scholarly journals Heat Stress Targeting Individual Organs Reveals the Central Role of Roots and Crowns in Rice Stress Responses

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sylva Prerostova ◽  
Jana Jarosova ◽  
Petre I. Dobrev ◽  
Lucia Hluskova ◽  
Vaclav Motyka ◽  

Inter-organ communication and the heat stress (HS; 45°C, 6 h) responses of organs exposed and not directly exposed to HS were evaluated in rice (Oryza sativa) by comparing the impact of HS applied either to whole plants, or only to shoots or roots. Whole-plant HS reduced photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm and QY_Lss), but this effect was alleviated by prior acclimation (37°C, 2 h). Dynamics of HSFA2d, HSP90.2, HSP90.3, and SIG5 expression revealed high protection of crowns and roots. Additionally, HSP26.2 was strongly expressed in leaves. Whole-plant HS increased levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and cytokinin cis-zeatin in leaves, while up-regulating auxin indole-3-acetic acid and down-regulating trans-zeatin in leaves and crowns. Ascorbate peroxidase activity and expression of alternative oxidases (AOX) increased in leaves and crowns. HS targeted to leaves elevated levels of JA in roots, cis-zeatin in crowns, and ascorbate peroxidase activity in crowns and roots. HS targeted to roots increased levels of abscisic acid and auxin in leaves and crowns, cis-zeatin in leaves, and JA in crowns, while reducing trans-zeatin levels. The weaker protection of leaves reflects the growth strategy of rice. HS treatment of individual organs induced changes in phytohormone levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in non-exposed organs, in order to enhance plant stress tolerance.

2015 ◽  
Vol 167 (4) ◽  
pp. 1604-1615 ◽  
Huanjie Yang ◽  
Jinye Mu ◽  
Lichao Chen ◽  
Jian Feng ◽  
Jiliang Hu ◽  

2019 ◽  
Vinay K Nagarajan ◽  
Patrick M Kukulich ◽  
Bryan von Hagel ◽  
Pamela J Green

Abstract XRN4, the plant cytoplasmic homolog of yeast and metazoan XRN1, catalyzes exoribonucleolytic degradation of uncapped mRNAs from the 5′ end. Most studies of cytoplasmic XRN substrates have focused on polyadenylated transcripts, although many substrates are likely first deadenylated. Here, we report the global investigation of XRN4 substrates in both polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNA to better understand the impact of the enzyme in Arabidopsis. RNA degradome analysis demonstrated that xrn4 mutants overaccumulate many more decapped deadenylated intermediates than those that are polyadenylated. Among these XRN4 substrates that have 5′ ends precisely at cap sites, those associated with photosynthesis, nitrogen responses and auxin responses were enriched. Moreover, xrn4 was found to be defective in the dark stress response and lateral root growth during N resupply, demonstrating that XRN4 is required during both processes. XRN4 also contributes to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) and xrn4 accumulates 3′ fragments of select NMD targets, despite the lack of the metazoan endoribonuclease SMG6 in plants. Beyond demonstrating that XRN4 is a major player in multiple decay pathways, this study identified intriguing molecular impacts of the enzyme, including those that led to new insights about mRNA decay and discovery of functional contributions at the whole-plant level.

2020 ◽  
Vol 61 (8) ◽  
pp. 1399-1407 ◽  
Mostafa Abdelrahman ◽  
Takayoshi Ishii ◽  
Magdi El-Sayed ◽  
Lam-Son Phan Tran

Abstract Temperature is an essential physical factor that affects the plant life cycle. Almost all plant species have evolved a robust signal transduction system that enables them to sense changes in the surrounding temperature, relay this message and accordingly adjust their metabolism and cellular functions to avoid heat stress-related damage. Wheat (Triticum aestivum), being a cool-season crop, is very sensitive to heat stress. Any increase in the ambient temperature, especially at the reproductive and grain-filling stages, can cause a drastic loss in wheat yield. Heat stress causes lipid peroxidation due to oxidative stress, resulting in the damage of thylakoid membranes and the disruption of their function, which ultimately decreases photosynthesis and crop yield. The cell membrane/plasma membrane plays prominent roles as an interface system that perceives and translates the changes in environmental signals into intracellular responses. Thus, membrane lipid composition is a critical factor in heat stress tolerance or susceptibility in wheat. In this review, we elucidate the possible involvement of calcium influx as an early heat stress-responsive mechanism in wheat plants. In addition, the physiological implications underlying the changes in lipid metabolism under high-temperature stress in wheat and other plant species will be discussed. In-depth knowledge about wheat lipid reprograming can help develop heat-tolerant wheat varieties and provide approaches to solve the impact of global climate change.

2021 ◽  
Matanel Hipsch ◽  
Nardy Lampl ◽  
Einat Zelinger ◽  
Orel Barda ◽  
Daniel Waiger ◽  

Abstract Environmental stresses are among the major factors that limit crop productivity and plant growth. Various nondestructive approaches for monitoring plant stress states have been developed. However, early sensing of the initial biochemical events during stress responses remains a significant challenge. In this work, we established whole-plant redox imaging using potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants expressing a chloroplast-targeted redox-sensitive green fluorescence protein 2 (roGFP2), which reports the glutathione redox potential (EGSH). Ratiometric imaging analysis demonstrated the probe response to redox perturbations induced by H2O2, DTT, or a GSH biosynthesis inhibitor. We mapped alteration in the chloroplast EGSH under several stress conditions including, high-light, cold and drought. An extremely high increase in chloroplast EGSH was observed under the combination of high-light and low temperatures, conditions that specifically induce PSI photoinhibition. Intriguingly, we noted a higher reduced state in newly developed compared to mature leaves under steady-state and stress conditions, suggesting a graded stress sensitivity as part of the plant strategies for coping with stress. The presented observations suggest that whole-plant redox imaging can serve as a powerful tool for the basic understanding of plant stress responses and applied agricultural research, such as toward improving phenotyping capabilities in breeding programs and early detection of stress responses in the field.

PeerJ ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. e6428 ◽  
Dimitri Stucki ◽  
Dalial Freitak ◽  
Nick Bos ◽  
Liselotte Sundström

Organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stresses, which requires regulation of the resistance to each stress. Starvation is one of the most severe stresses organisms encounter, yet nutritional state is also one of the most crucial conditions on which other stress resistances depend. Concomitantly, organisms often deploy lower immune defenses when deprived of resources. This indicates that the investment into starvation resistance and immune defenses is likely to be subject to trade-offs. Here, we investigated the impact of starvation and oral exposure to bacteria on survival and gene expression in the antFormica exsecta. Of the three bacteria used in this study, onlySerratia marcescensincreased the mortality of the ants, whereas exposure toEscherichia coliandPseudomonas entomophilaalleviated the effects of starvation. Both exposure to bacteria and starvation induced changes in gene expression, but in different directions depending on the species of bacteria used, as well as on the nutritional state of the ants.

2020 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 135-144 ◽  
Phetole Mangena

: Plant cystatins, also called phytocystatins constitute a family of specific cysteine protease inhibitors found in several monocots and dicots. In soybean, phytocystatins regulate several endogenous processes contributing immensely to this crop’s tolerance to abiotic stress factors. Soybeans offer numerous nutritional, pharmaceutical and industrial benefits; however, their growth and yields is hampered by drought, which causes more than 10% yield losses recorded every harvest period worldwide. This review analyses the role of papain-like cysteine proteases and their inhibitors in soybean plant growth and development under drought stress. It also describes their localisation, regulation, target organs and tissues, and the overall impact of cystatins on generating drought tolerance soybean plants. These proteins have many functions that remain poorly characterized, particularly under abiotic stress. Although much information is available on the utilisation of proteases for industrial applications, very few reports have focused on the impact of proteases on plant stress responses. The exploitation of cystatins in plant engineering, as competitive proteases inhibitors is one of the means that will guarantee the continued utilisation of soybeans as an important oilseed crop.

eLife ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
M Görkem Patir-Nebioglu ◽  
Zaida Andrés ◽  
Melanie Krebs ◽  
Fabian Fink ◽  
Katarzyna Drzewicka ◽  

Pyrophosphate (PPi), a byproduct of macromolecule biosynthesis is maintained at low levels by soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (sPPase) found in all eukaryotes. In plants, H+-pumping pyrophosphatases (H+-PPase) convert the substantial energy present in PPi into an electrochemical gradient. We show here, that both cold- and heat stress sensitivity of fugu5 mutants lacking the major H+-PPase isoform AVP1 is correlated with reduced SUMOylation. In addition, we show that increased PPi concentrations interfere with SUMOylation in yeast and we provide evidence that SUMO activating E1-enzymes are inhibited by micromolar concentrations of PPi in a non-competitive manner. Taken together, our results do not only provide a mechanistic explanation for the beneficial effects of AVP1 overexpression in plants but they also highlight PPi as an important integrator of metabolism and stress tolerance.

2015 ◽  
Vol 86 ◽  
pp. 121-129 ◽  
Yoshihiro Takemura ◽  
Katsuou Kuroki ◽  
Mingfeng Jiang ◽  
Kazuhiro Matsumoto ◽  
Fumio Tamura

2009 ◽  
Vol 166 (15) ◽  
pp. 1646-1659 ◽  
Ramesha A. Reddy ◽  
Bhumesh Kumar ◽  
Palakolanu Sudhakar Reddy ◽  
Rabi N. Mishra ◽  
Srikrishna Mahanty ◽  

Plants ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 457 ◽  
Sruthi Narayanan ◽  
Zolian S. Zoong-Lwe ◽  
Nitant Gandhi ◽  
Ruth Welti ◽  
Benjamin Fallen ◽  

Heat-induced changes in lipidome and their influence on stress adaptation are not well-defined in plants. We investigated if lipid metabolic changes contribute to differences in heat stress responses in a heat-tolerant soybean genotype DS25-1 and a heat-susceptible soybean genotype DT97-4290. Both genotypes were grown at optimal temperatures (OT; 30/20 °C) for 15 days. Subsequently, half of the plants were exposed to heat stress (38/28 °C) for 11 days, and the rest were kept at OT. Leaf samples were collected for lipid and RNA extractions on the 9th and 11th days of stress, respectively. We observed a decline in the lipid unsaturation level due to a decrease in the polyunsaturated linolenic acid (18:3) content in DS25-1. When examined under OT conditions, DS25-1 and DT97-4290 showed no significant differences in the expression pattern of the Fatty Acid Desaturase (FAD) 2-1A, FAD2-2B, FAD2-2C, FAD3A genes. Under heat stress conditions, substantial reductions in the expression levels of the FAD3A and FAD3B genes, which convert 18:2 lipids to 18:3, were observed in DS25-1. Our results suggest that decrease in levels of lipids containing 18:3 acyl chains under heat stress in DS25-1 is a likely consequence of reduced FAD3A and FAD3B expression, and the decrease in 18:3 contributes to DS25-1′s maintenance of membrane functionality and heat tolerance.

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