Histological Features
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Zhenjie Yi ◽  
Lifu Long ◽  
Yu Zeng ◽  
Zhixiong Liu

Imaging diagnosis is crucial for early detection and monitoring of brain tumors. Radiomics enable the extraction of a large mass of quantitative features from complex clinical imaging arrays, and then transform them into high-dimensional data which can subsequently be mined to find their relevance with the tumor’s histological features, which reflect underlying genetic mutations and malignancy, along with grade, progression, therapeutic effect, or even overall survival (OS). Compared to traditional brain imaging, radiomics provides quantitative information linked to meaningful biologic characteristics and application of deep learning which sheds light on the full automation of imaging diagnosis. Recent studies have shown that radiomics’ application is broad in identifying primary tumor, differential diagnosis, grading, evaluation of mutation status and aggression, prediction of treatment response and recurrence in pituitary tumors, gliomas, and brain metastases. In this descriptive review, besides establishing a general understanding among protocols, results, and clinical significance of these studies, we further discuss the current limitations along with future development of radiomics.

BMC Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Qun Gao ◽  
Shen Hu ◽  
Ximeng Yang ◽  
Junjie Wang ◽  
Jun Lu ◽  

Abstract Background The significance of carotid webs (CaWs) in ischemic stroke is becoming acknowledged. Histological features of clot composition in situ and secondary cerebrovascular embolized thrombi caused by CaW have not been described concurrently. Understanding clots’ histological composition is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of clot formation in CaW. Case presentation A 50-year-old male patient with acute ischemic stroke, which was believed to be caused by ipsilateral CaW, was admitted to the hospital. Mechanical thrombectomy was used to retrieve thromboemboli from the middle cerebral artery. One month thereafter, the patient underwent carotid endarterectomy, and in situ CaW thrombi were retrieved. Histological analysis by hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that histopathologic embolized thrombi appeared as typical mixed thrombi, 46.03% fibrin/platelet ratio, 48.12% RBCs, and 5.85% white blood cells. In situ thrombi had a higher fibrin/platelet ratio (68.0%), fewer RBCs (17.2%), and 14.8% white blood cells. Conclusion The histopathology of large vessel occlusion stroke embolized thrombi by CaW is similar to that of other stroke etiologies. However, the clot composition of embolized thrombi significantly differs from that of in situ thrombi. CaW’s in situ thrombi showed predominantly fibrin, and embolized thrombi had equivalent contents of red blood cells and fibrin/platelets. Histopathological differences between in situ and embolized thrombi suggest new research directions for the etiology of embolization. Further studies are required to confirm these results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (10) ◽  
pp. 1388-1390
Francesca Ciccarone ◽  
Claudia Codecà ◽  
Valeria Versace ◽  
Francesca Moro

Cornelia M. van Schewick ◽  
David M. Lowe ◽  
Siobhan O. Burns ◽  
Sarita Workman ◽  
Andrew Symes ◽  

AbstractDiarrhea is the commonest gastrointestinal symptom in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Different pathologies in patients’ bowel biopsies have been described and links with infections have been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze the bowel histology of CVID patients in the Royal-Free-Hospital (RFH) London CVID cohort. Ninety-five bowel histology samples from 44 adult CVID patients were reviewed and grouped by histological patterns. Reasons for endoscopy and possible causative infections were recorded. Lymphocyte phenotyping results were compared between patients with different histological features. There was no distinctive feature that occurred in most diarrhea patients. Out of 44 patients (95 biopsies), 38 lacked plasma cells. In 14 of 21 patients with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH), this was the only visible pathology. In two patients, an infection with Giardia lamblia was associated with NLH. An IBD-like picture was seen in two patients. A coeliac-like picture was found in six patients, four of these had norovirus. NLH as well as inflammation often occurred as single features. There was no difference in blood lymphocyte phenotyping results comparing groups of histological features. We suggest that bowel histology in CVID patients with abdominal symptoms falls into three major histological patterns: (i) a coeliac-like histology, (ii) IBD-like changes, and (iii) NLH. Most patients, but remarkably not all, lacked plasma cells. CVID patients with diarrhea may have an altered bowel histology due to poorly understood and likely diverse immune-mediated mechanisms, occasionally driven by infections.

QJM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 114 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Amir A Sedky ◽  
Faten A Ghazal ◽  
Hoda H AbouGabal ◽  
Huda H Salem

Abstract Background The fibroepithelial lesions (FELs) are heterogeneous biphasic tumors composed of epithelial and stromal components, they include fibroadenoma (FA) and phyllodes tumor (PT). The most FAs are benign, while the PTs have unpredictable biologic behavior, where they can recur if incompletely excised, and can even metastasize. According to the WHO Classification of Tumors of The Breast, PT is classified by the histological features into benign, borderline, and malignant. There is difference in management of the FELs, where a FA is treated conservatively or by simple enucleation. While PT must be excised with wide surgical margin to avoid the recurrence of this tumor, where it can recur as high grade. For this reason the preoperative distinction between FA and PT is critical for management. On another hand, still this differentiation is difficult and challenging in some cases especially on limited sample of core needle biopsy (CNB) and also on excision due to the heterogeneity of PT and overlapping features between the FELs. Recently, the use of immunohistochemical markers may have helpful role in differentiation between FA and PT, and grading of the last one. Collagen III α (Col A ) has been emerged as a potential new diagnostic maker useful in differentiation between fibroepithelial lesions. Methodology In this retrospective study we evaluated the histopathological features of Cases of FELs including FA and PT with its subgrades. We also evaluated an immunohistochemical diagnostic potential of collagen III α (Col A) in differentiating FA from PT, and categorizing the last one. Furthermore, correlations between Col A expression and clinicopathological parameters were performed. Results The staining expression of Col A was increased significantly in PTs when compared with FAs (P<) . Col A expression increased with increased grade of PT but without significant difference between benign PT and borderline PT, and between borderline PT and malignant PT. By pairwise comparison, there was a significant difference between CFA and benign PT according to Col A expression (P<) , and also between the typical FA and FA with PT like features (P<) . There was a trend of increased expression but did not reach the significance between FA with PT like features and benign PT (P=) . Distinct periductal cuffing pattern of Col A staining was present in all PTs and absent in most FAs (P<) , and only cases of FA with PT features exhibited this pattern. Conclusion Col A is a diagnostic marker can differentiate between FA and PT, especially between CFA and benign PT, and the Col A expression increased with increased grade of PT but without significant difference. FA with PT like features might be a distinct category that should be distinguished from typical FΑ as it may an initial event of tumor progression to PT.

Kais Maamri ◽  
Rihab Ben frej ◽  
Nesrine Nessib ◽  
Mohamed Boukhit ◽  
Maher Hadhri ◽  

Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma is an exceptionally rare neoplasm with a propensity for local recurrence and metastasis. We report the second case in the literature of a primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the orbit in a 66-year-old male with its clinical, histological features, and management of this tumor.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1500
Carina A. Dehner ◽  
Amy E. Armstrong ◽  
Marielle Yohe ◽  
Jack F. Shern ◽  
Angela C. Hirbe

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents and accounts for approximately 2% of soft tissue sarcomas in adults. It is subcategorized into distinct subtypes based on histological features and fusion status (PAX-FOXO1/VGLL2/NCOA2). Despite advances in our understanding of the pathobiological and molecular landscape of RMS, the prognosis of these tumors has not significantly improved in recent years. Developing a better understanding of genetic abnormalities and risk stratification beyond the fusion status are crucial to developing better therapeutic strategies. Herein, we aim to highlight the genetic pathways/abnormalities involved, specifically in fusion-negative RMS, assess the currently available model systems to study RMS pathogenesis, and discuss available prognostic factors as well as their importance for risk stratification to achieve optimal therapeutic management.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
M. Nazim Abbas ◽  
Wei Son Tan ◽  
Ganessan Kichenadasse

Abstract Background Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf serine/threonine receptor tyrosine kinases and inhibits tumor cell growth and angiogenesis. Cutaneous toxicities of sorafenib are common, including cutaneous eruptions (such as truncal erythema and seborrheic-dermatitis-like changes) and hand–foot syndrome. Keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas have been reported previously; however, we report a case of multiple eruptive keratoacanthomas in the form of Grzybowski syndrome after initiation of sorafenib. Case presentation We report a 63-year-old Caucasian male who developed multiple cutaneous eruptive keratoacanthomas after starting sorafenib 400 mg twice daily. He had a known history of hepatitis-C-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and previously had actinic keratosis and skin squamous cell carcinoma excision. Approximately two and a half months after starting sorafenib, the patient initially developed two lesions, one on each forearm, and after excision, these lesions demonstrated histological features of squamous cell carcinoma. One month later, the patient presented with approximately 48 new skin lesions of varying size on the back, bilateral upper limbs, and face requiring excisional biopsy of a large number of these lesions. Histopathology showed eruptive invasive keratoacanthomas (Grzybowski syndrome). Sorafenib was temporarily stopped and subsequently restarted at a lower dose. Acitretin 25 mg daily was commenced after few weeks, and no further keratoacanthomas developed during his treatment. Conclusions We report a unique case of sorafenib-associated Grzybowski syndrome. Temporary interruption and dose reduction of sorafenib and use of acitretin appeared to prevent further development of keratoacanthomas.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Satya Amirapu ◽  
Kristi Biswas ◽  
Fiona J. Radcliff ◽  
Brett Wagner Mackenzie ◽  
Stephen Ball ◽  

The purpose of this review is to summarise contemporary knowledge of sinonasal tissue remodelling during chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), a chronic disease involving long-term inflammation of the paranasal sinuses and nasal passage. The concept of tissue remodelling has significant clinical relevance because of its potential to cause irreversibility in chronic airway tissues. Recent studies have indicated that early surgical treatment of CRS may improve clinical outcome. Tissue remodelling has been described in the literature extensively with no consensus on how remodelling is defined. This review describes various factors implicated in establishing remodelling in sinonasal tissues with a special mention of asthma as a comorbid condition. Some of the main histological features of remodelling include basement membrane thickening and collagen modulation. This may be an avenue of research with regard to targeted therapy against remodelling in CRS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Tong Wu ◽  
Zan Jiao ◽  
Yixuan Li ◽  
Jin Peng ◽  
Fan Yao ◽  

BackgroundBrain metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer has followed a similar increasing trend to that of thyroid cancer in recent years. However, the characteristics and treatments for brain metastases are unclear. The aim of this study was to understand this disease by analyzing patients with brain metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).MethodsBetween 2000 and 2020, the database of the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center was searched for differentiated thyroid cancer patients. We identified a cohort of 22 patients with brain metastases. The characteristics of the patients, histological features, treatments, and time of death were reviewed. The overall survival (OS) rate was calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. Survival curves of different subgroups were compared according to baseline characteristics and treatments received.ResultsA total of 22 (1.09%) out of 2013 DTC patients in the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center database were identified as having brain metastases. The overall median survival time was 17.5 months (range from 1–60 months) after diagnosis of brain metastasis. Performance statue (PS), tumor site, and neurosurgery impacted survival, according to Kaplan-Meier analysis. Prognosis of skull metastasis was superior to that of intracranial types. Neurosurgery was the only type of treatment that had an impact on patient OS.ConclusionsBrain metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer has a poor prognosis. However, it can be improved by comprehensive treatment. PS of the patients can greatly affect survival. Skull metastases have improved prognosis over intracranial types. Radioiodine therapy (RAIT) appears to effectively improve the prognosis of patients with skull metastases from DTC.

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