tight junction proteins
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Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 97
Muhammad Mohsin ◽  
Ziping Zhang ◽  
Guangwen Yin

Coccidiosis is an important parasitic disease of poultry with great economic importance. Due to drug resistance issues, the study was conducted to investigate how probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum or L. plantarum) affected oocysts per gram of feces (OPG), fecal scores, feed conversion ratio (FCR), immunomodulatory effect in terms of the cell-mediated and humoral immune response. Serum chemistry (ALT, AST, LDH, and creatinine) was measured in different treated chicken groups. mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD 1 and CAT), peptide transporter 1 (PepT 1), and tight junction proteins (ZO and CLDN 1) were also examined in chicken groups infected with Eimeria tenella (E. tenella). Chickens supplemented with L. plantarum 1 × 108 CFU (colony-forming unit) showed an improved cell-mediated and humoral immune response, compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Probiotics also enhanced the performance of antioxidant enzymes, PepT 1, and tight junction proteins, and improved serum chemistry (AST, ALT, and LDH), compared with control-infected, non-medicated chickens. However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in CLDN 1 expression level and creatinine in all treated chicken groups. These findings demonstrated that probiotics supplementation in the feed can protect the birds against E. tenella infection.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 6341
Hiroshi Shimada ◽  
Takayuki Kohno ◽  
Takumi Konno ◽  
Tadahi Okada ◽  
Kimihito Saito ◽  

Tight junction proteins play roles beyond permeability barriers functions and control cell proliferation and differentiation. The relation between tight junctions and the signal transduction pathways affects cell growth, invasion and migration. Abnormality of tight junction proteins closely contributes to epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignancy of various cancers. Angulin-1/lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) forms tricellular contacts that has a barrier function. Downregulation of angulin-1/LSR correlates with the malignancy in various cancers, including endometrioid-endometrial carcinoma (EEC). These alterations have been shown to link to not only multiple signaling pathways such as Hippo/YAP, HDAC, AMPK, but also cell metabolism in ECC cell line Sawano. Moreover, loss of angulin-1/LSR upregulates claudin-1, and loss of apoptosis stimulating p53 protein 2 (ASPP2) downregulates angulin-1/LSR. Angulin-1/LSR and ASPP2 concentrate at both midbody and centrosome in cytokinesis. In EEC tissues, angulin-1/LSR and ASPP2 are reduced and claudin-2 is overexpressed during malignancy, while in the tissues of endometriosis changes in localization of angulin-1/LSR and claudin-2 are seen. This review highlights how downregulation of angulin-1/LSR promotes development of endometriosis and EEC and discusses about the roles of angulin-1/LSR and its related proteins, including claudins and ASPP2.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Xing-Yong Chen ◽  
Shao-Fen Wan ◽  
Nan-Nan Yao ◽  
Ze-Jing Lin ◽  
Yan-Guang Mao ◽  

Abstract Background Disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) after a stroke can lead to brain injury and neurological impairment. Previous work confirmed the involvement of the immunoproteasome subunit of low molecular mass peptide 2 (LMP2) in the pathophysiology of ischemia stroke. However, the relationship between the immunoproteasome LMP2 and the BBB remains unclear. Methods Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R). Three days before MCAO, the rats were treated with lentivirus-mediated LMP2 shRNA preparations by stereotactical injection into the ipsilateral hemispheric region. The rat brain microvascular endothelial cell (RBMVEC) line was exposed to oxygen–glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) to mimic ischemic conditions in vitro. The RNA interference-mediated knockdown of LMP2 or β-catenin was analysed in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of the quantity of extravasated Evans blue (EB) and cerebral fluorescent angiography were performed to evaluate the integrity of the BBB. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting were employed to detect the expression of target proteins. Cell migration was evaluated using a scratch migration assay. The results of immunofluorescence, Western blotting and cell migration were quantified using the software ImageJ (Version 1.53m). Parametric data from different groups were compared using one-way ANOVA followed by the least significant difference (LSD) test. Results Cerebral ischemia led to lower levels of structural components of the BBB such as tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-1 and ZO-1) in the MCAO/R group compared with the sham group (P < 0.001). However, inhibition of the immunoproteasome LMP2 restored the expression of these proteins, resulting in higher levels of occludin, claudin-1 and ZO-1 in the LMP2-shRNA group compared with the control-shRNA group (P < 0.001). In addition, inhibition of the immunoproteasome LMP2 contributed to higher microvascular density and decreased BBB permeability [e.g., the quantity of extravasated EB: LMP2-shRNA group (58.54 ± 7.37) µg/g vs. control-shRNA group (103.74 ± 4.32) µg/g, P < 0.001], and promoted the upregulation of Wnt-3a and β-catenin proteins in rats following MCAO/R. In vitro experiments, OGD/R induced marked upregulation of LMP2, proapoptotic protein Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and downregulation of occludin, claudin-1, ZO-1 and Bcl-2, as well as inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway Wnt-3a and β-catenin proteins in RBMVECs, compared with the control group under normal culture conditions (P < 0.001). However, silencing of LMP2 gene expression reversed these protein changes and promoted proliferation and migration of RBMVECs following OGD/R. Silencing of β-catenin by transfection of RBMVECs with β-catenin-siRNA aggravated the downregulation of tight junction proteins, and reduced the proliferation and migration of RBMVECs following OGD/R, compared with the control-siRNA group (P < 0.001). LMP2-siRNA and β-catenin-siRNA co-transfection partly counteracted the beneficial effects of silencing LMP2-siRNA on the levels of tight junction proteins in RBMVECs exposed to OGD/R. Conclusion This study suggests that inhibition of the immunoproteasome LMP2 ameliorates ischemia/hypoxia-induced BBB injury, and that the molecular mechanism involves the immunoproteasome-regulated activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway under ischemic conditions.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3305
Muthanna Sultan ◽  
Kiesha Wilson ◽  
Osama A. Abdulla ◽  
Philip Brandon Busbee ◽  
Alina Hall ◽  

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious lung condition characterized by severe hypoxemia leading to limitations of oxygen needed for lung function. In this study, we investigated the effect of anandamide (AEA), an endogenous cannabinoid, on Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-mediated ARDS in female mice. Single-cell RNA sequencing data showed that the lung epithelial cells from AEA-treated mice showed increased levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and tight junction proteins. MiSeq sequencing data on 16S RNA and LEfSe analysis demonstrated that SEB caused significant alterations in the microbiota, with increases in pathogenic bacteria in both the lungs and the gut, while treatment with AEA reversed this effect and induced beneficial bacteria. AEA treatment suppressed inflammation both in the lungs as well as gut-associated mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). AEA triggered several bacterial species that produced increased levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyrate. Furthermore, administration of butyrate alone could attenuate SEB-mediated ARDS. Taken together, our data indicate that AEA treatment attenuates SEB-mediated ARDS by suppressing inflammation and preventing dysbiosis, both in the lungs and the gut, through the induction of AMPs, tight junction proteins, and SCFAs that stabilize the gut-lung microbial axis driving immune homeostasis.

2021 ◽  
Thanh Nha Uyen Le ◽  
Toan Q Nguyen ◽  
Yen Thi Kim Nguyen ◽  
Clarissa Kai Hui Tan ◽  
Farhana Tukijan ◽  

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent lipid mediator that is secreted by several cell types to induce signaling. We recently showed that Mfsd2b is an S1P transporter from hematopoietic cells, which contributes approximately 50% plasma S1P. To further determine the sources of plasma S1P, here, we report the characterizations of compound deletions of Mfsd2b and Spns2, another S1P transporter from endothelial cells. Global deletion of Mfsd2b and Spns2 (gDKO) resulted in embryonic lethality between E13.5 and E14.5 with severe hemorrhage that largely recapitulated the phenotypes from global S1P1 knockout mice, indicating that together with Mfsd2b, Spns2 also provides embryonic source of S1P for S1P1 stimulation. The hemorrhagic phenotypes in gDKO embryos were accompanied by increased angiogenesis and defects of tight junction proteins, indicating that S1P from Mfsd2b and Spns2 is essential for blood vessel integrity and maturation. The various sources of S1P in postnatal stages are yet to be fully understood. Postnatal ablation of S1P synthesis enzymes using Mx1Cre shows that Mx1Cre-sensitive cells provide most of plasma S1P. Interestingly, we showed that compound postnatal deletion of Mfsd2b and Spns2 using Mx1Cre (ctDKO-Mx1Cre) resulted in maximal reduction of 80% plasma S1P. Thus, a small amount of plasma S1P is supplied from other sources independent of Mfsd2b and Spns2. Nevertheless, the vasculature in the lung of ctDKO-Mx1Cre mice was compromised. Furthermore, ctDKO-Mx1Cre mice also exhibited severe susceptibility to anaphylaxis, indicating that S1P from Mfsd2b and Spns2 is indispensable during vascular stress. Together, our results show that Mfsd2b and Spns2 provide a critical source of S1P for embryonic development and they also provide a majority of plasma S1P for vascular homeostasis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Emilija Brdarić ◽  
Svetlana Soković Bajić ◽  
Jelena Đokić ◽  
Slađana Đurđić ◽  
Patricia Ruas-Madiedo ◽  

Cadmium (Cd) ranks seventh on the list of most significant potential threats to human health based on its suspected toxicity and the possibility of exposure to it. It has been reported that some bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have the ability to bind heavy metal ions. We therefore investigated the capacity of eight EPS-producing lactobacilli to adsorb Cd in the present study, and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum BGAN8 was chosen as the best candidate. In addition, we demonstrate that an EPS derived from BGAN8 (EPS-AN8) exhibits a high Cd-binding capacity and prevents Cd-mediated toxicity in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Simultaneous use of EPS-AN8 with Cd treatment prevents inflammation, disruption of tight-junction proteins, and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that the EPS in question has a strong potential to be used as a postbiotic in combatting the adverse effects of Cd. Moreover, we show that higher concentrations of EPS-AN8 can alleviate Cd-induced cell damage.

Siwen Tang ◽  
Wentao Guo ◽  
Liumin Kang ◽  
Jinghua Liang

AbstractTight junction proteins play crucial roles in maintaining the integrity of intestinal mucosal barrier. MiRNA-182-5p is capable of targeting claudin-2 which is one of the vital tight junction proteins and the effect and mechanism of miRNA-182-5p was explored here in the DSS-induced colitis model. The pathological conditions were evaluated via hematoxylin and eosin staining. The gene expression level was assessed via PCR. Quantitative immunohistochemistry analysis was performed for the measurement of claudin-2. microRNA.org online tool was used for target gene prediction. Luciferase reporter assay and RNA pull-down assay were performed to detect the target of miRNA-182-5p. The inflammatory and oxidative stress level were measured using corresponding kits. MiRNA-182-5p was highly expressed in colitis model and miRNA-182-5p inhibitor exerted protective effects on colitis induced by DSS in mice. The protective effects includded improvement of pathological changes, increases in anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative genes, and up-regulation of TGF-β1. Claudin-2 mRNA was predicted as the target of miRNA-182-5p, which was validated via luciferase reporter assay and RNA pull-down assay. Claudin-2 overexpression was found in miRNA-182-5p inhibitor group. Consistent with the role of miRNA-182-5p, claudin-2 overexpression also exerted protective effects on DSS-induced colitis in mice. Inhibition of miRNA-182-5p exerted protective effects on colitis via targeting and upregulating claudin-2. The findings in study provide a new therapeutic strategy for colitis treatment and lay the foundation for future study.

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