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2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 110-132
Author(s):  
Corina-Florina TĂTAR ◽  
◽  
Ribana LINC ◽  
Marius I. STUPARIU ◽  
Marcu Simion STAȘAC ◽  
...  

Metropolitan regions/areas are NUTS 3 regions or a combination of NUTS 3 regions which represent all agglomerations of at least 250,000 inhabitants (Eurostat, 2021). Oradea Metropolitan Area (NUTS3ID RO111) was established in 9th of May 2005 and has a total number of 251.570 inhabitants. The purpose of the association is to stimulate and support the growth and prosperity of the area, focused on the continuous increase of the quality of life. Besides the economic boost, OMA emerged from the need for space and leisure expressed by the core urbanites and although the periurban area is teeming with valuable cultural resources, the latter being the focus of the current study, they are little known by many of the Oradea residents. In this purpose the cultural attractions of the rural OMA were inventoried, analysed and stored in an online open-access database so that tourists can enjoy them and entrepreneurs in tourism can use them as focal points for further tourist infrastructure development. The analysis highlighted the OMA periurban area with the highest cultural attractions’ potential based on the National Methodology regarding the evaluation of the tourist potential in the basic administrative-territorial units.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Thilona Arumugam ◽  
Upasana Ramphal ◽  
Theolan Adimulam ◽  
Romona Chinniah ◽  
Veron Ramsuran

With approximately 38 million people living with HIV/AIDS globally, and a further 1.5 million new global infections per year, it is imperative that we advance our understanding of all factors contributing to HIV infection. While most studies have focused on the influence of host genetic factors on HIV pathogenesis, epigenetic factors are gaining attention. Epigenetics involves alterations in gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism that influences both viral and host factors. This review has five focal points, which examines (i) fluctuations in the expression of methylation modifying factors upon HIV infection (ii) the effect of DNA methylation on HIV viral genes and (iii) host genome (iv) inferences from other infectious and non-communicable diseases, we provide a list of HIV-associated host genes that are regulated by methylation in other disease models (v) the potential of DNA methylation as an epi-therapeutic strategy and biomarker. DNA methylation has also been shown to serve as a robust therapeutic strategy and precision medicine biomarker against diseases such as cancer and autoimmune conditions. Despite new drugs being discovered for HIV, drug resistance is a problem in high disease burden settings such as Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, genetic therapies that are under investigation are irreversible and may have off target effects. Alternative therapies that are nongenetic are essential. In this review, we discuss the potential role of DNA methylation as a novel therapeutic intervention against HIV.


Author(s):  
Leanna Lucero

Heteronormativity, gender bias, and whitewashed notions of education threaten queer identities in K–12 educational spaces, specifically queer women educators of color seeking leadership roles within the public school system. The understanding of race, gender, and sexuality in K–12 education spaces are each worthwhile as focal points of educational research. However, the intersection between race, gender, and sexuality requires consideration. Prior scholarly research focuses on educators of color, female educators, and LGBTQ+ educators, not on the intersection of these identities. The lived experiences of educators who identify as queer women of color lack attention. Hence, this autoethnography focuses on the maze of challenges and opportunities I experienced while navigating elementary educational spaces in a US Texas/Mexico borderland city as a queer Latinx woman of color. I accomplish this by reflecting upon, and analyzing, my (re)memberings and previous experiences in my journey from K–8 teacher to K–8 administrator. Finally, I provide recommendations to inform both scholars and practitioners.


Author(s):  
Jocelyn J. Herstein ◽  
Timo Wolf ◽  
Emanuele Nicastri ◽  
Yee Sin Leo ◽  
Poh Lian Lim ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective: To assess experience, physical infrastructure, and capabilities of high-level isolation units (HLIUs) planning to participate in a 2018 global HLIU workshop hosted by the US National Emerging Special Pathogens Training and Education Center (NETEC). Design: An electronic survey elicited information on general HLIU organization, operating costs, staffing models, and infection control protocols of select global units. Setting and participants: The survey was distributed to site representatives of 22 HLIUs located in the United States, Europe, and Asia; 19 (86%) responded. Methods: Data were coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The mean annual reported budget for the 19 responding units was US$484,615. Most (89%) had treated a suspected or confirmed case of a high-consequence infectious disease. Reported composition of trained teams included a broad range of clinical and nonclinical roles. The mean number of HLIU beds was 6.37 (median, 4; range, 2–20) for adults and 4.23 (median, 2; range, 1–10) for children; however, capacity was dependent on pathogen. Conclusions: Responding HLIUs represent some of the most experienced HLIUs in the world. Variation in reported unit infrastructure, capabilities, and procedures demonstrate the variety of HLIU approaches. A number of technical questions unique to HLIUs remain unanswered related to physical design, infection prevention and control procedures, and staffing and training. These key areas represent potential focal points for future evidence and practice guidelines. These data are important considerations for hospitals considering the design and development of HLIUs, and there is a need for continued global HLIU collaboration to define best practices.


Author(s):  
Mahina Reki ◽  
Semra Arslan Selçuk

Façades or building envelopes have always been the interface between the building and the environment. The effective and smart façades that are designed to adapt the environmental conditions date back to when windows and ventilators were designed carefully in response to the site conditions. Over recent decades, the emphasis on energy consumption and its reduction has increased drastically, as technology has evolved and increasingly new materials are used in buildings than ever. Due to the numerous significant roles that a facade plays, thermal comfort, aesthetics, acoustics and lighting, high-performance building facades have become one of the main focal points for researchers and designers. This study is based on the intersection of two main subjects of interest, the significance of jali/screens, as ornate architectural elements along with their functional importance and the integration of this knowledge with parametric design methods to achieve new design solutions in façade design. The study then demonstrates the kinetic façade concept through a jali. Two design exercises have been carried out and their kinetic systems explored, with the potential of a simple geometric design used as a module to generate the skin and its kinetic response. The investigations from this research open a gateway for further explorations in jali design, using parametric tools to develop kinetic responsive skins.


Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1324
Author(s):  
Anastasia Vythoulka ◽  
Ekaterini T. Delegou ◽  
Costas Caradimas ◽  
Antonia Moropoulou

Preserving and highlighting cultural heritage is directly related to sustainable development. The adaptive reuse of cultural heritage buildings and traditional settlements can be a core issue in the implementation of a circular economy strategy, especially in remote areas. In this framework, the current study focuses on Kythera, an isolated Greek island. For the analysis of the study area, research in local archives and communication with the municipality and local stakeholders was conducted, while questionnaires addressed to Kythera’s residents and visitors were developed and processed. Thus, both the special features of the island and the needs of the local community were identified, leading to the proposal of three adaptive reuse schemes at a different scale and within a different management model. The first scheme is focused on the institution of “Eghorios Periousia” and proposes the adaptive reuse of the island’s English Schools as focal points for the promotion of Kythera’s identity. The second scheme focuses on the smaller declared traditional settlements and proposes the adaptive reuse of their housing stock as an affordable permanent residence solution. The third scheme focuses on the abandoned neighborhood of Mavrogiorgiannika in the traditional settlement of Karavas and proposes its adaptive reuse as agritourism accommodation facilities.


Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 7908
Author(s):  
Dor Mizrahi ◽  
Inon Zuckerman ◽  
Ilan Laufer

Tacit coordination games are games in which communication between the players is not allowed or not possible. In these games, the more salient solutions, that are often perceived as more prominent, are referred to as focal points. The level-k model states that players’ decisions in tacit coordination games are a consequence of applying different decision rules at different depths of reasoning (level-k). A player at Lk=0 will randomly pick a solution, whereas a Lk≥1 player will apply their strategy based on their beliefs regarding the actions of the other players. The goal of this study was to examine, for the first time, the neural correlates of different reasoning levels in tacit coordination games. To that end, we have designed a combined behavioral-electrophysiological study with 3 different conditions, each resembling a different depth reasoning state: (1) resting state, (2) picking, and (3) coordination. By utilizing transfer learning and deep learning, we were able to achieve a precision of almost 100% (99.49%) for the resting-state condition, while for the picking and coordination conditions, the precision was 69.53% and 72.44%, respectively. The application of these findings and related future research options are discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 707-724
Author(s):  
Jannis Androutsopoulos

Abstract This Special Issue on “Polymedia in interaction” theorizes and empirically investigates practices and ideologies of digitally mediated interaction under conditions of polymedia. We argue that the proliferation of mobile interpersonal communication in the 2010s calls for, and is reflected in, conceptual and methodological shifts in empirical research on digital language and communication in pragmatics and sociocultural linguistics. In this introduction, these shifts are crystallized in five interrelated themes: (1) a turn from ‘computer-mediated communication’ to ‘digitally mediated interaction’ as a bracket category; (2) a move beyond the on/offline divide and focus on the integration of mediated interaction in everyday communication on micro-units of social structure (e.g. transnational families, business or academic communication); (3) an empirical downscaling towards private and small-scale public data; publicness; (4) a shift from the study of single modes of digital communication to polymedia; and (5) a focus on semiotic repertoires and registers of digital mediation. Research that orients to (some or all of) these focal points is compared with other trends in digital language research, including computational methods. The papers in this issue flesh out these five dimensions with findings from qualitative research, based on multi-sited linguistic and digital ethnographies in various sociolinguistic settings.


Aviation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 220-231
Author(s):  
Sena Kiliç ◽  
Caglar Ucler ◽  
Luis Martin-Domingo

Airports operate in a highly-competitive and challenging environment. Therefore, in order to remain competitive, innovation is imperative for airports. This paper aims to conduct academic research into innovation at airports by reviewing studies published from 2000 to 2019 for presenting key findings. A systematic literature review was made based on scientific papers indexed in Scopus with the keywords innovation and airport in the title, abstract or keywords sections, consolidating the innovation focus, approach and degree discussed with respect to innovation areas and territorial focal points. Consequently, it was found that research on airport innovation is: (i) mainly focused on products/services, (ii) concerned with leveraging ICT (Informatıon Communication Technology), (iii) implemented ad-hoc without a consolidated strategic approach, and (iv) lacks the input of external innovation scholars and specialists.


Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1542
Author(s):  
Natalia V. Efimova ◽  
Viktor S. Rukavishnikov

Climate change has increased the prevalence of wildfires, resulting in longer fire seasons and larger geographic area burned. The aim of this work was to assess the air pollution and health risk to the population caused during exposure to smoke in fire season. The study design included: an analysis of long-term air pollution to determine background levels; an analysis of short-term (<24 h) and subchronic (10–14 days) concentrations during wildfires; and an assessment of the health risk in the industrial center of the Baikal region (Russia). In Irkutsk, at a distance of 2000 km from the fire focal points, the maximum short-term concentrations of pollution were noted during the smoke period, when the average CO level increased 2.4 times, and PM1 increased 1.4 times relative to the background levels in August 2021. In Bratsk, located near the fires, the increases in short-term concentrations were: CO—21.0; SO2—13.0; formaldehyde—12.0; TPM—4.4 times. The hazard indices of respiratory and coronary diseases in the burning period exceeded the acceptable level. Acute reactions to smoke can be expected in 30% of the exposed population near fires and 11% in remote areas (Bratsk). The results obtained from the remote sensing of atmospheric smoke can be used to urgently resolve the issue of organizing medical assistance or evacuating the population groups most sensitive to the effects of smoke in fire season.


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