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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yujian Huang ◽  
Changbing Zheng ◽  
Bo Song ◽  
Li Wang ◽  
Hao Xiao ◽  

Deoxynivalenol (DON) reduces growth performance and damage intestinal function, and resveratrol (RES) has positive effects on growth performance and intestinal function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of RES in vitro and vivo challenged with DON. The results showed that dietary supplementation with DON significantly increase the mRNA expression levels of mitophagy- related genes, and protein level for PINK1, Parkin, Beclin-1, Lamp, Atg5, Map1lc, Bnip3, Fundc1, Bcl2l1 and SQSTMS1 (P < 0.05), while supplementation with both RES and DON decreased those indexes in the ileum. Besides DON significantly decreased protein level for Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, Cytochrome c, MFN1, OPA1, and PHB1 (P < 0.05), while supplementation with both RES and DON increased protein level for PHB1, SDHA, and VDAC in the ileum. Moreover, in vitro, we found that DON significantly decreased mitochondrial respiration (P < 0.05), while RES + DON increased the rate of spare respiratory capacity. Also, DON significantly decreased total NAD and ATP (P < 0.05), while RES + DON increased the total NAD and ATP. These results indicate that RES may ameliorates the intestinal damage challenged with deoxynivalenol through mitophagy in weaning piglets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Kateryna Kukil ◽  
Pia Lindberg

Abstract Background Phenylpropanoids represent a diverse class of industrially important secondary metabolites, synthesized in plants from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Cyanobacteria have a great potential for sustainable production of phenylpropanoids directly from CO2, due to their photosynthetic lifestyle with a fast growth compared to plants and the ease of generating genetically engineered strains. This study focuses on photosynthetic production of the starting compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway, trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis). Results A selected set of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzymes from different organisms was overexpressed in Synechocystis, and the productivities of the resulting strains compared. To further improve the titer of target compounds, we evaluated the use of stronger expression cassettes for increasing PAL protein levels, as well as knock-out of the laccase gene slr1573, as this was previously reported to prevent degradation of the target compounds in the cell. Finally, to investigate the effect of growth conditions on the production of trans-cinnamic and p-coumaric acids from Synechocystis, cultivation conditions promoting rapid, high density growth were tested. Comparing the different PALs, the highest specific titer was achieved for the strain AtC, expressing PAL from Arabidopsis thaliana. A subsequent increase of protein level did not improve the productivity. Production of target compounds in strains where the slr1573 laccase had been knocked out was found to be lower compared to strains with wild type background, and the Δslr1573 strains exhibited a strong phenotype of slower growth rate and lower pigment content. Application of a high-density cultivation system for the growth of production strains allowed reaching the highest total titers of trans-cinnamic and p-coumaric acids reported so far, at around 0.8 and 0.4 g L−1, respectively, after 4 days. Conclusions Production of trans-cinnamic acid, unlike that of p-coumaric acid, is not limited by the protein level of heterologously expressed PAL in Synechocystis. High density cultivation led to higher titres of both products, while knocking out slr1573 did not have a positive effect on production. This work contributes to capability of exploiting the primary metabolism of cyanobacteria for sustainable production of plant phenylpropanoids.

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012018
Dzarnisa ◽  
A Ramaya

Abstract This study aims to determine the effect of giving a combination of the ark with ammoniated citronella grass waste on the levels of protein, fat, lactose and density of lactated Etawah crossbreed goat milk. The design used in this study was a randomized block design (RBD) consisting of 5 treatments and 3 groups. The treatment consisted of P1 (0% ark: 8% ammoniated citronella grass waste), P2 (2% ark: 6% ammoniated citronella grass waste), P3 4% ark: 4% ammoniated citronella grass waste), P4 (6% ark: 2% citronella ammonia grass waste) and P5 (8% ark: 0% ammoniated citronella grass waste). The data obtained were analysed statistically using Microsoft Excel software. Based on the results of the research, giving the combination of the ark with ammoniated citronella grass waste shows no significant effect (P> 0.05) on the quality of milk which includes density, lactose level, protein level and fat level in Etawah crossbreed goat (PE) milk. However, the quality test results showed an increasing trend when compared with the quality of PE goat’s milk without treatment The results of the data for each of the PE goat’s milk quality before given the feed treatment were 1.027; 3.34%; 3.42% and 6.40% for the density, lactose level, protein level and fat level. Meanwhile the results of the data for each of the PE goat milk quality after given the feed treatment got the best results, namely 1.030; 3.66%; 3.78% and 6.55% for the density, lactose level, protein level and fat level.

2022 ◽  
Vol 335 ◽  
pp. 00027
Hartutik ◽  
Marjuki ◽  
Asri Nurul Huda ◽  
Roi Katul Jannah

The purpose of this research was to determine of ideal ration of energy and protein in complete feed used elephant grass and maize stover silage. The materials were use elephant grass, maize stover silage with 10% molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum 1x106 CFU/g and concentrates. The method used experimental laboratory, the data of nutrient and TDN content using descriptive analysis. In vitro degradation value was analysed by Analysis of Variance from a factorial randomized block design and followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The complete feed was use 12.5% elephant grass + 37.5% maize stover silage + 50% concentrates with consist of energy level (E1 =12.5, E2 =13.5, E3 =14.5 MJ/kg DM) and protein level (P1 =10.5, P2= 13.5, P3= 16.5%). The results showed that in vitro DM and OM degradation respectively energy or protein level showed has significantly (P<0.01), while the interaction did not significant (P>0.05). The best treatment is E3P3 with energy 14.5 MJ/kg and protein 16.5% on nutrient content DM 92,51%., OM 90,33%., CP 16.57%, CF 19.29%, EE 1.77%, NFE 53.70%, TDN content 67.14%, In vitro DM degradation 66.14 % and in vitro OM degradation 70.01%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 30-33
Aishatu Muhammad Bello ◽  
Ramlatu Musa Adam ◽  
Fatima Umar Maigari ◽  
Idi Jalil James ◽  
Abubakar Aisami

The study aimed to determine the effect of a high dosage of codeine-containing cough syrup administration on some biochemical parameters of the liver in albino rats. Codeine at 80 mg/kg/day, 160 mg/kg/day, 240 mg/kg/day, 320 mg/kg/day cough syrup were administered orally to albino rats for 21 days, biochemical parameters were analyzed for the activities of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bilirubin, Total protein and Albumin. Results obtained revealed that a high dosage of codeine administration significantly increased plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and albumin while it reduced total protein level when compared with the control rats. The study confirmed the risk of increased hepatotoxicity due to a high dosage of codeine administration. Although codeine is reported to be effective in pain management, its toxicity should be kept in mind.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 92
Maria Ganopoulou ◽  
Michail Michailidis ◽  
Lefteris Angelis ◽  
Ioannis Ganopoulos ◽  
Athanassios Molassiotis ◽  

Genome-wide transcriptome analysis is a method that produces important data on plant biology at a systemic level. The lack of understanding of the relationships between proteins and genes in plants necessitates a further thorough analysis at the proteogenomic level. Recently, our group generated a quantitative proteogenomic atlas of 15 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. ‘Tragana Edessis’ tissues represented by 29,247 genes and 7584 proteins. The aim of the current study was to perform a targeted analysis at the gene/protein level to assess the structure of their relation, and the biological implications. Weighted correlation network analysis and causal modeling were employed to, respectively, cluster the gene/protein pairs, and reveal their cause–effect relations, aiming to assess the associated biological functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that causal modeling has been employed within the proteogenomics concept in plants. The analysis revealed the complex nature of causal relations among genes/proteins that are important for traits of interest in perennial fruit trees, particularly regarding the fruit softening and ripening process in sweet cherry. Causal discovery could be used to highlight persistent relations at the gene/protein level, stimulating biological interpretation and facilitating further study of the proteogenomic atlas in plants.

2021 ◽  
Mei-Qin Zhuo ◽  
Jun Chen ◽  
Mei-Li Wu ◽  
Wen-biao Wang

Abstract In this study, the transcriptional regulation of PI3KC3 by three transcript factors (PPARγ, PPARα and STAT3) and the potential role of PI3KC3 in mediating lipid accumulation were determined in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The 5’-deletion assay, overexpression assay, site-mutation assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay suggested that PPARα, PPARγ and STAT3 negatively regulated the promoter activity of pi3kc3. Moreover, the transcriptional inactivation of pi3kc3 was directly mediated by PPARα and PPARγ under fatty acid (FA) treatment. Using primary hepatocytes from yellow catfish, FA incubation significantly increased triacylglyceride (TG), NEFA content, the mRNA level of pparα, pparγ, stat3 and dnmt3b, the protein level of PPARα, PPARγ and STAT3, and the methylation level of pi3kc3, but significantly reduced the mRNA and protein level of PI3KC3. Our findings offer new insights into the mechanisms for transcriptional regulation of PI3KC3 and for PI3KC3-mediated lipid accumulation in fish.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12456
Wanderson Marques da Silva ◽  
Nubia Seyffert ◽  
Artur Silva ◽  
Vasco Azevedo

Background Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen and the etiologic agent of illnesses like caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants, mastitis in dairy cattle, ulcerative lymphangitis in equines, and oedematous skin disease in buffalos. With the growing advance in high-throughput technologies, genomic studies have been carried out to explore the molecular basis of its virulence and pathogenicity. However, data large-scale functional genomics studies are necessary to complement genomics data and better understating the molecular basis of a given organism. Here we summarize, MS-based proteomics techniques and bioinformatics tools incorporated in genomic functional studies of C. pseudotuberculosis to discover the different patterns of protein modulation under distinct environmental conditions, and antigenic and drugs targets. Methodology In this study we performed an extensive search in Web of Science of original and relevant articles related to methods, strategy, technology, approaches, and bioinformatics tools focused on the functional study of the genome of C. pseudotuberculosis at the protein level. Results Here, we highlight the use of proteomics for understating several aspects of the physiology and pathogenesis of C. pseudotuberculosis at the protein level. The implementation and use of protocols, strategies, and proteomics approach to characterize the different subcellular fractions of the proteome of this pathogen. In addition, we have discussed the immunoproteomics, immunoinformatics and genetic tools employed to identify targets for immunoassays, drugs, and vaccines against C. pseudotuberculosis infection. Conclusion In this review, we showed that the combination of proteomics and bioinformatics studies is a suitable strategy to elucidate the functional aspects of the C. pseudotuberculosis genome. Together, all information generated from these proteomics studies allowed expanding our knowledge about factors related to the pathophysiology of this pathogen.

2021 ◽  
Marie-Luise Herrlein ◽  
Paul Schmanke ◽  
Fabian Elgner ◽  
Catarina Sabino ◽  
Sami Akhras ◽  

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitos and normally causes mild symptoms. During the outbreak in the Americas in 2015, it was associated with more severe implications, like microcephaly in new-borns and the Gullain-Barré syndrome. The lack of specific vaccines and cures strengthen the need for a deeper understanding of the virus life cycle and virus-host interactions. The restriction factor tetherin (THN) is an interferon-inducible cellular protein with broad antiviral properties. It is known to inhibit the release of various enveloped viruses by tethering them to each other and to the cell membrane, thereby preventing their further spread. On the other hand, different viruses have developed various escape strategies against THN. Analysis of the crosstalk between ZIKV and THN revealed that in spite of a strong induction of THN mRNA expression in ZIKV-infected cells, this is not reflected by an elevated protein level of THN. Contrariwise, the THN protein level is decreased due to a reduced half-life. The increased degradation of THN in ZIKV infected cells involves the endo-lysosomal system, but does not depend on the early steps of autophagy. Enrichment of THN by depletion of the ESCRT-0 protein HRS diminishes ZIKV release and spread, which points out the capacity of THN to restrict ZIKV and explains the enhanced THN degradation in infected cells as an effective viral escape strategy. Importance Although tetherin expression is strongly induced by ZIKV infection there is a reduction in the amount of tetherin protein. This is due to an enhanced lysosomal degradation. However, if tetherin level is rescued release of ZIKV is impaired. This shows that tetherin is a restriction factor for ZIKV and the induction of an efficient degradation represents a viral escape strategy. To our knowledge this is the first study that describes and characterizes tetherin as an restriction factor for ZIKV life cycle.

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