specific gravity
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2022 ◽  
George Boyi ◽  
Godswill Amadi

In Nigeria, drilling companies import a bulk of drilling fluid materials that they use to carry out their respective operations. This has been a major concern to oil and gas industries since these drilling fluid materials cannot be recycled, are highly expensive in terms of foreign exchange, are not environmentally friendly, not very effective, and non-biodegradable. This work presents an experimental investigation into the reliability of the use of local materials as a substitute to conventional viscosifiers. Local materials used in the analysis are Mucuna solannie (Ukpo), Brachystegia eurycoma (Achi), and Detarium microcarpium (Ofo). The results obtained from the experimental analysis show that they compared closely to the standard viscosifer formulated with Pac-R. The results showed that the density, specific gravity, pH, yield stress, Gel strength, Plastic Viscosity, and yield point of mud formulated from local materials compared favorably with that of the imported viscosifer. It was observed that an increase in concentration produced a better result. Hence, they could replace the Pac-R considering cost, cutting carrying ability, etc.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Y. Ngueumdjo ◽  
V. H. Njuikom Djoumbi ◽  
V. Y. Katte ◽  
F. Ngapgue ◽  
A. S. L. Wouatong

AbstractThis study reports on the physical, mechanical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis carried out on four lateritic hardpan specimens from quarries in the Bamendjou area in the Western Region of Cameroon using common prescribed procedures. The results indicate that values of the bulk density, specific gravity, total and open porosities are very variable from one specimen to another. Meanwhile, the value of the compressive strengths of both the dry and immersed specimens were also very variable from one specimen to another, with the F2 and F1 specimens having higher values than the A1 and A2 specimens. All the specimens immersed in water recorded lower compressive strengths than the dry specimens. The flexural strengths also varied from one sample to another, with the F2 specimen having the highest resistance. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the major peaks were assigned to gibbsite, goethite, and hematite, while the minor peaks were assigned to kaolinite and anatase. The mineralogy and geochemistry influenced the physical and mechanical properties, with the iron rich specimens having higher values in both the physical and mechanical properties than the alumina rich specimens. The results of the compressive strengths obtained were higher than (1–4) MPa obtained in Burkina Faso and India where they have been using latertic blocks for construction. Thus the hardpans of Bamendjou can also be exploited for building purposes conveniently.

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012030
Teba A Abd ◽  
Mohammed Y Fattah ◽  
Mohammed F Aswad

Abstract The application of appropriate chemicals is a widely used strategy for soil stabilization. The drive of this study is to determine the possibility of using the biopolymer carboxymethyl cellulose as an environmentally acceptable soil stabilizer. In this work, Atterberge limits tests, specific gravity, compaction, and consolidation tests were used to determine the engineering parameters of soils treated with varying amounts of biopolymer. Additionally, changes in the morphological properties of the soft soils were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was estimated that as the soil’s biopolymer content increases, the specific gravity drops down, though the optimum water content (OMC) is extended. The outcomes showed diverse effects on Atterberg’s limits by cumulative the liquid limit(LL) and plasticity index (PI) though decreasing the plastic limit as the bio-polymer content increases. By the addition in polymer gratified, the combination boundaries (Solidity index Cc and recompression index Cr) decline.

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012001
S Osman ◽  
M Ahmad ◽  
M N Zakaria ◽  
A M Zakaria ◽  
Z Ibrahim ◽  

Abstract In this paper, bending strength and physical properties (specific gravity, dimensional stability and equilibrium moisture content) of a Malaysian bamboo locally known as Beting bamboo (Gigantochloa levis) are addressed. Characterizations of physical and bending strength of G. levis in terms of the variability of location along culm height (top, middle, bottom), culm section (nodes and internodes), fiber orientation (longitudinal, tangential and radial) and culm layer (outer and inner) were conducted. Comparison of these properties is also made to some bamboo and commercial timber species. It was found that G. levis has favorable physical and mechanical properties although the specific gravity of G. levis has tendency to be on the higher side. The characteristics studied were found to have some variability at different locations, sections, and directions. There was variability in terms of bending strength along with the culm height of bamboo. It is indicated from this study that the bending strength and physical properties of G. levis were found to be satisfactory.

Allu Shanmukha Rao

Abstract: In any power transmission system, insulators are essential for a reliable electrical power supply. The Efficiency of insulators will be decided by their electrical and mechanical properties. Recently in many of the power transmission systems, the conventional porcelain insulators are being replaced by polymeric insulators due to various advantages in their properties. Polymeric insulators have been increasingly popular in recent years as a result of their superior performance in contaminated environments due to their hydrophobic nature. However, research is still being carried out on Polymeric material with regards to ageing condition and feasibility for large scale utilization. Ageing of insulation is due to Environmental, Tracking and Erosion conditions. Ageing leads to immature failures and uncertainty in the performance of the insulators. The constituent materials and their properties have a significant impact on the performance of polymeric insulators. There is a strong need to look into newer filler materials which can be added to the existing polymeric base materials to constitute a composite. Keeping this in mind, in the proposed research uses Silicone rubber as base polymeric material and along with that additives are added to arrive at three different composites. A new filler material will be added to the base material forming a new composite. All these HTV Silicone rubber based composites are then tested the recovery of hydrophobicity, dielectric strength, hardness, specific gravity, tensile strength , ultimate elongation ,tear strength properties based on ASTM standards. Further, Inclined plane Tracking and Erosion studies are also conducted on the polymeric test samples for 6 hours to evaluate the SiR housing material suitability for outdoor insulator applications by subjecting them to AC high voltages under laboratory conditions as per IEC 60587 standards. Keywords: Recovery of hydrophobicity, dielectric strength, hardness, specific gravity, tensile strength, ultimate elongation, tear strength, inclined plane tracking and erosion, ageing, filler material.

Rizqa Adisti ◽  
Wijayanti Indah ◽  
Retanani Yuli

This research was conducted in the Laboratory of Feed Industry Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using organic acids as preservatives in feed ingredients in the form of pollard and wheat bran based on physical parameters. This study used a completely randomized design with 2 factorials in the form of feed type and organic acid type with 3 replications, samples were stored for 6 weeks and then data were collected in the form of moisture content, pile angle, pile density and specific gravity. The results showed that organic acids affected the moisture content but had no effect on pile density, pile angle and specific gravity. The type of feed affects the value of moisture content, pile angle, pile density and specific gravity. Based on the results of the effectiveness index test, it is known that the total yield value on pollard with 1% lauric acid is 0.64, sorbic acid is 0.35 and propionic acid is 0.77, while wheat bran with lauric acid is 1.07 at -1 sorbic acid. .39 and in propionic acid 2.64. The conclusion of this research is that propionic acid can be used as a preservative for pollard and wheat bran    

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 322-327
T. A. Y. Foenay ◽  
T. N. I. Koni

This study evaluated the physical quality of complete rabbit feed containing different legumes. The study design was an experimental method using a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were as follows: P1 =complete feed without legume;P2 = complete feed with 10% moringa leaves meal; P3 = complete feed with 10% Leucaena leaves meal; P4 = complete feed with 10% turi leaves meal. Parameters measured were hardness, durability, density and specific gravity of rabbit pellet complete feed. Data analysis uses analysis of variance and if there is a treatment with a significant effect, then it is continued with Duncan's multiple distance test. The results showed that legumes had no significant effect on impact resistance, friction resistance, pile density, and specific gravity of the rabbit pellets produced. It was concluded that the use of legumes, namely Moringa, lamtoro and turi did not reduce the physical quality of the pellets.

A. B. Menzhinski ◽  
A. N. Malashin ◽  
A. E. Kaleda

A method for the parametric analysis of electric generators of reciprocating motion with permanent magnets has been developed, which allows revealing the values of the parameters of the magnetic circuit (cross-sectional area) and the working winding (number of turns) at a given value of the efficiency, providing a minimum specific gravity of the generator. The method of parametric analysis of electric generators of reciprocating motion with permanent magnets consists of three stages. The first and second stages are the electromagnetic calculation of the generator: at the first stage, the main geometric dimensions of the magnetic system and the parameters of the working winding of the generator are determined; at the second stage, the verification of the electromagnetic calculation of the generator, calculation of the nominal mode, calculation of the efficiency and assessment of the thermal state of the generator are fulfilled. At the third stage, a parametric analysis of electric generators of reciprocating motion with permanent magnets with specified constraints is carried out, as well as the refinement of the geometric dimensions and configuration of the magnetic system of the generator using a two-dimensional finite element model of the magnetic field. As a result, to ensure better use of the electrical steel of the magnetic circuit of the generator and thereby reduce its mass, the most saturated areas and areas, which are characterized by low values of the magnetic field strength, are determined. Distinctive features of the proposed technique are: the use of a minimum specific gravity of electric generators of reciprocating motion with longitudinal, transverse or combined changes in the magnetic flux passing through the working winding as an objective function; combined approach to electromagnetic calculation; taking into account the influence of the operating temperature on the parameters of the permanent magnet, as well as overheating of individual parts of the generator.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (3) ◽  
pp. 269-280
Erza Rismantojo ◽  
Niar Nauri Ningsih

Makalah ini berisi hasil penelitian yang mempelajari pengaruh penambahan 5, 10, dan 15% larutan mikroorganisme terhadap sifat fisik dan kuat geser tanah gambut dari Palembang, Sumatera Selatan. Pengujian dilakukan pada tanah gambut yang dikeringkan kemudian dipadatkan setelah dicampur air tanpa/dan larutan mikroorganisme pada kondisi tanpa masa peram dan setelah pemeraman selama tujuh hari. Sifat fisik yang diamati adalah specific gravity, nilai pH, kadar abu, kadar organik, dan kadar serat tanah gambut sebelum dan setelah dicampur dengan larutan mikroorganisme. Sifat mekanik yang dipelajari adalah kuat geser niralir dan efektif benda uji tanah gambut saja dan gambut yang dicampur dengan larutan mikroorganisme. Benda uji dibuat dengan cara pemadatan manual dan diuji dengan cara triaxial consolidated-undrained. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan larutan mikroorganisme menaikkan nilai specific gravity, pH, kadar abu, kohesi efektif, sudut geser dalam efektif,kuat geser niralir, dan mengurangi kadar organik dan serat. Benda uji untuk pengujian triaksial dijenuhkan dan dikonsolidasikan dengan tegangan efektif isotropik 50, 100, dan 200kPa. Hasil pengujian triaxial memperlihatkan bahwa kekuatan geser niralir tanah gambut Palembang yang dipadatkan ini dapat dinormalisasi dengan faktor normalisasi yang mirip dengan yang digunakan untuk tanah berbutir kasar.

Awoke Ali Zeleke ◽  
Tiegist Dejene Abebe ◽  
Baye Berihun Getahun

Potato is a high potential food security crop in Ethiopia. Genetic variability is the basis of all crop improvement programs. The study was conducted at Adet in 2018 with the objective of assessing the extent and pattern of genetic variability of potato genotypes for yield and yield related traits. A total of 36 potato genotypes were evaluated for 18 quantitative traits in simple lattice design. The analysis of variance revealed that highly significant difference among the tested potato genotypes for all quantitative traits except stem number per hill. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was ranged from 4.56 to 56.01% (for specific gravity and unmarketable tuber yield ha-1 respectively) and the genotypic coefficient of variation was ranged from 2.32 to 40.66% (specific gravity and late blight severity percentage respectively). Days to attain 50% emergence, leaf area index, number of marketable and total tubers per plant, marketable and total tuber yield ha-1, and late blight severity percentage showed high heritability and high genetic advance as percent of mean. Most of the traits had high phenotypic coefficient of variation and genotypic coefficient of variation; and coupled high heritability with high genetic advance as percent of mean. Traits having high heritability and high genetic advance as percent of means is effective for simple selection.

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