infant formula
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Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 138
Ke LI ◽  
Xueyan Cao ◽  
Zhiwei He ◽  
Liqun Liu

Infant formula incidents have endangered the dietary safety and healthy growth of infants and young children and are triggers of the public’s negative emotions, attracting widespread public attention. The aim of this research was to explore how perceived knowledge gap, risk perception, past actual risk experience, and media risk experience affect anxiety. The research data obtained from 506 respondents were divided into groups with actual risk experience and without actual risk experience. Then, PLS-SEM was used to analyze the data. The results show that risk perception mediated the relationship between perceived knowledge gap and anxiety. Specifically, for the group with actual risk experience, perceived knowledge gap had a significant direct impact on anxiety; however, there was no moderation effect of media experience on the relationship between perceived knowledge gap and risk perception. For the group without actual risk experience, perceived knowledge gap had no direct effect on anxiety, and media experience had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between perceived knowledge gap and risk perception. The results suggest that in infant formula safety incidents, actual risk experience and media risk experience have different influence mechanisms on anxiety. Actual risk experience will directly and intuitively bridge the relationship between perceived knowledge gap and anxiety. Meanwhile, groups without actual risk experience tend to be influenced by rational risk judgment, and this process is moderated by media risk experience.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 89-97
M. Givi Efgivia

Mothers certainly know that the main intake for babies is breast milk. However, in some cases, babies are forced to be fed infant formula to replace breast milk if according to medical indications and on the advice of medical personnel. Always consult a medical professional for the use of infant formula. Although the content is different from breast milk, now infant formula has been formulated with various kinds of nutrients that are good for baby's growth and development. For this reason, so that babies get adequate nutrition for their growth and development, the dose of baby's milk must be adjusted to their age and weight. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with formula feeding in infants aged 0-6 months. The research method used in this study is a cross sectional survey method. The population in this study were all mothers who had babies 0-6 months totaling 34 people. Samples were taken by total sampling, that is, the entire population was sampled. The results of this study prove that there is a relationship between information media, education, work and knowledge with the provision of formula milk to infants aged 0-6 months at the Rengas Health Center in 2019.

2022 ◽  
Yuhui Ye ◽  
Kasper Engholm-Keller ◽  
yajing fang ◽  
Christian Fiil Nielsen ◽  
Ariadna Jordà ◽  

Ready-to-feed liquid infant formulas (IF) were subjected to direct (D) or indirect (ID) ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment and then stored at 40 °C under aseptic condition for 60-120 days simulating global...

2022 ◽  
Junpeng Zhang ◽  
Xinyu Du ◽  
Shilong Jiang ◽  
Qing gang Xie ◽  
Guangqing Mu ◽  

This study investigated whether casein (CN) fractions exhibit better physical propertiess and digestibility than native casein micelle presently used in the production of infant formula. Structural performance of native casein...

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Huiquan Zhu ◽  
Aimei Liang ◽  
Xiaodan Wang ◽  
Wenyuan Zhang ◽  
Yumeng Zhang ◽  

The kinds and proportions of triglycerides of human mature milk play an independent role in the growth of infants. In this study, the human milk samples obtained from eight different Chinese cities (Chengdu, Weihai, Lanzhou, Jinhua, Beijing, Guangzhou, Zhengzhou, and Harbin) and six sequential mature lactation times (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days) were detected for the triglycerides. The result demonstrated that total 66 triglycerides were detected in mature human milk, with acyl carbon number (ACN) numbers were locating in the range of 34–54 and double bond (DB) numbers were locating in the range of 0–6. In addition, the percentage of OPO, OPL, and OOO was relatively higher than others, accounted for more than 4% of total triglycerides in all the lactation areas and times, and the percentage of U2S and LLL triglycerides was also richest in mature milk. Furthermore, it was obvious that lactation regions had more significant effect on the triglycerides compared with lactation time and the triacylglycerols (TAGs) of human milk in Guangzhou were clearly different from that in other regions. Therefore, the results of this study will provide data reference for the design of infant formula suitable for Chinese babies.

Food Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 211-220
I.S. Maulidyah ◽  
D.N. Faridah ◽  
H.N. Lioe

The presence of heavy metals in infant formula has become a global concern. The most common method to determine heavy metals is AAS. However, as this technique is lacking in several aspects, including the instrument’s low sensitivity, a more sensitive instrument such as ICP-MS is necessary. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) was used in accordance with the standard method AOAC 2015.01 with modifications on the microwave condition and the addition of hydrochloric acid (HCl) during the sample digestion process. The modified standard method requires a validation process. This research aimed to validate the method of analysis for the determination of Pb, Cd, Hg, As in infant formula using ICP-MS and its application in formula milk. This research consists of five stages: 1) instrumental performance; 2) homogeneity test; 3) method orientation; 4) method validation; and 5) the application of the validated method to other products. The findings in the research were: the method linearity was confirmed at working concentration 5-30 µg/kg for all the heavy metals with R2 value of nearly 1,000; the method limits of detection (LOD) were 0.74 µg/kg (Pb), 0.41 µg/kg (Cd), 0.08 µg/kg (Hg), 0.50 µg/kg (As), while the method’s limits of quantification (LOQ) were 2.48 µg/kg (Pb), 1.36 µg/kg (Cd), 0.27 µg/kg (Hg), 1.67 µg/kg (As); the method was found precise with Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) below 2/3 RSD Horwitz and all the recovery values were found to fall within the acceptable range (60–115%); the % RSD intra-lab reproducibility was below RSD Horwitz; and the method was robust, indicating that it was unaffected by small changes in its variables. The validated method can be applied routinely to determine heavy metals in infant formula and formula milk.

Sthefani da Costa Penha ◽  
Marina Maintinguer Norde ◽  
Antonio Augusto Ferreira Carioca

Abstract Studies on childhood feeding and current food consumption, according to the NOVA classification, in adults are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between childhood dietary practices and the current consumption of different categories of processed foods in young adults using data from the Nutritionists’ Health Study (NutriHS) cohort. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data of 392 on nutrition undergraduate students or nutritionists aged ≥18 years. Current food consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and the NOVA classification. The investigated childhood eating practices included fruit and vegetable intake, exclusive breastfeeding, and other breastfeeding practices. Participants breastfed with introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods before 6 months had higher current consumption of processed foods than those who were not breastfed (β = 4.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.56–8.04) and those who did not have the habits of eating fruits and vegetables during childhood consumed less unprocessed and minimally processed foods in adulthood than those who ate fruits and vegetables during infancy (β = −3.76; 95% CI = −0.82 to −6.70). Further, later introduction of infant formula or other types of milk between 3 and 5 months of age had a lower current consumption of ultra-processed foods than those fed infant formula or other types of milk before 1 month age of life (β = −3.09; 95% CI = −6.12 to −0.06). In conclusion, childhood feeding practices were linked to food consumption in adult life in NutriHS cohort, highlighting that the first 1000 days of life seems to impact on food choices during adulthood, with potential to protect against nutrition-related diseases later in life.

V. Ezugwu Nnenna ◽  
R. Agbakoba Nneka

Introduction: Contamination of milk products can result to severe intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in man. This study was aimed at evaluating the bacteriological quality of various milk products sold in Nnewi.  Materials and Methods: Using the Cluster sampling technique, 30 milk samples (5 pasteurized skimmed milk, 5 powdered infant milk formulas, 5 powdered milk, 5 unsweetened evaporated milk, 5 branded soya milk and 5 unbranded soya milk) were purchased randomly from different shops and hawkers around Nnewi. Sample processing was done by serially diluting samples in sterile 1% peptone water before plating onto Mannitol Salt Agar, Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar, Blood Agar, MacConkey and Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar using the Pour-plate technique. Bacterial count and identification were done using standard bacteriological as well as molecular techniques.  The molecular techniques used were Polymerase Chain Reaction, Sanger Sequencing and BLAST analysis on the NCBI BLAST online. Results: This showed that 15 (50%) out of 30 milk samples were contaminated to varying degrees with bacteria. Nine (9) samples showed the presence of Escherichia coli with 32.14% of all the milk samples tested. E. coli was present in skimmed milk (20%), evaporated milk (20%), branded soyamilk (40%) and unbranded soyamilk (100%) but was not isolated from Infant formula and Powder milk. Klebsiella spp. showed the second highest prevalence (28.57%) and was present in evaporated milk (20%), branded soyamilk (40%), unbranded soyamilk (100%). Salmonella spp. (3.57%) was isolated from unbranded soyamilk,Enterobacter spp. (14.29%) was isolated from powder milk and in unbranded  soyamilk samples, Staphylococcus aureus(3.57%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (3.57%) were isolated only in unbranded soyamilk, Macrococcus caseolyticus (3.57%) was isolated from unbranded soyamilk. Novel species such as Aquitalea magnusonii (3.57%), Alishewanella fetalis (3.57%) and Lysinibacillus macroides (3.57%) were identified by molecular analysis to be present in infant formula, evaporated milk and unbranded soyamilk respectively. Conclusion: This research revealed that the bacteriological quality of some milk and milk products sold in Nnewi is not acceptable especially the unbranded soyamilk samples that showed gross contamination.

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