problem statement
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Benazir Solangi ◽  
Muhammad Saleh Memon ◽  
Rafiq Rahman ◽  
Muhammad Asif Channa

Purpose- This study aims to determine the role of leadership empowerment and work engagement in predicting job satisfaction of female teachers of Government Girls Colleges of Sindh, Pakistan. Design/Methodology/Approach- The study has utilized survey questionnaire consist of 36 items to collect data from 360 female faculty members of Government Girls Degree Colleges of Sindh. Findings- The data was analyzed by using SPSS for descriptive analysis and Smart PLS software was used to extract the inferential statistics. The results have confirmed the research objectives and answered all research questions for addressing the problem statement. Thus all the hypotheses were found supported. The work engagement was predicted by leadership empowerment at the rate of 29% and job satisfaction was predicted by leadership empowerment at the rate of 32%. Thus the work engagement has played a role of partial mediation. Originality/Value- Job satisfaction considered as most researched job outcome in HR. In service sector the female teachers job satisfaction has not attain serious efforts of researchers and management of girl’s colleges to address their problems effectively. In this context, this study has figured out possible solution of female teachers’ problems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1215 (1) ◽  
pp. 012007
R.U. Titov ◽  
A.V. Motorin

Abstract The paper discusses the generalized simultaneous localization and mapping problem statement from the standpoint of the Bayesian approach and its relationship with algorithms for different map representations. The two-dimensional example describes the linearized simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm for the mobile platform in two-dimensional space.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5-2021) ◽  
pp. 104-116
Darya N. Khaliullina ◽  
Vitaliy V. Bystrov ◽  

The article is devoted to the development of the concept of regional security management based on the principles of ensuring the resilience of critical infrastructures. The article is a problem statement and considers general theoretical issues in the field of resilience of complex systems. The authors identify two main approaches to the model of representation of the regional security system from the perspective of ensuring its resilience.

Alexandr N. Teslenko

Contexts of youth protest potential in rap as a musical direction popular among modern youth are analysed in the article. Attempts of imposing of political identity «from above» does not meet requirements of the youth which seeks for self-realisation in the cultural sphere. Therefore, the article examines the socio-psychological phenomenon of such a youth public practice as rap culture, which has now become a brand of mass pop culture. On the basis of sociological data the author analyses social mood and topical problems of the Kazakhstani youth, designing its protest potential. Quite high percent of the young respondents concerned by violations of the legitimate social, civil and political rights is revealed. It is noted that the Z generation prefers non-political forms in a counterbalance a protest to means of cultural self-expression. In mass consciousness installation about rap as to «protest music» was approved. The historical and cultural retrospective of emergence and development of rap allowed the author to disprove the settled stereotype and to prove a position about rap as to music of success and active living position. Topicality and scientific novelty of the problem statement made it possible to show the importance of studying the protest behaviour of young people in the modern scientific space, highlighting its indicators and drawing a conclusion about the need for a psychological study of youth protest tendencies and pedagogic support of the socialisation process.

2021 ◽  
Mamsi Ethel Khuzwayo

This chapter presents views, opinions, and perceptions about the curriculum theories that propagate educational perspectives of social injustice, cultural exclusion, supremacy, socio-economic inequality, and inequity. The data collection method was question and answer and deductive reasoning conducted in small groups in education studies classes. Pieces of information recorded in video clips during the COVID-19 lockdown were analysed through qualitative procedures, transcribing verbal data, and sorting coded categories of data. First, the frequencies of statements indicating trends in thoughts form themes classified as convergent and divergent perspectives. The interpretation of themes identified during data analysis seeks to address the problem statement in this chapter, which is the paradigm shift for a conceptualised decolonised curriculum in South Africa. Thus, the research question asked in the study is “what principles should underpin pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of pre-service teacher education and training?” The source of data was interviews and document analysis. The synthesis of the results drawn from the raw data was based on the theoretical and conceptual framework established from the works of scholarship researchers on decolonised education. The interpretation of the findings addressing the problem statement and the research question was presented through convergent and divergent perspectives that characterise the beliefs and thoughts of students about curriculums for decolonised education in South Africa. The study highlights uncertainties about the concepts, divergent conceptual stances on decolonised education, and the lack of uniformity in the perceptions of philosophical principles or foundations of perspectives on decolonised education.

AI ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 738-755
Jingxiu Huang ◽  
Qingtang Liu ◽  
Yunxiang Zheng ◽  
Linjing Wu

Natural language understanding technologies play an essential role in automatically solving math word problems. In the process of machine understanding Chinese math word problems, comma disambiguation, which is associated with a class imbalance binary learning problem, is addressed as a valuable instrument to transform the problem statement of math word problems into structured representation. Aiming to resolve this problem, we employed the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) and random forests to comma classification after their hyperparameters were jointly optimized. We propose a strict measure to evaluate the performance of deployed comma classification models on comma disambiguation in math word problems. To verify the effectiveness of random forest classifiers with SMOTE on comma disambiguation, we conducted two-stage experiments on two datasets with a collection of evaluation measures. Experimental results showed that random forest classifiers were significantly superior to baseline methods in Chinese comma disambiguation. The SMOTE algorithm with optimized hyperparameter settings based on the categorical distribution of different datasets is preferable, instead of with its default values. For practitioners, we suggest that hyperparameters of a classification models be optimized again after parameter settings of SMOTE have been changed.

Nurul Ainul Hamizah Khalid ◽  
Alvin John Lim Meng Siang ◽  

This work aimed to study the most effective chemical additives to increase the strength of the clay soil. The problem statement is to improve the soil strength to avoid failure in the ground. The chemical additives that be used are lime, cement, and fly ash. These chemical additives were commonly used to stabilize the soil and make the shear strength of the soil increase. The data taken was from the previous research, where the data was compared to get the most effective chemical additives to improve the soil stability and soil strength. The percentage of the chemical additive used in the soil mixture was 8% to 10%. The data from previous research was chosen based on the rate used of the chemical additive and the research was taken from Science Directed website only. Data were collected through 30 previous studies using clay and chemical additives such as cement, lime, and fly ash. The data for Plastic Limit, Liquid Limit, Plasticity Index, Optimum Moisture Content, Maximum Dry Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength was taken by referring to the previous study. Then the data was listed in Microsoft Excel to generate the graph for comparison. All the data obtained are then compared to get which chemicals can increase the strength of the soil. The result of this study shows that the cement was the most effective chemical additive to improve the soil strength and to stabilize the soil than the lime and fly ash.

E.A. Cherkasova

This essay examines for the first time the three editions, from 1891, 1895, and 1900, of Solovyov’s collected poetry from the point of view of their internal organization and relationship. The task posed is the identification and description of the most important components of the poetry book, which are present in all three editions and contribute to an understanding of the author's conception as it was realized in the books under consideration. To fulfill this task the comparative and descriptive methods of analysis are used. The evolution of the author’s artistic consciousness is described on the basis of the collected editions of Solovyov's poetry, his epistolary heritage, and the research of contemporary scholars. The different levels of the author's dialogue with the reader, with critics, as well as with poets and writers are highlighted. The author outlines the ways of researching the examined theme. In particular, the chronological order of the development of Solovyov's lyrical books, as well as the definite recurrence of the separate lyrical components in each of the three books, is shown. We see that the content of the author's three prefaces determines their function in the structure of the poetry books. The special role of critical works, included by the author in the third edition, in shaping the structure of the book of poems, as well as their relation with the foreword, is emphasized. The author concludes with genre renewal of art forms to solve new aesthetic tasks. Solovyov's aspiration to realize the life-creative conception within the framework of work on three lifetime editions is affirmed. In conclusion, the author substantiates the idea that the presented editions in their unity are a transitional genre form, which corresponds to the poet’s individual artistic searching and which establishes the literary trends of the turn of XIX–XX centuries.

Л.А. Борботько

Постановка задачи. Статья посвящена изучению рецензий к кинофильмам, которые будучи многоплановым явлением, представляют актуальный объект исследования. Трактуемая как эпитекст, кинорецензия обнаруживает себя конститутивным элементом системы кинотекста, включающей фильм, трейлеры, афиши, комментарии кинокритиков, отзывы зрительской аудитории, рекламные буклеты и пр. Подобный подход обладает определенной релевантностью и новизной. Результаты. Эпитекст понимается как составной элемент паратекста (суммарно с перитекстом), нацеленный на комментирование основного текста - кинофильма. Именно эпитекстовые элементы позволяют считать образуемый кинотекст холистической системой. Лингвокультурный потенциал рецензии выражается в отражении принадлежности к определенной культуре, что обуславливает представление информации в форме культурных кодов, дешифруемых аудиторией как носителями той же культуры, что и автор рецензии. Невозможность распознать тот или иной культурный код или неверная его трактовка ведёт к невозможности достичь прагматической цели рецензии - не только информировать о выходе картины в прокат, но и воздействовать на читателя, формируя мнение относительно кинофильма. При этом реализуется рекламная и агитационная функции рецензии - автор стремится «переманить» аудиторию на свою сторону, призывая посмотреть фильм или не тратить на него своё время. Выводы. Реализация обозначенных функций, равно как и стремление убедить читателя в валидности представляемой информации требует от автора рецензии четкости и скрупулезного подбора способов самоидентификации. Авторская идентичность в тексте рецензии воплощается в форме оценочных суждений. Следовательно, именно последние, опираясь и отражая культурный пласт, к которому принадлежит автор, позволяют выстроить прагматику рецензии, создавая определенный когнитивный фон на основании имеющейся у аудитории когнитивной базы. В то же время функционал рецензии предполагает конструирование и демонстрацию авторского видения проблематики кинокартины, исходя из ценностных смыслов, транслируемых рецензентом как индивидуальным, так и социальным адресантом. Данная функция так же реализуется посредством маркеров оценки. Problem Statement. The article regards specific features of film reviews being a relevant subject of research. Seen as an epitext a review serves as a cinema text constituent. The latter includes the film itself, trailers, posters, advertisements, critical comments. Such an approach proves of principal importance and novelty. Results. Epitext is considered as a paratext constituent together with peritext and aims at commenting the main text meaning the film. It is the epitext that contributes to the cinema text designed functioning as a holistic system. Linguocultural potential of review is reflected in the latter belonging to certain culture, which determines the information presented in the form of cultural codes for the audience as representatives of the same cultural group to decode. The code that proves impossible to decode or triggers misunderstandings adds to inability to reach the pragmatic aim of a review which is not only to inform the reader about the film release but also to impact them, forming their opinion about the film. It is how the advertising and promotional functions are realized - the author tends to «lure» the audience, persuading to watch the film or, on the contrary, not to waste time on it. Conclusion. The functions enlisted to be realized along with an attempt to prove the information presented is relevant call for the reviewer to be clear and scrupulous in selecting self-identification options. The author’s identity takes the form of evaluative structures. The latter reflecting and relying on the author’s cultural background contribute to the pragmatic potential of the review structuring the cultural context taking into account the audience’s cultural background. Moreover, the review designs and demonstrates the author’s view of the film plot in concordance with the value system communicated by the reviewer as an individual as well as social addresser. The latter function is also realized due to evaluation markers.

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