Multiple Injection
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 566
Kyeoung-Hwa Kim ◽  
Kyung-Ah Lee

Aging is a degenerative process involving cell function deterioration, leading to altered metabolic pathways, increased metabolite diversity, and dysregulated metabolism. Previously, we reported that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPD-MSCs) have therapeutic effects on ovarian aging. This study aimed to identify hPD-MSC therapy-induced responses at the metabolite and protein levels and serum biomarker(s) of aging and/or rejuvenation. We observed weight loss after hPD-MSC therapy. Importantly, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), known prolongs healthy life spans, were markedly elevated in serum. Capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF/MS) analysis identified 176 metabolites, among which the levels of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, glycocholic acid, and taurine, which are associated with health and longevity, were enhanced after hPD-MSC stimulation. Furthermore, after hPD-MSC therapy, the levels of vitamin B6 and its metabolite pyridoxal 5′-phosphate were markedly increased in the serum and liver, respectively. Interestingly, hPD-MSC therapy promoted serotonin production due to increased vitamin B6 metabolism rates. Increased liver serotonin levels after multiple-injection therapy altered the expression of mRNAs and proteins associated with hepatocyte proliferation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Changes in metabolites in circulation after hPD-MSC therapy can be used to identify biomarker(s) of aging and/or rejuvenation. In addition, serotonin is a valuable therapeutic target for reversing aging-associated liver degeneration.

Ulrik H. U. Holm ◽  
Christian H. S. Andersen ◽  
Christian K. Hansen ◽  
Katrine Tanggaard ◽  
Jens Børglum ◽  

Prashant Unnikrishnan Nair

In real-world water injection applications, an in-line injection facilitates a pressure differential that boosts the current flow. A pressure differential created by the injection of a pressurized flow into the mainline of flow is derived from the momentum transfer equation. Heat loss is disregarded, and such empirical equations provide a ballpark value to these pressure differentials during the injection. In industrial applications, injection of the fluid is done on the surface, due to weld and other constraints where losses due to friction and eddy current formation are imminent. On the other hand, penetration injection provides a far more augmented pressure differential that has a polynomial impact based on the mainline flow rate and the injection flow rate. This paper aims to derive an accurate representation of the pressure differential values obtained from a penetration injection through experimentation and compare it against a surface injection or empirical calculation. The paper concludes by indicating that the penetration injection augments the pressure differential with a new empirical formula for the derived pressure differential as a polynomial equation for this apparatus and can be extended across different sizes of the mainline and injection line diameters. This work provides a precise formula that can be used to derive pressure differential and estimate the flow and pressure rates. The formula also provides a platform for further utility in the fracturing operations where fracture flow from the well upstream presents multiple injection fractures to the mainline through fracture pores.

Toxins ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 887
Jörg Wissel ◽  
Alexandre Camões-Barbosa ◽  
Georg Comes ◽  
Michael Althaus ◽  
Astrid Scheschonka ◽  

Some studies have shown that incobotulinumtoxinA reduces spasticity-associated pain, but further evidence is needed. This exploratory analysis pooled pain-relief data from six Phase 2 or 3 studies of incobotulinumtoxinA (four placebo-controlled studies) for treating upper limb spasticity in adults. Spasticity-associated pain was assessed at baseline and 4 weeks post incobotulinumtoxinA injection using the disability assessment scale (DAS) for pain. Only data for patients with pain at baseline were analysed. Overall, 544 (incobotulinumtoxinA, N = 415; placebo, N = 129) of 937 patients (58.1%) experienced pain at baseline. At Week 4, a significantly greater proportion of incobotulinumtoxinA- (52.1%) than placebo-treated patients (28.7%; Chi-square p < 0.0001) showed a response (≥1-point improvement in DAS pain score). In logistic regression analysis, incobotulinumtoxinA-treated patients were 2.6 times more likely to achieve this endpoint than placebo-treated patients. A significant difference between incobotulinumtoxinA and placebo was observed regardless of baseline pain severity. Additionally, 27.1% of incobotulinumtoxinA- versus 12.4% of placebo-treated patients reported complete pain relief at Week 4 (p = 0.0006). Pain relief increased with multiple injection cycles. To achieve patient-centred care, pain relief may be considered a treatment goal in adults with spasticity-associated pain regardless of pain severity. This study contributes to understanding the benefits of incobotulinumtoxinA in treating limb spasticity-associated pain.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3522
Terry M. Norton ◽  
Tonya Clauss ◽  
Rachel Overmeyer ◽  
Stephanie Stowell ◽  
Michelle Kaylor ◽  

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of multiple injections of meloxicam (MLX) administered subcutaneously (SQ) in Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtles. Based on results from a previously published single-injection study, a multiple-injection regimen was derived for the Kemp’s ridleys, which consisted of administering MLX at a dose of 1 mg/kg SQ every 12 h for 5 days, and for green turtles at a dose of 1 mg/kg SQ every 48 h for three treatments. Six turtles of each species were used for the study, and blood samples were taken at multiple time intervals. The terminal half-life after the last dose for the Kemp’s ridley sea turtles was calculated at 7.18 h, and for the green sea turtles at 23.71 h. Throughout the multiple injections, MLX concentrations remained above 0.57 µg/mL, a concentration targeted in humans for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. No negative side effects or changes to blood parameters evaluated were observed during the study in either species. The results of this study suggest MLX should be administered SQ to Kemp’s ridley sea turtles at a dosage of 1 mg/kg every 12 h and in green sea turtles at a dose of 1 mg/kg every 48 h. The novelty of this work is that it is a multiple-injection study. Multiple injections were administered and produced concentrations that were considered therapeutic in humans, and the turtles did not have any adverse side effects. Furthermore, there were large differences in the pharmacokinetic values between green and Kemp’s ridley sea turtles.

Emmanuel Effah-Yeboah ◽  
Emmanuel Dartey ◽  
Emmanuel Agyapong Asare ◽  
Janice Dwomoh Abraham ◽  
James K. Kagya-Agyemang ◽  

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus or diabetes is a metabolic ailment which occurs as a result of insulin insufficiency or defect in insulin function, or both that leads to ihyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide disease even though its prevalence in other countries vary. Kalanchoe crenata belongs to the family crassulaceae. It is also known locally as miracle plant and often utilized in Africa for medicinal purposes. The study was designed to ascertain the antidiabetic and dyslipidemic activity and effects of the ethanolic extract of both leaves and stem of Kalanchoe crenata on istreptozotocin incite diabetic rats for three (3) weeks. Methodology: 6-8 weeks old Sprague dawley rats received multiple injection of streptozotocin intraperitoneally (40mg/kg body weight) to induce diabetes melitus. Diabetes mellitus was observed and confirmed after six days of induction. The rats were given ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe crenata remarkably (10, 30 and 100mg/kg) and 5mg/kg glibenclamide orally twice daily for three weeks. Blood glucose, lipids, creatinine, urea, were then determined. Results: After week three of treatment 5mg/kg glibenclamide, 30 and 100mg/kg ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe crenata remarkably (p<0.05) decrease glycemia and improved lipidemia by decreasing overall cholesterol, LDL-C and increasing HDL-C likened to the control diabetic group. Also results from treated rats remarkably decrease blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. However, the affirmative control and the sampled treated groups showed curative and regenerative effect in the cells responsible for producing endocrine insulin “beta cells of the islets of Langerhans” located in the pancreas. Kidney and liver tissue sections of treatment groups showed a reversal of diseased insults made by the streptozotocin. Conclusion: The outcome of the research indicate that given ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe crenata remarkably contains the necessary phytochemicals for the development of a standard and effective herbal medicine for Diabetes mellitus and related complications and also with no toxic effects on the tissues of the liver, pancreas and kidney.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2-3) ◽  
pp. 113-123
Wen Hua ◽  
Zhang Xin-yu ◽  
Jiang Yu-long ◽  
Zhao Ling-yao

The fuel flow pattern in the fuel injection nozzle of diesel engine is a complex and changeable phenomenon, which is easily affected by various factors, bringing the differences of flow patterns between multiple injection cycles. To solve the above problem, a visual experimental platform of fuel injection nozzle was built, in which the 100 injection cycles of diesel engine on the same working condition were photographed via shadowgraphy to study the difference in fuel flow pattern in the nozzle by ensemble average processing method. The cyclic variation rate K of fuel flow pattern is defined. Results demonstrate that the fuel flow pattern tends to be the same in multiple fuel injection cycles, but there is a strong randomness at the starting of injection and after ending of injection; the K can be reduced by decreasing the injection pressure and the inclination angle of orifice, so that the fuel flow pattern in the nozzle tends to be consistent.

Xiyu Yang ◽  
Quan Dong ◽  
Jingdong Song ◽  
Tanqing Zhou

Abstract As a state-of-the-art injection technology, high-pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) has advantages including high injection pressure, adjustable injection timing and flexible injection rate. Nevertheless, the fluctuation of cyclic fuel injection mass (CFIM) in HPCRIS with multiple-injection strategy (MIS) reduces the economy of diesel engine and the stability of vibration and noise control. To realize the precise control of CFIM, the online perception of injection process is the premise. This paper presents an innovative online measurement method of injection rate on MIS. According to the evolution characteristics of water hammer pressure oscillation in the fuel system, the rule is found that the oscillation form of the water hammer is depended on the structure of HPCRIS rather than the injection condition, and the general applicability of this rule is proved by the hydraulic-electric analog method. Base on this, the real-time simulation method of the pilot water hammer oscillation wave in the same field is proposed to realize the extraction of the expansion pressure signal components of the main injection. Then the direct mathematical relationship between pressure signal and fuel injection rate is established, and the online measurement of fuel injection characteristics under MIS is realized. To improve the robustness of the algorithm a real-time calibration method of fuel sound velocity is proposed. Finally, by comparing with the offline experiment, this online measurement method of injection rate has relatively high accuracy, the CFIM error is less than 2%, and the fitting goodness of the injection rate curve exceeded 0.91. This measurement method can provide direct feedback to the electronic control unit (ECU) on the fuel injection process without changing the HPCRIS structure.

Talanta ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 237 ◽  
pp. 122945
Maria Patrícia do Nascimento ◽  
Rafael Marques ◽  
Mathias Prado Pereira ◽  
Rafaela de Souza Martins ◽  
Fernanda Irene Bombonato ◽  

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6821
Ju-Hwan Seol ◽  
Van Chien Pham ◽  
Won-Ju Lee

This paper presents research on the effects of the multiple injection strategies on the combustion and emission characteristics of a two-stroke heavy-duty marine engine at full load. The ANSYS FLUENT simulation software was used to conduct three-dimensional simulations of the combustion process and emission formations inside the engine cylinder in both single- and double-injection modes to analyze the in-cylinder pressure, temperature, and emission characteristics. The simulation results were then compared and showed good agreement with the measured values reported in the engine’s sea-trial technical reports. The simulation results showed reductions in the in-cylinder pressure and temperature peaks by 6.42% and 12.76%, while NO and soot emissions were reduced up to 24.16% and 68%, respectively, in the double-injection mode in comparison with the single-injection mode. However, the double-injection strategy increased the CO2 emission (7.58%) and ISFOC (23.55%) compared to the single-injection. These are negative effects of the double-injection strategy on the engine that the operators need to take into consideration. The results were in line with the literature reviews and would be good material for operators who want to reduce the engine exhaust gas emission in order to meet the stricter IMO emission regulations.

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