Energy Crisis
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Neutron ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 105-111
Author(s):  
Farrukh Arif ◽  
Muhammad Wasay Uz Zaman ◽  
Rabia Khalid

All the social, economic and industrial development depends on the availability of energy. Since energy demand is increasing exponentially throughout the world, more and more CO2 is being emitted out into the atmosphere, giving rise to global warming. Therefore, establishing a sustainable environment is becoming increasingly important. It has been found through research that domestic sector contributes a great deal to the rising energy consumption. Due to prevailing energy crisis, efforts are being made to reduce the increasing energy consumption and make efficient use of energy by making the buildings energy efficient. For this, realistic assessment of energy use patterns in existing houses and buildings is necessary to assure dataset accuracy. Living lab concept integrated with sensor technologies can be used for assessment of such patterns.  This paper presents living lab concept for sensor-based energy performance assessment of Houses.  First, detailed literature review to benchmark concepts of energy efficiency of buildings, living labs concept, sensor based assessment, energy audit, and application of living lab concept has been discussed. Thereafter, sensors based living lab assessment and living lab approach has been introduced as being utilized by the author in a research project for development of guidelines for energy efficient housing. The paper also highlights important parameters to be monitored that effect energy performance. The concept reflects usefulness of living lab concept for sensor-based energy performance assessment of houses that help in substantial reduction in the energy consumption. As such data can be utilized for both realistic energy simulations by improving level of development of models as well as better usage comparisons with modeled analysis, hence helping in identifying true and effective improvement measures


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yangang Xue ◽  
Muhammad Mohsin ◽  
Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary ◽  
Nadeem Iqbal

This study evaluates the role of information in the environmental performance index (EPI) in different energy-consuming sectors in Pakistan through a novel slack-based data envelopment analysis (DEA). The index combines energy consumption as the primary input and gross domestic product (GDP) as the desirable output and CO2 emissions as the undesirable output. Yale’s EPI measures the efficiency of the sectoral level environmental performance of primary energy consumption in the country. Performance analysis was conducted from 2009 to 2018. The sectors were assigned scores between one and zero, with zero indicating maximum decision-making unit (DMU) inefficiency and one indicating maximum DMU efficiency. Despite being in the top-performing sector, agriculture scored only 0.51 in 2018, and the electricity sector obtained 0.412. Results also show that even the best-performing sector operates below the efficiency level. The mining and quarrying sector ranked second by obtaining 0.623 EPI and 0.035 SBEPI. Results also show that much of the energy supply of Pakistan (60.17%) is focused on fossil fuels, supplemented by hydropower (33%), while nuclear, wind, biogas, and solar power account for 5.15%, 0.47%, 0.32%, and 0.03%, respectively. Nonetheless, the overall results for both measures remained reasonably consistent. According to the literature and the energy crisis and climate instability dilemma, the authors conclude that changes to a diverse green power network are a possibility and an imminent need. Similarly, the government should penalize companies with poor performance. Furthermore, to ensure the capacity development and stability of environmental management and associated actions in the country, providing access to knowledge and training to groom human resources and achieve the highest performance is crucial.


Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Author(s):  
Gajanan Y. Shinde ◽  
Abhishek S. Mote ◽  
Manoj B. Gawande

Constantly increasing hydrocarbon fuel combustion along with high levels of carbon dioxide emissions has given rise to a global energy crisis and environmental alterations. Photocatalysis is an effective technique for addressing this energy and environmental crisis. Clean and renewable solar energy is a very favourable path for photocatalytic CO2 reduction to value-added products to tackle problems of energy and the environment. The synthesis of various products such as CH4, CH3OH, CO, EtOH, etc., has been expanded through the photocatalytic reduction of CO2. Among these products, methanol is one of the most important and highly versatile chemicals widely used in industry and in day-to-day life. This review emphasizes the recent progress of photocatalytic CO2 hydrogenation to CH3OH. In particular, Metal organic frameworks (MOFs), mixed-metal oxide, carbon, TiO2 and plasmonic-based nanomaterials are discussed for the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to methanol. Finally, a summary and perspectives on this emerging field are provided.


Significance Electricity companies wanted a near-38% rise amid soaring international market prices, but the ERC wanted to avoid a price shock. In November, the government declared an ‘energy crisis’ at the ERC’s request, thanks to reduced domestic electricity supply and the global market situation, and extended it in December for six months. Impacts Investment in infrastructure and technologies should contribute to economic growth and create jobs. Care will have to be taken that closing established mines and power plants do not depress economies locally and raise unemployment. Rising domestic utility prices will inflict political damage on a fragile government. Phasing out coal will improve air quality and population health and well-being, with knock-ons for healthcare priorities and spending.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhiwei Li ◽  
Yinghong Xu ◽  
Langyuan Wu ◽  
Yufeng An ◽  
Yao Sun ◽  
...  

AbstractConverting low-grade heat from environment into electricity shows great sustainability for mitigating the energy crisis and adjusting energy configurations. However, thermally rechargeable devices typically suffer from poor conversion efficiency when a semiconductor is employed. Breaking the convention of thermoelectric systems, we propose and demonstrate a new zinc ion thermal charging cell to generate electricity from low-grade heat via the thermo-extraction/insertion and thermodiffusion processes of insertion-type cathode (VO2-PC) and stripping/plating behaviour of Zn anode. Based on this strategy, an impressively high thermopower of ~12.5 mV K−1 and an excellent output power of 1.2 mW can be obtained. In addition, a high heat-to-current conversion efficiency of 0.95% (7.25% of Carnot efficiency) is achieved with a temperature difference of 45 K. This work, which demonstrates extraordinary energy conversion efficiency and adequate energy storage, will pave the way towards the construction of thermoelectric setups with attractive properties for high value-added utilization of low-grade heat.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 447
Author(s):  
Mahboobeh Shahsavari ◽  
Peyman Mohammadzadeh Jahani ◽  
Iran Sheikhshoaie ◽  
Somayeh Tajik ◽  
Abbas Aghaei Afshar ◽  
...  

Metal organic frameworks (MOF) are a class of hybrid networks of supramolecular solid materials comprising a large number of inorganic and organic linkers, all bound to metal ions in a well-organized fashion. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a sub-group of MOFs with imidazole as an organic linker to metals; it is rich in carbon, nitrogen, and transition metals. ZIFs combine the classical zeolite characteristics of thermal and chemical stability with pore-size tunability and the rich topological diversity of MOFs. Due to the energy crisis and the existence of organic solvents that lead to environmental hazards, considerable research efforts have been devoted to devising clean and sustainable synthesis routes for ZIFs to reduce the environmental impact of their preparation. Green chemistry is the key to sustainable development, as it will lead to new solutions to existing problems. Moreover, it will present opportunities for new processes and products and, at its heart, is scientific and technological innovation. The green chemistry approach seeks to redesign the materials that make up the basis of our society and our economy, including the materials that generate, store, and transport our energy, in ways that are benign for humans and the environment and that possess intrinsic sustainability. This study covers the principles of green chemistry as used in designing strategies for synthesizing greener, less toxic ZIFs the consume less energy to produce. First, the necessity of green methods in today’s society, their replacement of the usual non-green methods and their benefits are discussed; then, various methods for the green synthesis of ZIF compounds, such as hydrothermally, ionothermally, and by the electrospray technique, are considered. These methods use the least harmful and toxic substances, especially concerning organic solvents, and are also more economical. When a compound is synthesized by a green method, a question arises as to whether these compounds can replace the same compounds as synthesized by non-green methods. For example, is the thermal stability of these compounds (which is one of the most important features of ZIFs) preserved? Therefore, after studying the methods of identifying these compounds, in the last part, there is an in-depth discussion on the various applications of these green-synthesized compounds.


Author(s):  
Muhammad Muddasar

The world is facing a serious energy crisis and environmental pollution problems due to a sharp increase in the world population. Bioenergy is an eminent solution to these problems. Anaerobic digestion is a green energy technology used worldwide for the conversion of organic waste to biogas. It is reported that organic wastes are hard to digest and need some technical improvement in the anaerobic digestion process to improve biogas yield. Iron-based additives, due to their electron acceptance and donation capabilities, have been emphasized as being exceptional in improving anaerobic digestion process efficiency amongst all other enhancement options. This study reviews the major available types of iron-based additives, their characteristics, and their preparation methods. The preferred iron-based additive that has a significant effect on the enhancement of biogas yield is also discussed. The use of iron-based additives in the anaerobic digestion process with varying dosages and their impact on the biogas generation rate is also being studied. Substrates, operating parameters, and types of anaerobic digesters used in recent studies while researching the effects of iron-based additives are also part of this review. Lastly, this study also confirms that iron-based additives have a significant effect on the reduction rate of the volatile suspended solids, methane content, biogas yield, and volatile fatty acids.


Nanoscale ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Meiqiu Xie ◽  
Xuhai Liu ◽  
Yang Li ◽  
Xing'ao Li

The past several years have witnessed remarkable research efforts to develop high-performance photovoltaics (PVs), to curtail energy crisis by avoiding dependence on traditional fossil fuels. In this regard, it is...


Author(s):  
Zeyu Du ◽  
Yingnan Xue ◽  
Xiaomei Liu ◽  
Ningfang Li ◽  
Jilei Wang ◽  
...  

The photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to chemical fuels is attractive for addressing both greenhouse effect and energy crisis, but the key challenge is the design and synthesis of photocatalyst with...


Author(s):  
Jiaming Wu ◽  
Keyan Li ◽  
Jiahui Li ◽  
Jun Du ◽  
Xiangyang Li ◽  
...  

The conversion of CO2 to chemicals and fuels by photocatalysis provides a promising strategy to solve both energy crisis and environmental impacts, for which the development of high-activity photocatalysts is...


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