness offers a more socially just set of principles on which to allocate valuable but scarce places at the most academically selective universities in England, unless or until such time as the vertical stratification of higher education institutions is reduced or eliminated entirely.

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (2) ◽  
pp. 61-73
You Zhang ◽  
Michael O'Shea ◽  
Leping Mou

The study aims to explore which factors influence international students’ decision to pursue doctoral studies in Canada. Drawing on the push-pull model and the mechanism of educational decision making, this study uses semi-structured interviews to gather data and explores themes such as political and economic forces, institutional factors, social background and experience, and individual motivation in students’ decision making. Our study identifies multiple factors at the individual, institutional, and country levels that influence students’ decision making, including students’ past experiences, funding, faculty members, and immigration policies. Moreover, it finds that the factors vary by students’ regions of origin and disciplines of study. Our findings, focused on international doctoral students in Canada, add to the ongoing conversation about  student mobility and add nuances on international students’ decision-making process in times of shifting landscape of higher education internationalization.

Languages ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 145
Cristina La Rosa

This paper aims to present some preliminary results of the linguistic analysis of the dialect of the Wilāya of Mahdia on which few studies exist, focused mainly on phonology. My analysis, here extended to the morpho-syntactic level, is based on a corpus of interviews taken from some social media pages. The sample will be composed of respondents of different geographical origin (from Mahdia and some nearby towns), gender, age and social background. A deeper knowledge of the Arabic of Mahdia region, which is a bundle of urban, Bedouin and “villageois” varieties, would contribute to throw new light on the features of the Saḥlī dialects and would add a small piece to the complex mosaic of Tunisian and Maghrebi dialects, whose traditional categories of classification should be reconsidered.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 315
Ana Santiago Vela

Overeducation is indicative of a suboptimal education–job match and is related to several negative consequences for workers. Despite extensive research explaining the overeducation phenomenon, previous studies have not simultaneously analyzed educational background (i.e., educational degrees) and social background effects, or have failed to consider both the vertical and horizontal dimension that educational degrees entail (i.e., level and field). This article seeks to overcome these limitations by examining whether overeducation varies (1) across educational background (considering both level and field of educational degrees), (2) across social background, and (3) by social background among workers with the same degree. Based on the German BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey 2018, results suggest that highly educated workers are more likely to be overeducated for the jobs they hold, implying the supply of this workforce exceeds the available adequate jobs on the German labor market. The field of education determines the risk of overeducation as well, with some occupationally specific fields of education (IT, natural sciences, and health) making for lower overeducation risk for both vocational and academic education. The results also indicate social background directly influences education–job matches (controlling for level and field of education), i.e., a social gap in overeducation. This evidence suggests an effect of social background on job allocation processes, beyond the effect of education, so that the offspring of privileged classes (i.e., high salariat) use the same degrees on the labor market more profitably than the offspring of less privileged classes. Given the low attention paid to education–job matches in social stratification analyses, the present article makes a noteworthy contribution to the literature on social stratification and inequality. In addition, the present research will serve as a base for future studies on overeducation including both the vertical and horizontal dimension of educational degrees.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (5) ◽  
pp. 104
Masayuki Kanazawa

In Asian countries, e.g., Japan, South Korea, China and Taiwan, many studies on the relationship between ABO blood type and personality have been conducted. Recently, it has been estimated that more than half of Japanese, Korean and Taiwanese people feel that this relationship is legitimate. Therefore, when data from these countries are used in personality tests, it is theoretically difficult to eliminate the effects of the “contamination of knowledge,” even if differences are found. To avoid this issue, this study examined the linkage between ABO blood type and occupations in Japan. The results showed that personality traits corresponding to blood type appeared in the data of each of the three groups of politicians and athletes, and all differences were statistically significant. We observed a clear and significant relationship between blood type and personality. Additionally, it is also necessary to consider the influence of social background.

2021 ◽  
pp. 003804072110392
Caitlin E. Ahearn

Students with aligned educational and occupational expectations have improved college and labor market outcomes. Despite extensive knowledge about the ways social background and school context contribute to educational expectations, less is known about the role of social intuitions in shaping expectational alignment. Drawing on data from the 2009 High School Longitudinal Study, I estimate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequality in alignment. I examine how differences in observed student characteristics contribute to, and whether school-based postsecondary planning initiatives mitigate, that inequality. Results from multinomial regression models show large socioeconomic differences in ninth-grade alignment, and I identify achievement, attitudes about college and careers, and relationships with significant others as contributors to those differences. Participation in postsecondary planning is associated with reduced uncertainty and increased alignment, but this relationship does not differ by social background, indicating that the examined college and career planning policies do little to address inequality in alignment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Masataro Norizuki ◽  
Ai Hori ◽  
Koji Wada

Abstract Background Rubella outbreaks occurred among adults in Japan in 2013-2014 and 2018-2019 due to immunity gaps. In response and aiming at rubella elimination by 2020, the government introduced countermeasures comprising supplementary immunization activities for voluntary testing of adult non-healthcare-related workers and vaccination of susceptible individuals. However, as of October 2020, rubella immunity testing and vaccination rates remained low. This study was conducted to identify factors associated with adults voluntarily confirming their rubella immune status, to help develop effective promotion activities for hard-to-reach and left-behind populations. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a general population sample of non-healthcare workers aged 20-49 years in Japan completed an online survey in November 2020. Univariate analysis was performed to examine associations of specific actions taken to confirm rubella immune status with social background characteristics, knowledge of rubella, and attitude to testing and vaccination. Log binomial regression analysis was performed to explore the associations following adjustment for social background characteristics. Results Among 1,854 respondents (927 men, 927 women), only 23.4% of men and 39.4% of women in their 20s to 40s have taken some action related to rubella prevention. Three major factors were associated with the targeted population having taken voluntary action: (1) knowing about testing for confirmation of immunity status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.29 men, 2.89 women), the rubella outbreak in 2013 among men in their 20s to 40s (AOR 2.79 men, 1.64 women), and congenital rubella syndrome (AOR 1.89 men, 3.10 women); (2) having acquaintances who were vaccinated against or tested for rubella (AOR 2.98 men, 1.95 women); and (3) having a positive attitude toward influenza vaccination (AOR 2.48 men, 1.83 women). Marriage, desire for pregnancy, and having children were weakly associated with taking action. Conclusions Currently, insufficient voluntary action is being taken by high-risk adult populations to close the identified immunity gaps. In this last mile to rubella elimination, our findings and suggested potential interventions via annual health check-ups and occupational health and public health initiatives could prove helpful in developing further countermeasures that actively promote and implement supplementary immunization activities targeting all adult generations.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document